Patrick Houstoun to Peter Gordon at Charles Town, March 1, 1735/5, Savannah, C.O. 5/637, pp. 17-20, Egmont 14200, pp. 439-445, concerning troubles in the colony, his desire for certain lands, his desire to enter into trade, the need for free trade in Georgia, and the red string plot.
I Received yours of ye 15 ult. only a day or two agoe. I am sorry you are going to Brittain so soon. In my opinion you would have done your bussiness much better you had stayed some time longer in this country when you had been wittness to more of the management. Since you have resolved to goe I wish you all happiness & prosperity. I do not expect to have the pleasure of seeing you in this country again. I send you Inclosed a note of such things as occurs to me which I would have done sooner but I delayed till Mr Millisham should return from Carolina to gett his assistance, who is verry capable & much shagarined & upon verry good grounds. Millishame is not yett come up.
There is one affair happened within these few days worse then all. Captain [Joseph] Watsone or some body else, I may say an enemy to the Collony, hase said to [John] Musgrove that in his absence Mr Causton had agreed with Mrs Musgrove to give him the Ingian trade for which he was to give her £ 1000 Ster. Some people says also Musgrove is Jealous of his wife with Mr Caustoun. However this be he hase often been heard say that he would shote Mr Couston & kill his wife. Yesterday there was a story in town that ane Ingian had painted himself & was heard [to] say he would goe to the woods to lay in wait for Mr Causton & would not return till he had shoote him. I do believe some settellers in the Colony hase been the contryvers of this, so much are they disobliged at Mr Causton they would run ye risk of sacrifising all to be revenged of him. Musgrove is much disoblidged for he said so to myself. Mr [John] West & me are doing our endeavours to pacify him which I pray god we may succeed in. This day they both dine with me. Please lett me know your correspondent at Charlestown & your direction at London & I will write you from time to time. Capt [George] Dunbarr is much in Mr Couston Interest & hase endeavoured to make up differences betwixt him & me & the rest of our countrymen.
We was altogether & seeminly did it which we thought absolutely necessary for peace, so lett not Dunbarr or any body here or at home know any thing of my writing you. For Dunbarr asked me if I was to send you by him a note of complaints. I told him I would send you none by him or any body else which he approved of, not thinking of your going over. I promised to write by him to the trustees to have my lands run near Savannah town & to give him a power of attorney to gett me a Trustees lott in town. I beg your assistance with the Trustees in both these affairs. If I do not gett a lott near to town the ground I desire is what Captain [Francis ?] Scott was to have which being vacant I think I will not have Justice done me if I be refused it. I think the Trustees may give me the lott in the square where the Public Mill stands for a lott. For a publick house in some more remott part of the town will answer that purpose as well & not at all answer my purpose or bussiness; & if I gett it I shall build a house upon it to beautify the town as much as there house will do. If you would gett Mesrs [Paul] Jenys & [Samuel] Eveleigh to mention me in there letters to the Trustees it would do me service & perhaps your designs no prejudice. By my next I shall send you coppys of my letters to the Trustees & Mr Oglethrop by Dunbarr. I send you Inclosed a letter to My Lord Percivale which I beg you will putt under cover & seal & direct, I not knowing his direction being I hear created ane Earl. If you do not wait for Capt Dunbarrs ship please not to deliver it till his arrivals that the Trustees letters may be delivered at the same time.
I send you a letter to Doctor [William] Houstoun who procured all your countrymen grants which please seal & deliver. He will do you & all his countrymen service if it be in his power. I have wrote him no complaints for I know he is verry hott & would resent our treatment in a different manner I incline for. If all our treatment were known it would do the Collony prejudice by hindering other people to come over which I do not incline yett to do till I see if the Trustees will grant me my desiers. If not I design & am fully determined to leave the Collony & settell at Port Royall.
I am endeavouring for to bring the Port Royall & Santilma people to buy there goods here. If they cane be brought to this it will be the best support of any thing to the Collony. Severall of the planters hase promised & if I had the store & Trustees countenance Mr [Samuel] Montaigute hase I would not doubt of getting 3/4 if not more of all the rice of these Island shiped here next year, but he will never do it. For being frequently at Purysburgh they cannot gett goods, his store being always shute in his absence.
I hear some people has wrote to the Trustees I sale rum. I own I sale it & till the Recorder and people in the store sold it I sold none; but I seeing them make a trade of it I thought I had as good reasone to make bread as any body else and that is the Commodity brings the most ready mony of any. I am positive it will never be in the Trustees power to hinder the drinking of rum, people being verry sickly last year when Mr Oglethorp was here & hindered the drinking of rum & this year very healthie. They all are convinced it is ouen [owing] to the rum & the discharging of it makes rum to be sold at 30/ which could be sold at 12/ pr gallon being most N england rum sold here & mixed by the periager men, & if no setteller in this Collony were to sale it the periager men would bring it from Charlestoun & sale it privately, & I do not think it cane be prevented. For if it should be seen aboard there boats they pretend they are carrying it to Purysbourgh & other parts of Carolina up the river. The prohibition of rum carrys more mony out of the Collony & makes us depend more upon Carolina then any thing else, for the rum is not only bought in Carolina with ready mony but the Molases & muscovado sugar & all the rest of westindian goods.
If we had a freedom of trade we would have them directly ourselves from the westindians & a market opponed for our staves hoops & some boards &c. These restrictions will either make people go out of the Collony or be troubelsom to the Trustees & there Agents. For if the Collony ever thrives people who can live independent of the Trustees store must settell here & will not so easily submitt to hardships & restricting laws as those who hase there provisions given them. Those people who hase had them is as mutinous now as any.
What service lyes in my power to do you I assure you non shall be more willing or ready. I shall do my endeavours if possible to lett your house, but I am affraid I will not gett a tennant for it till more people arrives. For I believe there is near twentie houses in town empty & soon will be more. I do think if you had ordered the house to be partitioned & a floor above & a littell kitchine built it would have answered the expence. For the house is well situate for any bussiness & having a Chimney if any houses lett it must if it had those convenicnes. I wish you would lett me knou how many Cattel you have & what brand you would have putt upon them. I have not yett learned the first appraisment of [Elisha ?] Dobree & [Francis] Harris effects but if possible shall this week, Harris being now returned to town. Coll. Prioles having wrote about his negroe he was sent down last week.
Your resolution of going to Brittain I observe gives some uneasiness here. So soon as I gott your letter I made your resolutions known on purpose to give people opportunity to write you, which I believe severalls will do this week. Itt will be a great encouragement to the Colloney if the Trustees give power to grant licenses here for traders to the Indians. If they send over any goods for to furnish the traders with I should wish to be storekeeper for I incline to turn myself intirely in merchant bussiness.
I am sure I will quite wearie you in reading this long letter therefore I most conclude in offering my Humble deuty to Mrs. Gordon & wishing you & her every thing you wish or desier & a good & prosperous voyage. I do design (if the Trustees does not do me Justice in granting my desiers) to go to England next harvest & prevent any more of my friends or countrymen being deceived as I have been. When you arrive in England I shall expect to hear frequently from you with all your news & how affairs goes at the Trustees office and what turn affairs Takes there & any projects that is yett on foot for the Collony. I am of opinion we shall never be happy till a Trustee comes over to putt us once more to the rights.
If you would do me the favour in case you meet with one honest clever young man who writes a good hand, master of figures & book Keeping, & knows something of Merchant bussiness to ingage him for some years for me & give him what wages you think proper. I would perform your agreement & be singularly oblidged to you to send him over to me. I do not doubt abundance such are out of bussiness about London & would be glade of this occasion.
[P.S.] I wrote Mr Robt Pringle to pay you in some money. Please take payment of the rent for your house & for my Razours which I received, but the fellow hase not done me Justice in grinding them.
Since writing the above this afternoon there hase been a design discovered of the Irish transport servants. The story is a Scots girl deposes that one [John] Coxe a Taylour came to her & desired her to tell Doctor [George] Syms daughter [Ann] that Mr [John] Vanderplanks man [Edward Cruise] who was in prison for some days bygone to tell Syms daughter who was his mistress that this night he was to be at liberty. The girl asked how. He said he & 40 or 50 more was in concert to burn the town this night, kill all the white men, save the women, & [John] Musgrove with severall Ingians was to join them. Upon which the town was alarmed. Severalls of us sate up all night. Nothing appeared, but I do not at all doubt but there was something designed. Coxe told all in the plote wore a ride [red] ribbon about there arm which he & severall others taken up had upon there arm when taken. The whole affair is not yett discovered but I hope will. I do beleive we shall never be safe while these villains are amongst us. Musgrove & all his family & the whole Indians were up at Pipenaker bluff yesterday. This day Mrs Musgrove & Tomchechie came to town who denys any such design. However we shall know more the morrow, Musgrove being to appear himself the morrow to answer to the Charge.
Jos Mure [Muir] came to me this day & asked if I was to lett your house. He said he could not give the key without your orders in writing for he had your orders to the contrary. Ross152 has laid the floor & wants he says some more boards to compleat it. I was oblidged this day to hirer a man for your guard which I fancy you will approve of. I find this difference amongst us is like to be of bad consequence to the Collony by Incouraging these transport villains to mutiny, so it is absolutly we Join altogether & dissemble our displeasure till the Trustees redresses us. So I pray you say nothing of my writing you to any body.
Robert Parker, Jr. to Peter Gordon, March 2, 1734, Savannah, C.O. 5/637, pp. 31-32, Egmont 14200, pp. 447-449, concerning his inability to get his wife’s first husband’s affairs settled or to get his land surveyed.
I am Credably Inform’d that you are about embarking for England. I must Confess you take the most Prudent Way. Letters may be Intercepted, but where a persons self is the Messenger that undertaking is the most likely to Succeed. I am sure our prest Bayliff Cawston takes the surest Methods for the Destruction of this Infant Colony wch is now almost Inevitable unless some Speedy Way be found out to Relieve us. I have been these 3 Months Interceeding wth Mr [Thomas] Chrystye to take my Wifes Administration153 but could not get it done before Yesterday & what Papers I have got from him I Doubt will be of no use from the Many Blunders wth wch they abound, wch shoud ought be undertaken towards recovering of the Suit I am Fearfull ‘t may be to my Disadvantage. I am not the only Person in this Colony that have Demands upon Mr Causton, nor Yet the only one whose Credit He has blasted & whose Ruin he has mot Industriously sought. I believe I once before told you that he accepted a Note of Mine for 43s & afterwards gave it out of His Hands wth an Execution when he had about £st 30 in His Hands. Poor Mugrage [Francis Mugridge ?] was sent Prisoner to the Log House Yesterday for Demanding what was due to Him from the Store House. On the Backside this You’ll find my Complaints of Damage Sust’d wch I’ve Twice lay’d before the Trust who I Hope will Consider my Sufferings, & make me a Suitable Redress. 14 Days before you left us, I went up to my Fathers Mill & began to Clear land & built a large Convienient Hutt for the Reception of my Wife & Family; butt Mr Causton, [Noble] Jones, & Capt. [George] Dunbar coming up to see the Mill, the Two former told me that if I offer’d to settle there they wd chop or burn down my Hut & oppose me to the Utmost. They being so possitive against all I coud alledge, I again remov’d my Servts & Household Goods for Savanah. I think ‘tis very hard seeing I have been here this 12 Months and been 6 Months in Posession of the Honble Trustees Grant to Mr Wm Sale for 500 Acres & tho’ I have offer’d Mr Jones 5 Guineas above the Comon Rate to Run out my Land I can’t get it done. So thought I might Settle any where, where the land was not allready Run out as my Father had some Months agoe written the Trust that I had allready taken my Land there upon Acct of His Mill. I Hope Sir You will do me what Service You can wth the Honle the Trustees in faithfully representing to them the Hardship I Labour under.
Mr Woodward of Port Royall has offer’d to send me up £ 50 upon Bill on You wch shoud He Deceive me I shall be utterly Ruin’d unless some what most unexpected happens. Therefore Sir I Desire Sir You’d give me leave to Draw on you or Procure me the Same from any Man in Charles Town & I will send down my Bills on my Brother Mr Allen [?] Webb Druggist in Cheapside wch I am sure will meet wth an Honourle Discharge. I Heartily wish You & Mrs Gordon a Good Voyage Safe & Speedy Return; but before you leave America beg an Answer to this Epistle.
The Underwritten Goods are what Mr Causton took into the Store after Mr Sales Death upon an Agreement of allowg 25 p. Ct on the Prime Cost, & this on the Honble the Trustees Credit, wch now they have layn in the Store these Six Months He would turn into My Hands again to my entire Loss wch I can very ill Afford.
Robt Parker junr
Robert Parker, Jr. to the Trustees, March 3, 1734/5, Savannah, C.O. 5/636, pp. 217-218, 259, concerning his wife’s first husband’s property, his inability to get his land surveyed, and complaints about Thomas Causton.
In my Last of the 1st of February I lay’d before your Honours an Acct of Damages sustaind per Mr Causton on the one part, & the Negligance of Mr [Noble] Jones our Surveyer on the other to the Amount of £ st [blank] I am now to aquaint Your Honours that considering the Expence it would be to the Trust to find me & my Family in Provission for the ensuing Year, I Thought I had yet Time enough to get Land Clear’d & planted for our Support before the Season was spent; & that I might by Virtue of Yr Honours Grant settle upon any Land that was not already survey’d either up the River or in the Salts. Accordingly I and my Servants went up to Mill Bluff where my Father has erected a Saw Mill 7 Mile above Abercorn by Water & 2 by Land. We Built a large convenient Hut of Clapboards for the Reception of my Wife & Family, & Clear’d some Land untill Mr Causton [Noble] Jones & Capt [George] Dunbar came up to see the Mill. The Two former told me that if I offer’d to settle there they would Chop or Burn down my Hutt & oppose me to the utmost. Upon such a Possitive Declaration I again remov’d my Household Good for Savannah, where I shall remain in expectation of Redress from Your Honors.
And give me leave Gentlemen to assure You that unless we have one of Your Honourable Board in Person to Reside amongst us our Ruin is unavoidable from the Narrow self interested Views of our Prest Bayliff & Storekeeper Tho’ Causton. The Credit of the Publick Store is at a Stand & question’d by every Body. There is nothing sold from thence but on the greatest extortion, & it is notoriously known by every one that, notwithstanding your Honours frequent Prohibitions of Rum, ‘tis sold out there under the Name of Gold & Company. This I most Humbly offer to Your Honours Consideration.
Savannah March 3. 1734
The underwritten Goods are what Mr Causton took into the Store upon the Trust Credit at an Agreemt of 25 per Ct Proffit on the Prime Cost wch He now would turn into my hands again. To my entire loss they have been in the Publick Store these 6 Months.
I should have wrote to you much sooner, but that I had some Thoughts of coming down to Charlestown as I intimated in my last, I have now laid that Design asside for some weighty Reasons. Nor indeed, am I at present able to undergo the Fatigue of the Passage being lately seized with a violent Disorder in my Face occasioned by the Tooth-Ach. I hear by Mr [Patrick] Houston that you intend very Speedily for England, & am in some Fear least you should be gone before this gets to Charlestown.
I intirely agree with you that it is highly necessary to set the Proceedings of our present Ruler in their true Light, but I am really afraid that Matters are run to so high a Pitch, that it is now too late to prevent the Ruin of the Colony. We had on Sunday last an Affair that threw us into great Confusion. [John] Vanderplant & some other of the Officers were called out of Church, & made acquainted that there were 40, or 50 White Persons & as many Indians with [John] Musgrove at the Head of ‘em, that were entered into a Design to burn the Town & destroy the People, at least some of them. The Alarum Bell was rung, & Search was made for the Conspirators, & some of them were found who wore a Mask to distinguish themselves viz. a Red string about the Right Wrist. They were chiefly Irish Transports; none of the Freeholders were concerned. There are several of them indeed discontented enough, but I hope none that wou’d enter into such wicked Measures as to bring a general Destruction upon the whole Colony. Many of them I believe you are sensible are Persons of worth, & it would be well worth the while to endeavour to make them easy, but this is far from being the Case of our Imperious Magistrate, who does things rather to increase & provoke than soften & appease the discontented. As for Musgrove, he is for some Cause or another very much enraged with Causton, some say he is jealous of him with his Wife, others that he is afraid Causton should get the Indian Trade from him & some that during Musgroves Absence, his Wife has made away with £ 1600 Curr. the chief of wch was in Silver & Gold, & that he suspects that Causton has got her Money. Whatever be the Cause I know not, but it is like to fall very heavy upon [Joseph] Watson, who is accused of the whole Crime, of Provoking Musgrove by telling false stories of Causton to him. He is threatned to be sent home in Irons to the Trustees, wch Indeed I cou’d almost wish, I mean that he should be sent Home; for there would be then Hopes that no Injustice would be done him. I am very certain that he is maliciously accused in this last Affair. For he is not by any means the chief Tormenter of Musgrove. Mr Parks & some other Persons of Probity being present while Musgrove was with him, & heard every word between them. However here in fresh Matter agt Watson, Cotes, Watkins154 & Some others who are to be tryed as Conspirators agt the Colony, & indeed Yt Parks himself is deem’d one of the Conspirators; but it seems his Youth, & Inexperience are to excuse him from Punishment. The other Persons too viz. Cotes, & Watkins, are to be excused for some Reasons or another, & the whole is to be laid upon Watson. It is surprising that a Man should have so much implacable Malice, that no Methods are left untried to Compass his Destruction. For my Part, if nothing else cou’d be alleadged agt Causton but his Inhuman Treatment of that Unhappy Man it gives me such a Horrour & Detestation of his Actions, that I cou’d never more brook him. My Letters per Yokely to Mr Copping sufficiently relate the whole Affair, & I hope will come safe to hand & there little more need be said. But least they should Miscarry, I have sent you Coppies of the most material of them, & beg you to take Care of them because I have not transcribed them. I am so much indisposed that I cannot say any more, on wch Acct I hope you will excuse my bad Writing. I shall be glad to hear from you before you depart.
[P.S.] My humble Service to Mrs Gordon, & least I should not have an Oppertunity to write again. I heartily wish you Sr & your good Lady a Prosperous Voyage & all Happiness.
The Things you left at my House I will be accountable for to any one you shall appoint.
When you come to Engd if you will be so good as to visit Mr Copping you will know whether my Letters per Yokely ever come to hand.
I thank you for your favor of the 27th Ult. wch came not to hand til ye 3d Inst. and observe ye effectual reasons for postponing yor answer to mine & yt you have a Grant of the Sundry most material matters my friend S. Eveleigh has desir’d who tells me in his of ye 27th Janry last yt he had wrote you with respect to ye Grants of the Lands in Georgia by the Trustees descending to the Male heirs only & a mans daughters not the better, whereby ye Lands or ye greatest part of ym wil devolve to ye Trustees. If this Should happen and ye Lands not Settled as by agreement with 1000 Mulbery Trees on Every hundred Acres wch he apprehends a discouragement to Settlers and Query’s whither it cannot be alter’d Since no Negroes are allowd to be Settld thereon & Since ye quit Rent is 10/ Sterlg per 100 acres, wch in Carolina is but 3/ per 100 Acres. But as this is a matter no doubt fully discussd by The Trustees I only Query for him if it may be alter’d.
Our Comte of Merchants belonging to ye Society met yesterday Where I informd them of the design proposed by ye Trustees to ye Parliament to have allowed a considerable number of Armed Men to cover Georgia & Carolina and to have if possible a Bounty allowd Live Oak, Lumber, Naval Stores &ca on wch I am directed by them to write our Solicr Mr Wood as also about ye Renewal of the Rice Act. And I have desird him to wait on you & confer with you about these affairs. And if you shall think it Expedient for the Merchants here to petition or yt their Agent’s applying to make what Interest he can in their names please to Signifie it & also if London petitions, yt I may lay it before the Hall for their Opinion & direction. And tho’ it may not be in any power to attend, yet if they concur a properer person may attend to Solicit this. Our Election comes on to be heard before ye house you know Sir ye 25th Inst & wee Shal have many persons there who must attend yt controversie so yt we Shall not want for people in this affair. Could I have been of any Service to yt affair I must in common Justice to our worthy freind Mr Scrope have gone up.
The Ship Mr Eveleigh writes you of ye 4th Janry is daily Expected here from Carolina and I have bought for him already about 1500 £ Sterlg worth of goods to be sent to Georgia on her or some one Else so yt I hope he wil merit in time whatever the Trustees have or Shall bestow on him.
Alured Popple155 to the Trustees, March 6, 1734/5, Whitehall, received March 6, 1734/5, C.O. 5/636, p. 174, concerning the security of Georgia and South Carolina.
My Lords Commissrs for Trade & Plantations having under their Consideration a Repn from the Province of South Carolina; relating to the State of that Province, and to several matters that are wanting for the Preservation thereof, I am commanded to inclose to you the said Representation, and to desire you will please to let My Lords have your Opinion, in what manner the Security of that Province, may best be effected.
[P.S.] You will be pleased to return the Original Paper inclosed.
William Ewen156 to James Oglethorpe, March 7, 1734/5, Savannah, C.O. 5/636, pp. 222, 339, announcing his arrival and his happiness with Georgia.
We had an Extroardinary good Passage and Arrived at Savannah in the Prince of Wales Capn [George] Dunbar Decembr ye 28th, all in good health. The Country is much better than I Expected, Every thing being Agreeable but in peticular my master who is very kind to me. For recommending to So good a Gentleman I begg youll Accept of my Hearty thanks wch is all the Return I am capable of makeing you a Greatefull Sense there shall Allways be retained by me.
Finding the Climate temperate the soyl fruitfull the good foundation the people have to build their future hopes upon Induces me to begg your Honrs would as Soone as may be Grant me a Lott in town which in return shall be Improved to the best Advantage.
[Robert Parker] to James Oglethorpe, March 8, 1734/5, [Savannah ?], C.O. 5/637, p. 7, asking for saws for his mill and an office under the Trustees.
I have requested this may bee delivered when plese God you are safely landed in England. And now Sr if in the little time I had the Pleasure of being known to you I have merited any Favour then I beg youll be so Good to favour me in the following particulers.
I have a large Family of Eleven Children. For their sakes with your Interest with the Honourable Trustees I hope youll procure and grant me a Patent for my Saw Mill for a Terms of Years as usuall. Itts easily distinguisht from any others erected in these parts boath in the Cost as well as in the Workmanship.
You was like wise pleasd to promise me with the Concurrence of the Trust, upon easey Termes the Lott Marked K (in the great Book) purposing to build myselfe a House upon it.
Before you informed me all places by yr Charter was in the Trusts creation I had wrote (as I belong to His Majesties Customs already) to Sr Robert Walpole for the Collectors Place wch in time as this Place flourishes may be Valuable. I hope by your good Offices I may be appointed in something of the same Nature with a Salerey from the Trustees, or an Agent for Supplying the Navy with Provissions &c should there be Fleete or Squadron of Men of War sent hither it would if obtained be a standing Pretey Salery Mr [George] Saxby was Instrumentall of getting Mr. Woodward appointed for that at Port Royale.
If Twenty Gentlemen will venture £ 500 each or what more they Please I will myself spend a Season amongst the Choctaw Indians in setling a Trade amongse them and manage it to the best advantage, unless the Trust thinks fit to carey it on themselves and then would offer them my best service wch shall allways be with Fidelity & Application.
I must beg of you Sr by the first Shiping hither or to Charles Towneto sende me a Dozen of Good Saws for my Mill. They must be stowte [stout] Thick and Good. If you please to give orders, one Mr White a Famouse Sawmaker lives in White Cross Street. If none to be had there must desire they may be sent for to Amsterdam where all the Norway Sawes are furnisht from, and if upon your Arrivall youll be further so Good to Wright two or 3 Lines to my Wife direkted to Mrs Eliz Parker157 in Lynn R Norfolk youll Comfort up the droopin Heart of a Virtuous Good Woman, and add a great deale of weight and Influence amongst our Townsmen to what I have Wrote and sturr them up to sende over severell Famileys to this Place. I have desired our Major Mr Sam Browne and Mr Edward Everard to address to you in London. I expect a Ship from them in October or November Next. With my Duty to Good Trustees pertcularly to those I know Mr [James] Vernon Mr [Robert] Hucks Sr William and Mr George Heathcoat I pray God Almighty to Bless & Prosper you.
Joseph Fitzwalter to [James Oglethorpe and the Trustees], March 10, 1734/5, C.O. 5/636, pp. 219-221, concerning the removal of plants from Charles Town and his troubles with the Amatis brothers about the garden.
After my Most Humble Duty is presented To Your Honnor and the Rest of The Honnerable the Trustees my Masters, is to Acquaint Your Honner that I sent a Letter Dated the Beginning of January By Captin Yoakly who Sailed the 20th Instant of January to Acquaint Your Honnour of the present proceedings of the Garden, Like wise of my Journall By Captn Dunbar and of Mr [Paul] Amatis Behaviour.
Since that Letter Amatis went to Charlestown in order to send up some Trees which Came the latter End of February himself wife and Brother [Nicholas] with a Generall Remove of plants. Mulberry Trees About Two Houndred, Large Oranges Trees fifty; Sedling Mulberies Ten Thousand, Vines Two Thousand, Twenty peach Trees, Twenty plumbs, Twenty Apples, Forty fig trees, which I have planted all to this Day Exceping the Oranges, and They will be planted in One Day. We have a fine Season att this Time and all that I have planted att This Time and Transplanted Breaketh forth finly. We have had very Severe Frosts in February but it hath not damaged nothing.
Sunday the 2d of March About Four in The Afternoon we had an Alarm. Mr Causton was that Day gone to Thunderbolt and so to Skidaway to see that Settlement, I Sett out from town after five to Acquaint Mr Causton of it, whom I mett with About Midway from Thunderbolt Acquainted him of the Alarm. When we Came home the Town was very Still. Mr Causton went to Mr Recorders [Thomas Christy] to Know and to Consult the Safty of the province which was Done with a great Deal of Bravery. Them I leave to Acquaint The Honnerable Board of their proceedings.
Monday in the Afternoon Two of the Servants of ye Trust where whiped at the Common whipping post for being Terdy of Severall Crimes (those Two were Under Mr [John] Vanderplanks care). Mr Amatiss seing them whiped through himself into a passion saying it was not in any ones power to do Any thing to Them, and said further he would go for England Directly and if any person had Any Greiveance to Come to him, and he would Redress them. Which words was very wrong Spoke at any Time, Especially at a Time were we Expected those Servants to Rise with Others to head them and Two Cutt us off.
Mr Causton Mr [Henry] parker and Recorder sent to me in The Gardens to send Francis Henly upponeof the Trusts Servants to Examine him upon Information of Mr [Roger] Lacy of Thunderbolt of his Servants being in Conspiracy with ye Rest. Mr Amatis happen’d to be in the Garden then, and seing the fellow was agoing to Mr Causton; Asked me for what. I told him, he Damned Mr Causton and Me in a Violent Manner and Further sd Mr Causton had no Business to Examine them upon no Account whatsoever nor I had no Bussiness in the Garden nor with any of the Servants, and That if I Came any more after that Time he would Shoot me. However I went as usually Early to place my Men to their Business, and about Nine in the Morn Amatis and his Brother Came with a Gun. They did not Shoot but Thretned me very much, but I was not to be frietned. I have Since asked Mr Amatis his Resolution, and still he persists that I have no Bussiness at all in the Gardens, though placed into it by your Honous and the Honnerable the Trust. This Day being the 10th Instant and a Grand Jury Called and Sitting for the Safety of ye province, I have Taken Care to Bind Amatiss over to the peace, and I Assure Your Honnour and the Rest of the Trust that I will at al times do to the Utmost of my Power, for the peace and Safety of the Colony. I have the Happiness to say to your Honnours, That I am Confident The Magistracy of the Colony Knoweth me to be Zealous to The same.
The Sphere your Honnour placed me in I have Actted Faithfully.
The Sallery though fixed and Agreed by your Honnour, I have had no Order for payment, though Mr Cautson is my very good friend.
And Now should be glad your Honnour and the Rest of the Honnerable the Trust would be pleased to see me placed (or Order,) that Amatis’s his Bussiness Being Quite Different, eith’r from Nussarys, to Kitchen Garding, and to Botany, that what ever I do; in his petts he Destroys.
I hope your Honnour and the Rest of Honnerable Trust will see me writed. It is the first Time as I have Troubled you and am Sorry it should happen But Necessity Obligeth me to Appeal to your Honnours.
Joseph Watson to Peter Gordon in Charles Town, March 10, 1734/5, Savannah, C.O. 5/637, pp. 25-26, Egmont 14200, pp. 467-469, complaining of his treatment by Thomas Causton and asking Gordon to place his situation before the Trustees.
Before i reed your favour of ye 28 Ult i had resolved on apleying to You, and had drawn a fowle draugh of a letter readey to transcribe, wherein i beg’d Your directing Mr [James] Abercomby the Kings Soil Genl158 or Mr Whitacer [Benjamin Whitaker] to plead my cause in Case Mr Caustons Mallice brings any fresh trouble on Me, believing he’s purposed to destroy Me. My aprehensions are justleyinlarged since Your departure, for on freyday Last Mr [John] Vanderplank with a Guard served two Warrants on Me Seasing all my papers &c. The Coppies of them i have often sent to Mr Vanderplanck for the Coppies of the Warrants but canot gett them nor doe i know there contents. I thinek sedition is Exprest in one of them. After serching they naild up my fore dore & Window and Keeps a Sentinall att my back dore with orders to Sufer noe person to come near nor speak to Me att aney distance unles he hears our discourse; or [nor] may i Evse [use] pen inck or paper; onley my Sert Maid is parmited to goe out & in. I have sent my Case to My Wife with orders to lay itt before ye Honr Trustees, itt being unavoidably verey Long, i have not an opertunity to send you a coppey of itt and writing but indifrantley [indifferently] my Selfe i employed Mr [Will] Watkins a Surgion to Write itt, who being taken notice by Mr Caus-on Speys [spies] for coming to Me was lickwise taken into Custadey from my Hous. They took from Me My copey to you, of My letter from Mr [Henry ?] Parker, ye Copey of 2 Letters gone to ye Trustees one informing the Trust that rum, during the time of pretending to Stave all that could be found, was comonley Sold in there Honrs Store by Gold & Company & ye other reflecting on the Ill payments of ye Store debts, which is all they found (thoe they Sercht sundrey Houses & persons after a verey undesent [indecent] Manner) Exept a petition & duplicate to ye Bayliefs of Savannah & Recorder, that Mr Causton would Preform his promises the Last Court day to deliver up what Affedafits he had recd against some Oficers of the Town from whome the life of himselfe & all his fameley was in danger, which Mr Watkins was wrighting when Mr Vanderplanck Entred my Apartment as they all doe acknowledg. I realey expect Mr Causton will putt me out of this World by fowle practice & have therefore enjoynd Mr Watkins if please God i dye during these Comotions to Evse [use] diligent Wais [ways] of discovring the Cause of my death as he shall judg needful. Mr Watkins complayns of recieving soe maney injoreys and abuses that itt is with ye Greatest difucaltey he would compley to asist me in giving you this Acct, which undone i must languish in this almost darck Jayl an perrish without reliefe or the World know aney part of my Storey. I beg You as You tender the life of an inosent injured Mann doe what on You leys to prevent my sufrings before Your return. Ease some of my griefs and lett me have the Laws of my Nation to Condem or aquitt Me. I desier Noe favour but an Empartiall Treyall and Somebodey Skild in ye Law to Plead my Cause That i may not be quibled out of my fortune nore life by a cast of White Chaple Sollr. I return you thancks for Your kind letter to Me and Wish You may return saft and quick to See this people pesable [peaceable] and prosperous rescued from the unlimeted Teyraney they now Groan under.
John West159 to Peter Gordon in Charles Town, March 10, 1734/5, Savannah, C.O. 5/637, p. 29, Egmont 14200, pp. 463-464, concerning the troubles in the colony and his desire to go to England to get some servants.
I ham informed that you are gooing for England vearey soone which give me & my wife a greatt Deale of Consarne that we must loose your good Componey soo soone & to thenck we must Still reemain under our oul [old] govorment. I feare that ye inhabeytence [inhabitants] will rais & Deestroye one another. Heare has been a blodey Deesine senc you have beene gonn found outt which I Doutt nott butt by this time you have hard the Storey. I beg of you if you Doo goo for England that you wood be soo good as to intreete ye Trosttees in my behalf to give me Lebortey for Coming for England nex Spreng or as Soon as oporteunaty shall pormett me after that time, for I wood nott Doo aney theng that should be Contrary to thayor [their] will if I knew itt. I beg you well give my Dutey to Sqr Ogellthorp & ye Refrnt [Revd.] Mr [Samuel] Smith & all ye rest of ye Honrable Trosttees & I harttly thanck them for all ye favers that I have Recved from them. And I beg you will be pleas to tell them that I shall nott thenck noo paines nor no Cost to much that is in my powor to Doo for ye Creaditt & good & pease of ye Colloney which I have heathertoo indavered to keep & maintain. One of my reasons is that I want too Com for England for is to gett me sum Savents of my own Contorey. I want also to settell maney afayors with my realeasions in bristoll. I feare that you pott [put] Confeydenc in one man heare that will nott prouve as faithfull as you may Expeckt. He Came to me to give him ye best informasion I Could of ye grevonc [grievance ?] of ye pepell which I Deed, butt after he tould me that he should nott send itt & seem to spack slitting [slighting] of you, & thare is noobody soo gratt as mr Costin & him. I should bee glad to heare from you beefore you goo & if posobell to send sum Leattors by you for England. Pray give my Love & Sarves [Service] to your Spous & my wifes all soo to you both.
Thomas Causton to the Trustees, March 10, 1734/5, Savannah, received April 25, 1735, C.O. 5/636, pp. 263-265, Egmont 14200, Pp. 455-461, concerning the affairs of William Sale, deceased, the red string plot, and the affairs of the Robert Parkers.160
May it please yor Honours.
In my Last of January the 16th I proposed to Complete many other Occurrences by Capt [George] Dunbar, and particularly Omitted (for want of time) an Acct of what had passed on Mr [William] Sale’s Death, But there being an Accident Intervened; I thought it necessary (witht Delay) to lay before Yor Honours the followg acct of the State of that Family. As also of an Intended Contrivance to Destroy this Colony.
Upon the Death of Mr Sale, His Widow resolved to go to England & disposed of his Effects; Mr [John] West bought some Furniture & the 4 Servants; She employed him to Sell the Grant of Land to Mr [Patrick or James] Houston one of the Scots Gentlemen. Colll [William] Bull being then here, Mr Houston advised with him and me about it. I lookt on the Grant, and told them That tho’ the Trustees had Covenanted to grant to the Widow in that manner, she could make no Conveyance without their Lycence; and as Mr Houston had already a Grant of Lands, It would be for the Interest of both Partys to joyn in a proper Application to them; Both Mr West and Houston agreed to this. And also (upon Condition of yr Honours Approbation) for £ 12 Sterling as Purchase money. But this Agreement was soon set aside; for it seems, Mrs Sale did not intend to part with her Grant; and her Orders to Mr West was only in Relation to the Town Lott. This Misunderstanding brought her to me.
She Complained of being in Danger of loosing her Grant; That she was afraid West was not able to pay her for the 4 Servants, And that she had good Assurances of making £ 100 Sterling of her Grant in England. I talkt to West on this Matter, and told him that I supposed he had bought those Servants with intent only to Serve Mrs Sale, because in my Judgment, they could not be much Serviceable to him. That as she had hopes of making a good Advantage of her Grant in England by offering it to the Trustees, It would be much to her Disadvantage to part with them because, In them, lay the most imediate Value of the Grant; And it would be a great Service to her, if he would give up that Bargain. Especially considering that the Servants (tho’ of an Orderly Disposition) were much against being sold. To this he very readily and thankfully agreed; And I promised Mrs Sale, That if she went for England, I would take Care of them for her, and employ them, in the Trustees Service, and wait Such Orders as she should make. She also Complained, that her husband had laid out a great deal of money in working Tools and Goods which she could not Sell; and laid claim (That as Mr Oglethorp had promised the Store should take in the Negro Cloth), The Tools might be taken also. In which Case I considered, That as She was going to England & leave this place, It would not be Disagreable to yor Honours, If I endeavoured to make every thing as agreable to her as I could. And therefore, took all she had left into the Store, and paid her for them, As yor Honours will more particularly see by the Acct Inclosed.
She Soon after changed her mind, with respect to her going to England, and married Robert Parker Junr who upon that Marriage gave up his Commission and preferred Idleness and Luxury above the Service of his Country.
I proposed to him, That as his Servants would now become Serviceable to him, and that his Ploughs and Cart Geer and other things (which Yor Honours will observe to be deducted out of the Account, whereof we have great plenty in the Store Already, without any imediate Prospect of being used) would be usefull to him in a proper time; Or at least he might dispose of them to a much better advantage. He thankt me for this advise, and offered his Harness’s and Ploughs to Mr Houston, but they not agreeing, he resolved to send them altogether to Charles Town. And I got them ready, to deliver to the Boatman. But I insisted, (that as I had acted in all that Affair on my own Opinion; And more particularly, being a ballance due, in favour of the Store,) That the Boatman should either return me the Goods again, or pay the ballance out of what he should Sell the Goods for. But this made him very Anry, and spoke many unbecoming things.
As my whole Behaviour in this, was in the first place to Serve the Widow in the best manner I could, and after the Marriage to do what has been necessary from time to time, by Supplying them with every thing, that with any Colour of Reason they have askt, I was not a little Surprized to have the enclosed161 come to my hands, a Duplicate of which, (if Mr Parker says truth) is transmitted to Yor Honours.
But if on the other hand, he has only wrote it, in an Angry Mood, and upon after thought, has not realy sent it, I thought I could not take a better Opertunity, to lay before Your Honours the Opinion of this young Spark with such Answers to it as I am ready to justifye by written and living witnesses.
T’was the Discovery of a Dangerous Design That brought this to me. I had reced Information That [Joseph] Watson and this Parker had sent for [John] Musgrave and had perswaded him to be jealous and bear an ill mind to me; That he had reported many Notorious and Villanious things which yor Honours will See by Musgroves and [Ri ?] Cannon’s Affidavitts. That Severall of the Transport Servants had Stolen and hid Severall Loaded Guns & Amunition in the Woods & were found; That when I was gone to Skidoway on Sunday the 2d Instant, [John] Vanderplank having reced Information that a Design was laid for Destroying the Town, and that those who wore a Red String on their Wrist were concerned in it; And that Musgrove was to head some Indians to joyn the white men. He Rung the Alarm Bell and Aprehended One John Cox a Taylor from Carolina, Piercy Hill, and Edward Cruise, Vanderplank’s Transport Servant who had all of them Red Strings on their Wrist as a Token of the Design agreable to the Information.
As I was coming home Mr [Joseph] Fitzwater coming to meet me, told me what had happened, & I beleive, if they had not been so hasty in ringing the Alarm more discovery might have been made, Besides with Submission to Yor Honours Comands when ever you shall please to declare in that matter. No Alarm is to be given to the people, (in the day time) without a warrant from the Magistrates then at hand in the Town.
When I had considered of the whole Conspiracy, I was of the Opinion That very Probably some Villainous fellows might be employed to do Mischief and when done, lay it on Musgrove and his Indians.
On Monday March the 3d (which Your Honours will observe is the date of Parker’s Letter), he came to me about an Administration to Mr Sale and I took that Oppertunity (Mr Henry Parker162 being present) to Reprove him for joyning with Watson in the storeys told to Musgrove; That it was very Ungenerous, when I had done so many things in favour of him & Family and perhaps had exceeded my Orders; And further believed it would be ill taken by Your Honours, because as Mr Oglethorp had favoured him with a Commission, they no Doubt expected, he should render them in a particular manner a Due observance of such Regulations, they think fitt to make in the Province, And to shew a Proper Respect to those they think fitt to Entrust. He owned he had been with Watson on Such an Occasion, And that he thought Watson was very unjustly dealt by.
On the Discovery of this Conspiracy it was agreed by all the Magistrates here, That Warrants should be Issued to Search [Joseph] Watson, [Robert] Parker, [Joseph] Coates, [Will] Watkins, Peiba and King Clark163 (These Six being dayly in Consultation frequently guilty of ill Language, and were Seldom Seperate) with endeavour to find out further Lights into the Design. But it was too Late, for Watson had not a paper of any Sort about him, except one Letter which he said was to Mr [Peter] Gordon, by which you will see the Encouragement he has lately taken and how ready he is to Embroil the Opinions of Unguarded people, And more particularly That he supposes himself to be tryed for his Life before he is Charged with any other Crime, than Creating a jelousy in Musgrove. But that and what he told Cannon was much alike; for Musgrove does not believe him. At Parker’s, the two Letters were found, as are mentioned in Jones’s Affidavit. At Watkins, Coats, Peiba & King Clark nothing was found.
Now as to that part of Mr Parker’s Letter, which Setts forth his Damage so farr as the same concerns me, I beg leave to say, if it be Compared with the Account now Enclosed, and what is before mentioned, Yor Honours will easily see he has been no Sufferer on my Account. As to that part, which concerns the Surveyor, I do assure you, ‘tis groundless; That he has not made any use of his own Originall Town Lott which he well knows; Neither has he medled with Mr Sale’s five Acre Lott (tho’ begun in Sale’s life time). Neither has he been in any Setled mind concerning his Land by his Wife’s Grant; Sometimes agreeing (to Orders) for the Land near Thunderbolt according to the Priority of Landing & Grants; At other times absolutely refusing all Lands except at Skidoway; And since that resolved to have it, where his Father has thought fitt to Erect a Mill and no where else. ‘Tis true, he did tell me One day, That he had taken possession of Land which he liked and would keep it and tho’ I did not much heed it I thought it necessary to accompany Mr [George] Dunbar to see his Father’s Mill because of many reports that had been raised about it.
We went as Visitors and Mr [Noble] Jones with us. We saw the Mill and am Convinct that the Shortest way to make it answer a proper end, is to pull it down and new build from the bottom in another manner. We saw it work, and it Sawed half a foot in half an hour. I have desired Mr Jones to give your Honours his Opinion in this Matter, As also the uses which that Stream might be Capable of with respect to Mills (in Case) your Honours should be inclinable to Indulge Mr Parker or any one else in Such Schemes.
The River is from the Opening into Savannah near Abercorn Upwards of 30 Miles to another Opening into Savannah within 3 Miles of the River leading to Ebenezer and is a much better & easier water Passage to Ebenezer than going up the Savannah where the Current is very Strong. On the Side of the Main are many Bluffs of very good Land.
When we were there, the Young Gentleman shewed us his Hut which he was building; I made no answer to that; But Mr Jones I believe did tell him That if he thought he did not intend to get Lycence, he would pull it down. At which he was displeased, & said he would go to England. I advised him not to be Angry, for if Mr Jones pulled it now down, he did but his Duty; And I thought, that to take things by force was the wrong way to obtain a Lycense. There was nothing else materiall passed; but that the Father and we were very friendly, he askt somethings of the Store which I agreed to. He sent for them the next day with a very obliging Letter, and I sent them (vizt) the [blank] day of [blank] as per his Acct.
As to the other Reflections levelled at me, I answer, If I had at any time refused a reasonable request he might think me Narrow &c. But the Truth is He has been idle enough to stay at home and Sell their Cloaths and Eat and drink till they are so much in Debt, that they cant tell what to do.
As to goods sold in the Store, every thing on Yor Honours Account, is allways sold at Prime Cost with abt 10 per Cent for Charge of Landing porterage and Waist as well as will appear by the Store Accounts now entered and attested by the Magistrates agreable to your Honours Order.
As to Rum. There has not been one drop in the Store since Mr Oglethorp’s going hence. And I have desired Mr Henry Parker and Mr [Thomas] Christie to Examine Robt Parker about it.
What I have already said, and what the enclosed Affidavitts Contain is the best Account I can at present give; But as many other things are likely to be known in a Short time, I shall beg leave to Referr to my next, And only tell you that Peircy Hill was Indicted by a Grand jury & found Guilty of High Misdemeanors and Misprision of Treason, and the Grand jury have made the Enclosed presentments.
I can’t forbear saying t’was very Satisfactory to me, That the Grand jury which is Composed of the Peace Officers and Gentlemen So readily and of their own mere Motion, and thought, presented Robt Parker for publishing false Storeys, In that the Publick Store Creditt was at a Stand, and questioned by every body.
We shall not proceed against Watson nor Parker till your Honours Orders arrive both with respect to Watson in my last Letter, and both of them in this.
We shall punish the three People under Prosecution with Whiping fine or Imprisonment, And Shew as much favour as we Can to Hill. We are very quiet, and make no doubt, have disapointed our Enemys designs.
Your Honours, will observe (no doubt) that Watson in his Letter to Mr Gordon mention’s a Sending of [Francis] Mugridg to Gaol by the Courts Comittment. The Case was thus Houston had brought an Action agt Mugridg some time since, Mugridg had kept out of the way till Houston was gone to Charles Town Mugridg then Comes and Claimed a Nonsuit, wch I granted. When Houston came again he renewed his Action and Mugridg had not appeared to it. At this Court he was a Tything man in waiting; And I sent for him and ordered him to Appear the next day; He told the Court That he would not appear at all; And that as he had obtained a Nonsuit it should be tryed elswhere. He persisted in Contempt of the Court, and I Comitted him. In One hour’s time, Bail was offered, and he was discharged. Tis true That Mugridg did some Silly things, too bad to be born with; But I never was nor shall be afraid to do my Duty; And when I embrace the first Token’s of Submission I think, I do my Duty best. I allways know I have Yor Honours Rules to observe, and no one else; And in all my Actions shall Endeavour to manifest my Gratitude so long as I have Life.
P. S. A Complaint haveing been made about Selling Rum I took the enclosed Examination which I suppose Mr Christie will answer.
Robert Parker to [?], March 12, 1734/5, Mill Bluff near Savannah, C.O. 5/636, p. 227, concerning his garden and the lack of help for it.
I am in a Cuntry capable of Raising up Sundry Plants and perhaps procuring in a little time Sundry Roots Barkes &c that may be benificiall to Mankinde, agreable to the Laudable undertaking you have the just Honour to preside over.
I have seene a Good deale of the Worlde and must claime a little knowledge in most Sciences, and as I have leisure time now on my Hands and Conveniency, wch in England I was debared from by a Multiplicity of Business and the thickness of the Towne I lived in. But hear I have undertaken to plant a Garden the Plan of wch I sende for yr Inspection. It must be verey Erronious for Want of boath Books Instruments & Tooles but the Pleasure I take in it will soone make me overcome the difficulteys. Esspessially could I be furnished from your Coledge Garden with proper helps, I might then make such a proficiency that in few years might make returnes to you of Exotticks to your satisfaction. The Ground I have taken [torn] Pressent is small, when that is compleat, may be enlarged at Pl [torn]. I have Erekted a Saw Mill just by it, that with a Pumpe and a Few Trees, at a little Expence, can bring the Water into any Part of it. The Soile is good and Will Produce almost anything tho our Winters hear in the Lattitude of 32d 10 are very Cold. For most part of January and Feb wee had Frosty Nights, Ice about the thickness of a Crowne most mornings tho the Day very Cleare & Sereane. It was Coole but the finest Wether for 6 last months I yet was ever in, free from the Noctious Insects that sufficiently plague us in the Summer, as Musketoes, or in English Fen Knatts, and a small Fly almost imperceptable called mercy Wings, the Bite of wch in proportion to the Bulke containes as much Poison as the Ratle Snake, wch we have enough off. But I need not mention them to you, all the Itallions Swiss Germans & French boath at Purisburgh and Savanah agrees this Cuntry will produce good Wines of wch there is a great many both Sown & Planted Europians as well as Natives of this Cuntry. Olives Pomgranetts Oranges Figgs Mulbereys &c no doubt will in time come to great Perfection. I have a Vast deale of Wilde Coffee some of the Berrys I gathered about October last large and Good, wch I comparied with Raw Coffee I had by me, it was full as plump & Fine. I have taken severall Trees or plants into my Garden and shall [torn] upon more as these proves. I hope in time and according to the proper Incouredgement afforded me to furnish my Selfe with a great many Excellent & Useful things and make my little Spot boath Pleasant & Beautifull. But for the Helps I have had (an Indian might a Dun as much,) I can Obtaine nothing from the Trust Garden at Savanah, not so much as a Seede or plant, tho by my Selfe and Friends have Wrote to France Lisbon Oporto Genoa Venice Barbara Guinea and Medara as shall do to our West Indeys for what ever may be had from thence. The Freedom I take as a Stranger you must blame your Universall Good Carektor for upon that Footing.
Raymond Coutarel to the Rev. Clarice de Floirant, Minister at the Greek Church, London, March 14, 1734/5, Geneva, C.O. 5/636, pp. 44-45, concerning his desire to settle in North Carolina. Translated from the original French.
Having learnt that you are at London I have taken the liberty to write you. I beg you not to take in bad part my boldness, though I am only a poor artisan of Horteux, near Quissac, and son of Raymond Coutarel. I have lived these 23 years at Geneva. I happened to hear speak of North Carolina, and several of my friends have begged me to obtain more exact information concerning it. Thinking the matter over, I took finally the determination to appeal to your charity. I trust, Sir, you will furnish us with the information and make known to us the conditions laid down by the King for those who take such a step. We are numerous and are supporting families; we are, in fact, refugees from Languedoc164 and honest folk; and we dare to hope that, if it be possible, our passage may be provided for us free. That would realize easily the desire we have to live under the laws of the King of England.
We are all professional men, smiths, masons, Cartwrights, carpenters, shoemakers or tailors. We entreat you to use your clemency towards us poor refugees; we trust to receive this favor at your hands Sir, and God will bless you in heaven. We implore you, for God’s sake, to enlighten us and, by your efforts, to secure us free passage. We would pray in addition for the tools necessary that each may work his trade, and also for needed money—for, Sir, we are not rich men. We will go to London according to the directions of the letter you will have the kindness to send us; and we will follow in everything the line you mark out for us. I left Germany with Mr Rieussat, who has since gone to North Carolina. He used to live in London. I am by trade a locksmith. I ask you, Sir, to favor me as soon as possible with a letter. My address is
Street of the Wooden Tower, Geneva.
May Christ reward you!
P.S. I have with myself three children and my wife. My means do not allow me to undertake this great expense.
P.P.S. Here in Geneva people speak of this enterprise very obscurely and by suggestion. We rely upon you, Sir, we throw ourselves on your kindness. We will act strictly according to your counsel. We are ready to go or stay. In fine, we trust wholly that you will guide us. If we are to leave, will you kindly delegate us to those persons who have begged to come with us. They are from Sauve, from Quissac, and environs. They hope to hear from you.
Andrew Grant, Hugh Sterling, Patrick Tailfer, and Patrick Houstoun to the Trustees, March 15, 1734/5, Savannah, received June 18, 1735, C.O. 5/636, p. 228, Egmont 14200, pp. 475-476, concerning their need for supplies and the inconvenience of being settled so far from Savannah.
We beg leave to lay the following particulars before you. When we obtain’d grants from you for Land in the province of Georgia, we never in the least doubted but we should have the same privileges & encouragement that other people had. We expected as soon as we arrived here, to have received provisions for our Servants for Twelve months, Tools for Building & Clearing the Land, Nails for our Houses & other necessary Iron-work, Arms & Ammunition &c., but contrary to our expectation we were refused every thing. We hope you will consider that with a view of having those things, we laid out our Money, in purchasing what necessary Goods we should want here, in procuring our Servants, paying for their Freight & our own, (which amounted to a good deal of Money, for we were obliged to Freight a whole Ship) & that we put the honourable the Trustees to no Expence in sending us here.
The Land alotted us is very remote from this place, being at least Seventy miles Distance,165 which obliged part of us to settle in this Town, in order to supply the others who have settled upon their Land with provisions & other necessaries from time to time, as well as upon the Account of our own Business. It was impossible for us, as we laboured under such Difficulties, to do what we otherwise should have done, but however those that are settled in the Country, have made at least as great improvements as any before them, especially considering the time of their settlement. They have cleared a considerable Tract of Land, Built their Houses & likewise a very strong Fort, which may be of great advantage to this place as well as to themselves; but it is of no use without Arms & Ammunition, they having only two Swivel Guns & ten Muskets, which they received from Mr Causton to be paid for out of our Goods. For being Strangers in this Country & not knowing where to purchase provisions & several other Necessaries, we were obliged to apply to the Store, but could not get any thing from thence, till we lodged the chief part of our Goods there.
We hope your Honours will take those things into consideration & grant us the same advantages as others. We likewise hope you’ll allow us the remaining part of our Land, next to the town of any not yet taken up.
P.S. We had almost forgot to mention one thing, which is likewise a great incumbrance upon those who are settled at Okeechy, that the Indians in passing backwards & forwards commonly demand provisions, & frequently stay there Eight or Ten Days, & being always allowed them at Thunderbolt & Fort-Argyle, they imagine it to be ye same here & would take it very ill if they were refused.
Patrick Tailfer to the Trustees, March 15, 1734/5, Savannah, received June 18, 1735, C.O. 5/636, p. 230, Egmont 14200, p. 471, concerning his loss of servants and desire for land closer to Savannah.
Having obtain’d a Grant from you for Five Hundred Acres of Land in the province of Georgia, I came here chiefly with a Design to settle upon it, but having had the misfortune of Losing Nine of my Servants a few Days before we embrak’d, & four more at Portsmouth, (where we were obliged to lay our Ship aground in order to refit her, being pretty much Damaged by an unlucky Accident which happened there) I am rendered incapable to pursue that Design untill I get more Servants over, having only three Men a Boy & Woman Servant left. Upon which account I have rented a House in this Town & Practice my Business here as Physician & Surgeon. However I should have employed my Servants in Clearing & Cultivating my Land, if I could have got it at any reasonable Distance from this Town, but the Land assigned us Lying on the South side of Okeechy River, Thirty Miles from the Mouth of the River & about Seventy from this place, being so remote, it would have been needless for me to endeavour to do any thing to the purpose with three Men. Indeed some of our Company who had a Sufficient number of Servants, have settled there & made great improvements considering the time, having Built a very strong Fort as well as cleared a considerable space of Land.
As I am now in a manner settled in this Town, (which I would fain flatter myself may be of some advantage to the place, there being no other here regularly bred either to Physic or Chirurgery). I beg you would be so good as to allow me my Land as near the Town as possible in any Vacant place, for I expect more Servants over very soon, which will enable me to settle & Clear it. I likewise beg you would Grant me a Lease of one of your own Lots, upon the same Conditions as you do to others, & if you think proper to do it, I shall Build a good House upon it & make what other Improvements are necessary.
Robert Parker to Lord Tyrconnel, March 16, 1734/5, Mill Bluff in Georgia, C.O. 5/636, p. 233, concerning defense of his area.
May it Please Your Lordship
The Bees from England takes a Flight to these remote Parts of the Worlde and in the exstemetays are Purisburgh a Sister Collony to Savanah and this Place of any Habitation, onely (as we conjecture by hearing yr Small Armes) onely 3 Miles upon a direkt line distance tho 3 or 4 Hours by Water. I have left a rewarde of a Guinea at Purisburgh for any to come over and marke out a Path tho What Works three deepe Swampes. For the sake of the moneys the Industruous People there will in a little time finde me it out. It will be a great security in case of a sudden attacque. They have promised at any time Upon a Signall to assist me with 40 or 50 people, tho upon a Strong allarum we have herd from Savanah firing yr Signall of disstress or raising the Setlements. I sent down for a Few Musketts Bayonetts &c to make a little defence. I can obtain nothing from thence not so much as a few Seeds for my Garden. But to return to my Bee No 54. Voll 5 Page 73 London 8th March that the sum £ 246. 13.0 was Collected by the Right Hono Lord Viscount Tyrconell at St Georges Hanover Square for the New Collony of Georgia the Sermon Preach by the Revd Dr Rendell [Thomas Rundle], and the Revd Dr Hale [Stephen Hales] Author of two Volumes of Vegetable Staticks is appointed to preach before the Society at St Brides Church.
And now my Good Lord as I have hitherto made no appoligey tho a Stranger and never heard of by Your Lordship, or forgott, (I had yet the Honour once when at Grantham to be invited over to Dine with Your Lordship) but being an Itinerant I could not possibly do my selfe that Honour, But I am imboldned to do what I do, finding Your Lordship so deepely engaged in the fine Worke of God and the good of Mankinde. Imperfections in any my manner of Exspressions is evident to every one but one of Your Lordships Carchter [character] will over looke all little Blemishes of Nature where the intention is to things of a finer kinde. I had the Honour of being in a particular maner recomended by my Great Patron the Right Hone Sr Rob Walpole tho I have yet founde but little regarde payd to it. I would not trouble him but if Your Lordship will please to recommende the Inclosd to Sr Hans Slone and the Worthy Dr Halle youll Oblidge in a particuler Maner.
Edward Massey166 to James Oglethorpe, March 18, 1734/5, [South Carolina?], C.O. 5/636, p. 237, concerning his health.
With Pleasure I embrace ye Opportunity to Mr Gordons Return to England to renew my very thankfull Acknowledgmets for the obliging Favours You have Hond me with.
My Health continues in a bad and fluctuating State, having now & then some respite from Pain, but of no long Duration. I intended to have visited Georgia ye beginning of this Month but was prevented by a violent Cholick with Convulsions, wch confind me to my Room all ye Time I was at Fort Frederick, & oblig’d me to return hither as soon as I found a little Ease.
I wait ye happy hour of His Majesty’s Licence of Absence coming to Hand, & with a Thousand Vows for Your Health & Prosperity, remain with the most perfect Attachment.
Edward Jenkins and John Dearne, trustees for orphans in Georgia, to Thomas Siddons (Walker Court in Knaves Archer [London?]), March 18, 1734/5, [Savannah], C.O. 5/637, p. 34, concerning the death of Henry Clark167 and his wife.
Your Brother Henery Clark & wife is dead, there is but one Girl living which is ye Eldest. We Latley receved a Parcel of Goods amounting as appears by your invoice 3.19.4. To be satisfied of your kinswomans affects Go to Trustees office for Establishing ye Collony of Georgia, where you may be satisfied.
George Symes to James Oglethorpe, March 19, 1734/5, Georgia, received June 18, 1735, C.O. 5/636, p. 234, concerning his expenses and inability to collect for the medicines he dispenses.
I humbly aske yor pardon and thought it my duty to lett you know how I have been served by Mr [John] Coats and Elisha Foster, who have had of me five pounds Sterling and they demand of me foure pounds 9s more for ye building of my house. Now if I must paye all this money, tis very hard that soe many Medicines of my own I brought out of England which ye people have had of me att least fiveteene pounds Sterling. Ye time I have been here I hope your honor will be soe kinde to stand my Friende in this hardship which I Lye under. I pray your Honours pardon and Trust and I hope all will doe well. Ye place is very healthy. I Remaine your most obedient and dutyful Servant and my duty to all the most honourable Trust.
Thomas Christie to the Trustees, March 19, 1734/5, Savannah, C.O. 5/636, pp. 235-236, Egmont 14200, pp. 479-482, detailing the Red String Plot.
I think it Indispensible my Duty to Inform you That Whilst I was at my own House a Sunday Evening the 2d of March Inst To my great Surprize I heard the Alarm Bell (Mr Causton being then at Thunderbolt). I Imediately Arm’d my Self and made to the Guard house where I found Mr [John] Vanderplank who said he had Discovered a Plot to Surprise the Town & kill the People and he believed [John] Musgrove and the Indians were concerned in it. Without Speaking any thing more he took a Party of men and went down with them to Musgroves house, It seems Since to Learn of them whether anything was in it but they were all out of Town.
He Left Mr [James] Carwell at the Guard house who at my Request Marshall’d the Freeholders as fast as they came & drew them up regularly so that in a Quarter of an Hour’s time there was near 50 Men in Arms. In the mean time I used all the Diligence I could to Learn out how this Plot was to be Executed and by whom and upon Enquiry found Elizabeth Gray knew something of it. I thereupon took her to my house & began an Examination before Sevll of the best people in Town. Found by her Examination that a Red String was to be a Sign or Token & immediately sent out persons to make a Discovery of any that wore it but found none but the Prisoners hereafter named. I dispatched Mr [Joseph] Fitzwalter to desire Mr Causton home and another person to Mr [Henry] Parker who was likewise out of Town. Mr Vanderplank soon return’d from Mr Musgrove finding no body at Home and upon hearing Mrs Gray Examin’d read in my house seem’d very angry with the Exr, went out in an abrupt manner and cry’d out in the Street he found what the Plot was we were goeing to hang his man. I was goeing on with further Examinations but Night coming on & being Inform’d of Mr Caustons coming home, staid to advise wth him in this uncertain posture of things. We went to Mr Vanderplank Requested that two Compleat Tythings of Able men might be upon Guard that Night, That three or four of the Cannon might be Imediately Charged & drawn out to Flank the Strand on each side & things put into a posture of Defence, Especially a good Guard about our Magazine.
It is with a great deal of Pleasure I can tell Your Honours what a vast Number of Freeholders appeared in the Deffence of the Place And with what Spirit and Alertness they were ready to Execut any Orders that Should have Appeared Necessary.
My Selfe with a great Number of Gentlemen and the better Sort of People being Compleatly Arm’d Form’d a Resolution to Patrole the Town all that Night as Vollunteers. Mr Causton soon came home and Joyn’d us.
We were Considerably Employed to See if all the Servants were at home & a Bed & if not sent them to the Guard house. Especially the Irish Transports who if any Mischief had been on Foot we had no great Oppinion of Especially Since Mr [Roger ?] Lacy (tho very dark) had made his way through the Wood to us that Night in pursuit of two of his Servants who were that Evening run away. [A] Maid Servant of his who had Discovered it and who was of design to go away with them having been found with a Red String on her Arm the Mark or Sign mentioned in those Affidavits sent to Your Honnours Inclosed in Mr Causton’s Letter to which I crave Leave to Reffer.
All was very quiet that Night & the next morning We Sate and made further Enquiry took further Affidavits & Continued The Necessary Orders.
It was upon Information of James Mcdonnald and the Affidavits of [Ri] Cannon & Musgrove wch you had Inclosed in Mr Caustons together with our own Knowledge of Severll discontented Persons that had Continually resorted to [Joseph] Watson’s that we Judged it for the Safety of the Province to make out a Warrant to Search for Papers there but it Seems by some unacountable means we found afterwards by Mr [David ?] Douglas his Neighbour who has nothing but a thin deal Partition between him & Watsons that our Resolution was carried to him before the Constable came there and no doubt of it but all the others. I can only Say if Mr Vanderplank had comunicated his cause of Alarm to me I Should have Advised him to have made a proper Search and taken measures for Discovery before the Alarm Bell had been rung and according to the best of my Judgement The Plot if ever it was Form’d Seems to have had Birth either at Watsons or [Francis] Mugridges house where Generally a parcell of People in bad Circumstances resort. A Little time will discover more of wch Your Honnr Shall have Notice. Tomichichi and his People Appears no ways concernd in it and Seem’d very Surprised at the Alarm Guns, Testified their Fidellity and was Concernd they had been named in it. Mr Musgrove as well as they desired we would Assure your Honnours of their Fidellity but it is certain That Some of the Indians Especially one Salotte and Some others wch are not of the Savannah Indians but a Sort of Strollers Seems to Envy him very much. Its well if they have no dessign on his Life; they say he has Sold them to the English for the presents he has received and what he tells them of the Grandeur & People of our Nation is a Lye to keep them in Awe, and indeed I must Say I could wish Tomichichi and his Wife would Communicate some of his Presents to his People. I believe it would take of a great deal of their Envy to him. Tomichichi was with us this day & told us that Salotte took a Brand of Fire and went to Strike the Queen but Narrowly missed her that the Scattering People Seemed to be displeased with him and Apokutche says he makes himself greater than he Should be. We have Assured Tomichichi of our Protection and if he found himself any ways in Danger to reside at Yamacraw near us where we Should do every thing requisit for his Safety.
If any thing of Mischief Should come forth I am of Oppinion it must be of that Side with the Spaniards or French Instigations. We have had no News of Cap [Patrick] Mackoey but believe he is Safe. We expect 100 of the Upper Creek Nation who they now say are coming down to See us, and we Shall take care to receive them in the best & most Formidable manner we can.
Inclosed is the Presentments of the Grand Jury of the Tenth of March upon which Piercy Hill, John Cox & Edward Cruise have been Since Try’d and found Guilty. They have already received 60 Lashes each by the hands of the Common Hangman and are to receive 60 more unless any one of them Shall make an Ample Discovery. Our Orders relating to the rest of the Presentments Shall be Transmitted to Your Honnrs in my next. As to what relates to Watson & Parker reffer to Mr Causton Letter and Shall expect your Honnrs Directions on that head.
There was an Information pretended to be sent to your Honnours by one Robert Parker Junr, Letters wherein he Says it is Notoriously known that Rum was Sold out of the Storehouse in the Name of Gould & Compa. Mr Henry Parker Bayliff and my Self were desirous to Inform your Honnours of the truth of it and to that End sent for Mr Parker but instead of coming sent the Inclosed Letter by which youll See the disposition of that Gentlemen. We then sent an Officer who brought him to us. He refused to give us any Acct of that matter and gave us the Same Answer as before he had done in his Letter. He refused likewise to Attend the Court as Juryman tho he had at the Same time two Town Lotts, for wch we Fined him and now he has thought fit to Attend.
Mr Gordon has been sometime at Charles Town where he went in order to dispose of Some Goods he brought with him from England and it was Strongly Rumour’d that he had a dessign to return back but I am inform’d this Day that we are [not ?] likely to See him again here.
The Land the Saltzburghers are upon turns out very Sandy & Barren. It is now too Late to remove them for this Season and Shall first Expect Your Honnours Directions therein.
Alice Riley was hang’d Some Months agoe within Six weeks after her being brought to Bed pursuant to her Sentence of the 11th day of May Last and the Child is Since dead.
I continue my former Request to Your Honnours.
[P. S.] The Indian Talk mentioned in one of Mr Causton’s Letters having Seen, creave [crave] Leave to Reffer thereto.
William Ewen to Harmon Verelst, March 19, 1734/5, Savannah, C.O. 5/636, pp. 222, 239, concerning his desire for a town lot and other favors.
I have wite to Esqr Oglethorp for a town Lot which I hope I shall have: and I hope Kind Sr if their is any favers to be Granted to the people that shall be have them selves well: That I may not be for got. My Master Mr Thomas Causton has put me to Serve in the Store House.
Susan Bowling to Peter Gordon, March 20, 1734/5, Charles Town, C.O. 5/637, pp. 37-38, concerning the estate of her late husband.
You’ll excuse this Address from a poor unhappy Widow, who without Your Friendly Assistance must Perish thro’ the presures of Want in her Old Age; or be brought to the necessity of living on the bounty of others. When had She Justice done her in putting her Goods into her own Power She apprehends She Shou’d have a Comfortable Subsistance for the Rest of her days, or at least be able to do Justice to all the Creditors of her deceased Husband.
My unhappy case Sr is this. I am the unfortunate Widow of Thomas Bowling late of this Town Marriner who in Order to get a better lively-hood for himself and family Used the Pettaugering Bussiness in going backwards and forwards from River to River to bring the Planters Goods to Markett and at the Same time Used to Carry Small parcells of Goods to Sell among them in a large Petty-auger of his own which was Worked by himself and his two Negromen, Slaves Named Pompey and Fortune. And after he had used this bussiness Some time he was imployed to Carry Some Goods to Savanah in Georgia and for that purpose hired his Said Pettyauger to one Dopree [Elisha Dobree ?] And Carried his goods to Savannah and also one hogshead of Rum, a barrell of Sugar & Sundry other Merchandize to trade with on his own Account. And Soon After he had arrived at Savanah for the last time he Sickened and as it is Said made his Will in presence of Thomas Young & Patrick Tailfer And therof did Nominate Francis Lynch & Micheal Moor Exors Who having Rendred as I am inform’d an Unperfect inventory of the Effects of my Said husband into the Court at Savanah Renounced the Exorship. And I having taken out Letters of Administration (from his Excellency the Govr of this Province as Ordinary of the Same) to the Estate and Effects of the deceased, Sent Several Letters and Powers to Georgia to have the Effects in Specie delivered to me but Can hitherto get none into my hands (Excepting the Negroes which Ranaway from thence and Came home to me and which I have Since delivered to the Persons to whom my husband was indebted for them, he not having paid for them in his Life time). It being Pretended by the Persons who have the Effects in their hands at Savanah that I must go in Person thither and give Security for the faithfull Administration of the Effects altho’ I already have done the Same before the Ordinary here, And altho’ I am So Aged and infirm that I am wholly incapable of Travelling So farr. And under these pretences I am kept out of what Effects my Husband died possessed of as Aforesaid And not only thereby Reduced to a Starving Condition but Rendered wholly incapable of doing Justice to his Creditors here. I therefore humbly beg You’ll be So charitable as to take this Affair under your Consideration and Set it in Such light that Justice therein may be done as well to my Husbands Creditors.
Joseph Hetherington168 to James Oglethorpe, March 22, 1734/5, Thunderbolt, read June 18, 1735, C.O. 5/636, pp. 243-244, Egmont 14200, pp. 483-485, concerning conditions at Thunderbolt and the desire to will his property if he dies without heirs.
I received your welcome letter, from Mr Johnny Bromfield on the 28th of December last, and have According to my instructions Sent John Godly169 home by capt [George] Dunbar. He has proved an Excellent good Servant till the News Came he was to go for England. He then went directly to Savannah and would not Come to thunderbolt any more, but stayd till the Ship sail’d, which was upwards of two months, although Mr Causton and Mr Gordon perswaded him all that lay in there power, and at last threatned him with punishment if he did not returne. It was all one he minded them not, and I was Unwillingly he shod receive Any Correction as I intended he shod go home. But I believe he was Encouraged by Mother Penrose,170 for She kept him in her Employ the whole time. I am Sure nobody Elce wod give him Encouragement, and as for troubling my head with her, is what I did not Care for, She still remaining Conqueror Over the whole place. I receiv’d the Swiss and his wife171 in returne they are very willing to work and Are laborous people, but the man has had Some old Strain in his right Arm & Cannot work so hard as his wife.
My Spouse in perticular, returns your honour many thanks for the great Care you had for her, in Sending A maid, for now She dont work altogether so hard her Self, nor indeed Can She, She now being very big with Child and within two months of her time, and likewise desired me to the informe your honour that if you had been here, she wod have made bold to Ask’t you for A gossip,172 being in a fair way of haveing the pleasure of the first Child at Thunderbolt. Our Settlement is much altered for the better since your honour was there, for Now wee Can Almost go Ahunting, there is So much land Cleared. I have got About twenty Acres to my Own Share, and all fenced in with a strong fence. I believe Mr [Roger] Lacy his brother & Mr [Philip] Bishop have Each of them almost as much, so that if our lands had proved but good wee might Expect an immence Crop this Year, but your honour knows its most of it pine barren, Except a little Oak and hickery towards Skidaway which is About ten Acres and that fell to Mr Lacys Share. Our settlement is Certainly a beautifull place and the pleasantest in all Georgia, and has not wanted for Any Industry to make it so. It has been Exceeding hard Upon me this last year, being Obliged to build so much, and Clear lands at the Same time, I haveing but two Servants left, my Old frenchman being dead. I really did work beyond what I thought I could, but no person Can tell what they may do, till they are put to the triall, and I am very glad that I was, for it Agrees mighty well with my health and Use has made it Intierly Agreeable to me. Wee finished our Hexicon173 Ever since the 23d of Septemr last, but not built Any More then Every One a house, and where the Other Shod be, have fill’d the Vacant places up with pallasades, and so Strong and Commodious it is, that wee Value not all the force of Augustine. I have likewise built me Another little house the demensions of the first forty in Savannah, which I call my farm, with a yard of 200 foot square paild in about a quarter of A miles from the fort, and A pretty garden behind it, my Cowpen Adjoyning to it. The reason that invited me to it was, I found out a fine Spring that Comes from Under A rock which is a sort of an Iron Stone; and that is likewise fenced into my yard the water is far better then the spring your honour is Acquainted with. My rural life I like so well and the Inclinations I have to the place, that I am as well sattisfied as if I had five hundred A year in England. I only wish to have Another year over our heads, then wee shall begin [to] live, and have Every thing in plenty of our Own produce. I bought ten head of Cattle which I thought was pretty well at first, but had the misfortune to loose seven of them soon after, which was a great loss for a young farmer, but hope I shall retrieve it again. I returne your Many thanks that you was so good as Not to draw upon me for the last favour I received, when it became due, for if you had I know not what I shod have done haveing met with so many losses the first year but I would have sold all I had in the world but it shod have been Answered, it being so kind and generouse an Action. But as your honour has been so good as to Stay so long must beg a little longer time, I haveing a Chargeable time Comeing on and God knows how our Crop may turn out. If I had more Servants I did intend to settle Another plantation this Year, and Mr [Noble] Jones would be so good as to run our Other lands out, wee haveing no more then One hundred & twenty five Acres apiece as yet, and to Clear Any more of it for planting wod be so much labour lost, it being intierly pine, as wee may want timber that may be of Service by and by. I Chiefly bend my Mind to planting & Cultivating of lands & had I more Asistance should be A very great proficient that waies [way], I cant Afford to run upon Any projects as Yet, haveing so few hands if I was, I should not get bread for my family, and planting must be the first thing that is taken Care on.
I have given Your honour as good an Account of my Affairs as I posible Can and Exactly as they Stand, hopeing Every body will do the Same. I had like to have forgot to Acquaint you, when wee had finish’d our fort and mounted our great guns wch are in Number Eight, the Indians who Are often with us, Ask’t what wee made such strong defence for. Wee told them in Case the Spaniards should interupt us. They Answered if wee was Afraid of that, they would at Any time go, and fetch all the Spanish Indians Sculps to us. We thankt them and said no, if they did us no hurt wee shod do no harm to them. They was Very well Sattisfied and wanted much to deal with them for Skins, but wee refer’d it and would not meddle with the trade, Excepting your honour is so good as to give your Consent. I would do Nothing Contrary to your Inclinations to gain the riches of the Indies, so much I value your honours favour and Esteem. And A line from your honours hand would be the greatest present I cou’d receive upon Earth. My Spouse Joyns with Self her duty to you hopeing god will Contiue your health, and prolong your daies, for the good of his people, is the Sincere desier.
P. S. Wee have taken up provisions upon Credit from Mr Causton, till an Answer Comes from your honour, to know whether you with the rest of the honourable the trustees, will Allow us a Second Years provisions. Hopeing it wont be refused as it hath been allowed to all the out Settlements Except ours, and shod Thundrbolt be Exempted from Any benefitts that other Out Settlemts receives, I believe it wod be the breaking of hearts.
Likewise hope your honour will give me your interest in haveing the same privilidge granted to me, as my Neighbours has Already received, which is in Case of Mortallity I shod die without Heirs, as in all likelyhood I shall not, that I or my Spouse may by will Nominate Any One person to be our Successor to the lands granted to me, and in case wee shod have a female Child it may desend to her. I being One of the first grantees hope it will not be denied & as it hath been granted to Others of a later date.
Patrick Mackay to the Trustees, March 23, 1734/5, Coweta, C.O. 5/636, pp. 245-247, Egmont 14200, pp. 487-490, giving his views on Indian relations, the French, and the Spanish.
My last was dated the November last from ye Uchie Town on Savannah river whereof I now Send a Copie.
This accompanies a Journall of my procedure and actions since I left Savannah untill this day that I am preparing to proceed for ye upper Creek Nation. I have nothing to Say in addition to ye Journall, but what follows. Tho I have been but a little time here I remark’d that the Chief men of the Indians behave wt greater civilety and seem to respect us, yea all the traders more wt in this 20 days than they did before, and I impute it altogether to ye description these Indians Mr Oglethorp carryed over, gave on their return here to them of ye grandeur and power of ye British Nation. Its incredible how much they are overawd by yt Silly place in possession of ye French call’d fort Tholouse and by St Marks which lyes about a Short days Journey from the entry of ye Chatauchie River, but ye Spaniards give it ye name of Apalachicola River. By all ye Intelligence I could get St Marks has but 20 men in it, and there is only 30 in fort Tholouse call’d by ye Indians Albama. So I inferr from this Sudent change and their being So much overaw’d by these little forts, that the Indians are govern’d more by ye principles of fear as love. I find they are a Sullen morose people of few words, very ambiguous in answering questiones, mighty deceitfull and Covetouse, nor are they naturally so brave as some Say, as their manner of feighting declaires. Its true they are So intoxicated wt the principle of revenge, yt they delight in going constantly to warr against those yt Injure them, or rather they hunt their enmeies as they doe any other prey, wt this difference only that when by Surprise a gang of 20 or 30 kills one of their enemies, they run day and night, tho they know of noe enemie nigh them, till they think they are out of danger, or reach of ye Enemie, and yt is never under a 100 or 200 miles. They are a Self conceited people, and very apt to think Europeans are affraid of them. They have a Notione yt if they doe any mischief or harm to a white man, the name they give to any European; Its ye only means to obtain a present. They have noe manner of Notione of gratitude, in a word I can’t observe they are govern’d by any virtuouse principle.
Having considere’d ye Indians in this light, I thought proper to have Spoke to them in ye manner I did, and I now find I have not been deceiv’d in my Opinion, for if I was to demand all their territories, they have not a Countenance to deny me, tho I believe any thing they yeild is against their Inclinationes. Its my Opinione yt 500 men wt what Indians could be rais’d in this Natione (if Brittain was engag’d in a war wt France and Spain) would put Brittain in possession of all Florida, and to the Missisippi River. And that these 500 men garrisoned in Augustine, and Movile, and in one out fort or two on ye heads of ye Movile & Cowsa Rivers among ye Chactaw Indians, I say its my opinione, it would not only gain but preserve all ye Indians Inhabiting that part of this Continent to the Brittish Interest, but be an effectuall Securety to ye Southern Settlements of ye Brittish Empire on ye American Main against these potent powers. And I must think yt if Brittain overlooks these Settlements, particularly yt of ye French, it may in time prove of dangerouse Consequence to Carolina And Georgia. By ye advices I had last month from Carolina I understood yt Brittain must inevitably be engag’d in a war wt France & Spain this Spring, as that would be a favourable Occation, and yt I know not but ye Goverment might think proper to lay hold of it. I dont think it impertinent to Informe you, in case ye Notion of want provisiones should prove a difficulty yt this Natione could Spare 4 or 5 months provisiones for 500 men wt out incomoding themselves in ye least, by buying up ye corn airly [early ?] from the Indians who likewise have plenty of hogs, and I believe 100 Cows & Steers could be bought up among them; besides a few Carolina Catle. Hunters could very soon kill what catle they pleasd in the Apalachie fields where there are thousands to be had, Salt the beef there and transport it to the Chatauchie River which is Scarcely 20 miles from these Fields. But this I mention only to Show there is no danger of want of provisions in this Natione for 500 men for ye time I mentioned. If Such a thing should ever be attempted, I would advise to embark the men So as they might be in ye month of September or October in ye River Alatamaha which is but 8th days easie march from this Nation. These Months are reckon’d the healthiest for Europeans to come into this Climate, because ye violents heats being over, they may be Season’d a little before they return. And moreover I take this part of ye Countrey as it is hilly and lyes high, to be much healthier then ye Sea Coast, which Commonly lyes low & marshy. Even Strangers are Seldom or ever troubled wt fevers & agues in this place, and I’me inform’d by ye Traders yt if they should (as sometimes they are) be catched by ye fever and ague in ye Settlements, it rarely continues a month by them in this Natione.
Ane Other motive yt Should invite Brittain to be at a little expence is the enlargeing ye Consumpt of her manufactures, which Such one addition, as ye Florida & Chactaw Indians, would creat. And ye Chactaws have allready essayed and doe Still Show a forwardness for entering into a treaty of friend Ship and Commerce wt us, which has allarm’d the French at Movile mightyly. The Chactaws (I am told by the Dog King who was the person Thomas Jones imployed to carry some of them down to Georgia, When they were quarreld after return’d home, by ye Governour of Movile for going there) Said, we have Since wee made peace with the Creeks had favourable reports of ye English, and wee see’d the Creeks who are in friend Ship wt them Supplyed with all manner of necessars for themselves, women & Children wch wee want. Wee have now been long in friend Ship with You, and yet wee enjoy no Such benefites. If you Supply us with all these things they doe ye Creeks, wee will not goe to the English, and if you doe not, are not wee a free people, mayn’t wee goe to whome wee please. Upon this large presents were made them, and farr larger promises, yt they would nixt Year be Supplyed wt all Such things as the Creeks had from the English; however they reinforc’d the two Chactaw garrisones and keep the body of ye Nation at home by promise and threats, excepting a few on ye frontiers, who come to trade wt Thomas Jones. And now ye French talk of building a new fort on ye frontiers to prevent any Communication twixt us and them. I Could not only prevent this new fort being built, but I could soon be master of fort Tholouse which would Open a Communication wt ye Chactaws. But as I know not how Such a thing would be taken at Court, before actuall warr is declared, I choose [to] waite further orders, or yt I finde ye French begin to act offenceively, which in ye mean time (if I waite to receive it) gives them ye advantage of giveing ye first blow. And if I waite till ye french discovered a disposition to disturb us in this Nation, I don’t know what could be done wt 24 men but to fly before them in ye woods. For as the French have the Remaines of a party among ye Creeks, if we were Seen to fly once, our friends would be discouraged to declair for us, and would be overaw’d by them, their Creek friends & ye Chactaws, & if wee pretended to Stand, we would be but cut to peices, before we could have releif from Georgia or Carolina. Indeed had I an 100 men here it would give ye Indians a Countenance to Join us, and we could keep ye enemie in play till we were Reinforced. The Doctor174 is a very acceptable person among ye Indians I find, he allready has cured Severalls of lame distempers, as its call’d here, and of Severall other Illnesses. The Young man behaves exceeding weel, and I believe knows his business as much as any in these parts of ye world. Yea I gott him to Condeshend to cure our horses of wounds bruises &c, by which Severalls have been Saved.
I send herein a catalogue of medicines for the Company which can be Supplyed from thence cheaper as from Carolina, and if you approve of his Serving the Indians ye quantities must be enlarged.
I am to have an interview wt Cheekeleigie at Palachocola how soon I have dispatch’d this express, who goes for Information from Savannah. If conform to my last advices Brittain has declair’d warr against France & Spain, that I may act accordingly here.
I shall write my nixt how Soon I have had a publick Conference with the Chief men of the Upper Creek Natione.
I shou’d not have been so long in your debt, either for the money or a letter, had I had the one in my power, or been at home for the other. All I can say is that I make no doubt but the Trustees will have the £ 50 given by our Corporation; tho’ I fear, from the situation of things, with the latest. For the truth of the case is this. The money was first order’d in Mr Brenton’s Mayoralty, and had the Council been pleased to have put it into my hands (as I desired of their Treasurer and several times) undoubtedly you had had it with the rest of the Collection. But instead of this, after staying for it a full year, they voted the money (as I before inform’d you) the year following payable to our Representatives. These Gentlemen therefore must be lookt upon for it. You say they have been spoke to, and require a fresh order of Council. How necessary this may be I cannot tell. But if the money that was put into their hands was all appropriated and disposed of another way, upon proper notice I will use my poor endeavors to obtain a fresh order and actual payment of it to them, because I think the honour of the Corporation concerned, not to suffer their Charity to remain so long undischarged.
But now I am apologizing for ourselves, give me leave, Sir, to desire some time may be set for our poor people to receive the benefit of the money already paid in. I beg pardon; but I am really pressed to make this request, because I think both my own Honour, and indeed Charity itself concern’d in it. It is now a great while that we have been promised a Regard shou’d be had to our own Adventureres. And I cannot but say they expect it, and if nothing come of it soon, their disappointment may bring all our Applications of this kind into disgrace. I humbly beg therefore that their Honours, the Trustees, will be pleased to fix some time for four or five of our people, that may be minded to go, to prepare themselves for Georgia, and cannot doubt but they will grant this request.
I have no more to trouble You with, than to desire that Mrs Sudali’s name may be inserted in your books 1/2 guin. in lieu of the 14s. 6d I advanced to make up the Preston-Sum.
Thomas Causton to James Oglethorpe, March 24, 1734/5, Savannah, received June 18, 1735, C.O. 5/636, pp. 251-252, Egmont 14200, pp. 491-495, concerning Peter Gordon, Joseph Watson, law enforcement, indentured servants, sale of rum, the Red String Plot, and other problems.
In my Letter to the Trustees of January 16th Your Honour will observe, That I declare (till then) I had maintained the Publick peace with some ease. And indeed the People’s behaviour in generall, has been very Comendable; But when Mr [Peter] Gordon unhappily, took part with [Joseph] Watson, and discovered to the People, that he had different Sentiments from me, They soon Concluded, That as he was First Bayliff, it was in his Power to Order every thing. And every one, that had Beef, when they wanted Pork, was Countenanced by him with a great deal of Compassion and Complaisance.
When I told him of Watson’s case and how gently, I had used him, he told me, That he thought it was not very gentle usage to Imprison a Man for the Sake of an Indian. And tho’ self preservation, Humanity, and all the reasonable Obligations in Nature confirm your Honours Orders with Regard to the Indians; Yet I am told by Mr [Samuel] Quinsey and some few others, That tho’ (in such things) I may Act according to my Instructions, I ought to Gratifye the People, and think that you are not Infallible. This Gentleman has often changed his mind in this Affair; One day he came to me and told me, That Watson was a Very Villain and a Madman; So that I askt him wherein he thought you had Erred. He told me, That most people were of the Opinion, we should one day Repent our Civilitys to the Indians, But tho’ as to that matter, he would not pretend to direct, Yet he thought, it would be more prudent to send Watson away. I told him I had power to Imprison him, But none to Discharge him. And that I had much rather bear the Reflections here which I might at a proper time Correct, Than give him an Oppertunity to Spread his Malitious poison where I should never have it in my power to Apply a Remedy. He urged it as an Extraordinary case, wherein I might and ought to Deviate from your Sentiments or my Orders.
Mr [John] Coats is a great Sollicitour, and an Assertor of Watson’s Grievances for which he has had many Reprimands. De Peiba the jew, will be nibling but is as yett Sly enough to Avoid a Punishment. [William] Watkins the Surgeon is his Secretary. Robert Parker Senior and Robert Parker Junior, [John] Wright, and King Clark are Councellours, in their Turns and they all think themselves Eminent Polititians and Scorne to be advised or Submit to Rule. The two Parkers absolutely Refuse to serve on Jurys or appear in Arms Saying they are Gentlemen and it is beneath them to Serve in an Inferiour Court. And the Old Gentleman with an Air of Complaisance That he should be unwilling to Act Contrary to the Rules of any place, But his friends in England would blame him. As to the Old Gentleman this talk was some time Since. I told him I would fine him & he imediately declared he would quitt his Town Lott which prevented his being troubled any more on that head. And upon this Occasion it was, That Tommy Jones being Resolved to Claim his Right to the same Town Lott, The Court gave way to the Prosecution which Your Honour will see by the Court Proceedings.
As to the Young Gentleman, he has been brought As prisoner to his Arms by his Officer very frequently and has been twice fined and Levied on for non Attendance on jurys.
I am sometimes informed of their Transactions, and I knew of the Scheme to make Musgrove uneasy, more than a Week before Musgrove discovered it, and was in a fair way to have made a more usefull Discovery.
I fear Watson will have reason to find his pretended friends a Real Burthen.
Your Honour will easily beleive, that when I comitted him to Gaol ‘twas intended not only to preserve him from the Indian Resentments, But also from Dangerous Company. But the Military Gentlemen are too apt to think, that the Orders of the Magistrates are to be executed as they think fitt. And untill some of your Advise come, it is very Difficult for the Magistrates to help it.
The Court having in the best manner they could Required the Grand jury to Present among other things, Tipling Houses without Lycence they presented [Paul] Cheeswright, on a Suspition of Carrying on Such practices, and tho’ this was their own Presentment the Officers neglect their Searches.
I was one night going to Musgrove’s to Remove some people who I knew was there after the Guard pretended to have been, about 12 of the Clock at night, and coming home, I heard a noise at Cheeswrights. I went to [John] Coats who was then on Duty [as constable] to tell him to Enquire the meaning of it; He brot me word, That five or Six men were drinking and were going. But I found that he had told Cheeswright I had been Listening under the Window and had sent him. So that the next day Mrs Cheeswright came to my house to Insult me.
Mary Simeon, who came with Mrs [Magdalene] Papott and was bound by Yor Honours Orders to Arthur Ogle Edgcomb, has been transferr’d without Leave, for money to James Muir; I reprimanded Edgcombe for pretending to Sell what he did not buy, And that if any thing happened amiss to the Girl I would place her out, And then Muir would expect his money again.
Muir in a Short time dislik’t the Girl and Sold her again to [James] Willson. Upon which, I ordered, That Willson should recover his money of Muir and the Girl should be put to some Housewifely Mistress; I desired the Trustees of Orphans to look out for a Mistress, But Wilson found means to hire her to Cheeswright as a Servant and so was to be Repaid his money.
I had reced frequent Accounts of ill Practices, and of the Girls misusage but not willing to Creditt every Storey had recomended it to the Guard without any Success.
One Night going myself into an Open Hut of Cheeswrights in Search of a Fellow who had been ill behaved and could not be taken; I found the Fellow, this Girl and three other men on Severall beds in one Room.
I examined Cheeswright the next day about this matter taking Mr Christie and Coats with me to Cheeswright’s house, when twas with much Difficulty, that I got Coats to take the Girl and Convey her to the Trustees of the Orphans. However, the Girl is Removed and is at Service with Mr [John] Fallowfield who is now a Married man.
The Orders against Retailing Liquors, landing of Rum, Forestalling and unlawfull Assembling of Servants are wholly neglected, and unless the Magistrates are both Witnesses and judges, nothing is done; Twas by an absolute Charge upon the Consciences of the Grand jury, That I got [John] Pinrose and [Mary] Hodges to be convicted of Retailing Liquor without Lycence; This I pursued (after a first Conviction and fines Levied,) to a Second, when Mrs Hodges Submitted to Order in a very handsom manner. But altho’ I have reason to beleive many carry on that Trade, I have no presentments of that kind or proofs to Convict them.
I once Seized a pipe of Rum myself, at Hodges’s which had been landed at the Crane at Noon day. Another Time Dennis Fowler one of the Trustees Servants (plact under Vanderplank) was accused before me of lying with Carwall’s [James Carwell] Wench in his Masters yard before a Great Boy in the time of Divine Service. I Ordered him to be Whipt, And (the Officer) declared that the Honestest Fellow in the province was going to be whipt.
If any person is comitted to Gaol, they lett them out, and if they apprehend any one either by Night or Day, they discharge them at pleasure, without Consulting or Reporting it to the Magistrates.
As Capt [George] Dunbarr will be able to give your Honour a particular Account of things of this nature, I shall hope for your Advice or presence here. And beg leave to Assure you, that tho’ this idle way of Behaviour is Sufficient to Vex me, I have allways maintained the Authority of a Magistrate without the Breach of private friendship.
I could say a great Deal on this head, but as I have perswaded the Constables to Exercise a Ward every Sunday after Evening Service I hope my next will give a better Acct.
The Red String Conspiracy, which I mentioned to the Trustees proves to have risen at the Widow [Elizabeth] Bowlings house, where Mugridge Tibbitt and some others (too much in Debt) had distinguisht themselves by a Red String on their Wrist, as a Signall of a Drunken Resolution to Desert the Colony, upon pretence, that they have no Title to shew for their Lands.
I judged it better, not to take any Direct notice of that, and to tell the people (as occasion offered) That any one might have an extract of their Title at any time; And I beleive, by the Prosecution against [John] Cox, [Edward] Cruse and [Piercy] Hill, and letting the people know, the danger of Conspiracys they are pretty well Convinct that they have escaped a Scowering.
I shall take Care to have an Eye upon these Sort of Gentlemen and not fail to charge them (who have made no Improvements) with what the Trustees have expended on them, when ever they shall attempt to Desert their fellow Adventurers.
With Respect to the Reflections, which some people here have so little Reason, and so foolish as to publish by writing and Speaking I have not Spared to Read them some Paragraphs in Woods Institute,175 whereby they may see the Punishments they are Liable to Libells and false Tales. And indeed, it will not be proper (allways) to pass it by.
As I would not be willing to lengthen any one Letter, longer than I am Sure of making a fair Transcript in proper time I beg leave to Referr your Honour to my next for further Accts which is now my nightly Employ Be pleased to give your favourable Correction to any thing herein amiss. As not intended to Reflect on any one But is particularly addresst to you, (who having been an Eye witness, to many of our failings) in hopes that by your Advice and Interposition Affairs may pass on something Smoother.
Isaac Chardon to the Trustees, March 25, 1735, Charles Town, C.O. 5/636, pp. 294-295, enclosing accounts due by the Trustees.
Before this comes to hand you doubtless will receive mine of the 11th & 20th Febry last Cap Watham & Capt Lance, or the Duplicates thereof. Since that time I have paid Several Sums of money for the use and Service of your Colony, which will Evidently appear by the Accounts here inclosed the Ballance in my favour is £ 555. 6 - Sterling, for which Sum I have of this Days date drawn upon you payable unto Messrs Peter & J. C. Simond or Order, a Sett of Bills of Exchange and I begg that you will be pleased to give them due Honour.
Last Sunday being ye 23d Inst came to an Anchor off our Barr Capt Thompson with the Swissers, and the next day proceeded for the Town of Savannah in Georgia but have not yet had any Advice of his Arrival there.
Patrick Mackay to [Thomas Causton], March 27, 1735, Coweta, C.O. 5/636, pp. 298-299, Egmont 14200, pp. 499-501, concerning Indian relations.
I had yours of the 10th January nigh a month ago adviseing me of the arrivall of the Indians from Brittain, and that the Trustees had sent presents for the Chief men of the Creeks.
I have had all the Chief men of the Lower Creeks assembled in this town last week to hear the talk I had to deliver them from Mr Oglehtorpe. I took Occasion to tell them then that the King of Brittain, and his greatly beloved men had sent presents afresh to them by Tomichichi as a further Indication of their Esteem & friendship for them, that when I had delivered the talk to the upper Creeks, I would return from them prepared to accompany them to deliver them the new talk and presents that were waiting there.
I found the Indian sent here by Tomochichi inclined to have their own private friends Carried down, and not the Leading men, for which reason I forbid him to Invite any without my knowledge. As the Trustees are at so great Charges to gain the friendship of the Indians, Its Just to think the presents should be bestowed on the most deserveing and of most Interest and Power among them here. As I dont doubt but you will be of opinion with me in this, I hope you’l Cause take Care that none of these presents be Lavished away by Tomichichi who I hear has them in his Custody, but take them under your own Charge till the Chief man go down. Your senceable that if there is no presents for these Indians I carry down at your desire it will put the Trust to a Needless Expence.
The young prince [probably Essabo] you mentioned in your letter and who was a Son of the late Emperor Brem dyed at Silver Bluff on Savanah River about a month ago. The other Twin brother [probably Malatchi] is but a Worthless drunken fellow and Intirely in the French Interest. You’l use this Express with Civility because he is to Continue in this Station by Direction of Mr Oglethorpe, for should he be Mall treated I shall have Difficulty to find any other so proper to Carry on a Correspondence in Case of Danger. By all the Intelligence I have here of Late the Spaniards talk of Settling and building a fort at the Appalatche old Fields. I have Imployed proper hands to prevent this, and as its possible some of the Spaniards may Suffer, they will be Apt to resent it on your Colony. Therefore its my Opinion you put the out Settlements on their Guard and Tomichichi of it that he may order some of his Indians to Scout about the Altamaha, and likewise order Capt. Ferguson to keep a Sharp look out that he may not be surprised. I here the French have Reinforced Albama fort and talk of building a new fort to Cut of the Choctaws from any Communication with us. This I’ll endeavour to prevent if possible and would Effectually if I understood Brittain had declared Warr. Therefore you’l advise me by this Express of the last accounts you had from Brittain relative to pease or Warr, and if you should understand warr is Declared after this Express leaves Savannah, you should advise me thereof by Express. For should I know it sooner then the french I may have it in my Power to Surprise their Fort, but if they have earlier accounts of it, they will Fortify themselves in that place, and be Reinforced with Such numbers of men as that it will be a Difficulty to Gett them removed by which means as they have already a party among the Indians. They will So Over Aw the whole of the Nation that wee may be in Danger of Loosseing our Interest in them. Therefore I think as early advice may prevent this, it deserves the Expence of any Express. You Can easily be Supplyed by Capt. [James] Mackpherson in any if Requisite.
P. S. Please Send by my Express 4 pair hand Cuffs with Small Padlocks. I find a great many Saucey Villians in this Country that dont incline to Submitt to any Government, and their is an absolute Necessity to make Examples of some for the Terror of others. I shall Expect this Express shall return before I leave therefore, let me know how many of the Cheif men of the Indians you’l have me Carry down. Let the Express Have Indian Corn for his horse.
Please forward the pacquet Directed for the Honorable the Trustees, and as its possible my Express may Loose his horse, by being at so great a Distance from him it would do well that you would order Mr [John] Musgrove or Some other to pylott [pilot] him to town. It will be a Disapointment if after you have Dispatch’d him he should loose many days in Search of his horse.
My Lords & Gentlemen—
I take the Freedom (wth humble Submission) to Offer you my Services in writing you weekly a Journal of the Occurrences here (and if need be also a Duplicate) & 2d Copy in Case of a Warr.
My Circumstances have since my arrival here, been very Low, and tho I begin to have a great deal business in writing Leases & stating Accots &c. I have put half of the Profit according to an Agreement I have made with the Recorder in whose Office I write & with whom I agree much better than wth Mr Causton from whom I desire no other Business than What I have at present to do for him, which is a Duplicate of the Register of the Freeholders Names & their Famillys which I shall have done in about a Forthnight.
As for the Consideration that I might Expect for writing the above Journal I Leave it to your Consideration. I only Just hint That Sending My Family to me & two Carpentrs, Sawyers or Bricklayer Gardners Smiths, or Glazier Servants would be very Acceptable & an Agreable kindness to me.
My Family must Certainly be in the most deplorable Condition. I beg that you would please to Assist them with Nesessaries for their coming over which I will readily pay here. I have the Largest Garden near this Town or in this Province, Sowed & planted with Garden Roots & Greens greatly wanted here which no other has Attempted to Sell besides my Self. I sowed near 2500 Orange seed some of which now comes up daily. What Little I have got by writing I have laid out for that Improvement in hope it would be an Income to maintain My Family here.
As for Trade Mr Causton hath Ruind my Credit abroad by Inserting Last Summer an Advertisemt in the Carolina Gazette intirely false as to the words of my Intent to Defraud my Creditors, wch he never was yet able to prove. He Seized on my Estate without Law or Reason and to this Day not one farthing Dividend hath yet been made. Tho. I might have made my Creditors intirely Easy much before now & still Continud my Trade had he not run out as he did in Ruining & making me a Beggar at once.
We hope great matters when the Honle Mr Oglethorpe Arrive here & till then we must take everything Patiently & Live Quietly.
[P. S.] No Freeholders here besides my Self have been deprived of Provisions from the store for twelve Months. I have two Servants wch I have much to do to maintain but without them I could not have Improved my Garden. I have had my Twelve Months Provisions for my Self but for them I have not been able to obtain it for more than 4 & 5 Months on a pretence they were Mr [Francis ?] Lynch’s Servants whereas they were mine. His Transactions have been such that tis Notorious how great a Sufferer I am by him & he is gone Lately from this Place to some parts of Carolina with an Intent never to return here again. As to my Servants I were obliged to Purchase them and had Some Credit allowed to me to pay ye money.
I could wish that you would be pleased to send me Some Good & Fresh Garden seeds & some Treatise on Gardning. The cost I would thankfully pay here.
I have planted Flax & Hemp the former appears & the Latter will I believe grow here from the Experience I have had of a small Quantity but have since Sowed a greater. Next week I go on Indian Corn about 10 Acres if my servants are able to go through the whole work. I cannot afford to pay Journeymen, Seldom having a penny in my Pocket, all I get going out again to maintain my Self & Servants &C and am so Saving that I do not Spend Six pence per Month in a Publick house. Mr [Joseph] Fitzwalter your Gardner was this week married to an Indian Woman & soon after took Mr Johnson who was running away from this Province for fear of a Debt of £ 5 stg.
29 March. Mr [Joseph] Cooper dyd this morning suddenly. He was abroad two days agoe, there was no body with him when he Expired.
I want words to Express the Joy of the Freeholders on the News of Mr Oglethorpe being expectd here whom they hope will ease them of many uneasinesse, & crown them wth Some New Fatherly Blessings.
Mr Johnson Dalmass of Skedaway was buried ab. 7 or 8 days since as was Mr [Joseph] Cole one of ye first forty of wch Number remains alive 19 or twenty.
I have hundreds Fine Orange Plants in my Garden from the Seed Sowed there this Last Winter & more daily coming up & vines also, & if it pleases God I hope by the End of next year to have a fine & large Collection of both.
In compliance with my Brother’s176 Desire, I presume to trouble you with this. His Letter, which you was so kind to be the Bearer of, acquaints me, that if He has not two Servants, He’s likely to be a Slave in Georgia as long as He lives; that you offer’d to procure him Some very cheap, He thinks, for 3 guineas a Man, which in my opinion is vastly cheap indeed; that it lies in Mr Digby’s power to have their Passage paid by the Trustees. Now, Sr I shall take it as a great favour, if you will give your Self the trouble of informing me by letter, as to these particulars. If I find that you approve of his having 2 Servants, I shall not Scruple to pay 6 Guineas for them. I think my self oblig’d, in concurrence with my Brother, to acknowledge my Gratitude to you for the kind Usage and Civilities you have shew’d towards him.
[P.S.] If you please to favour me with a Line, Direct to The Revd Mr Millechamp at the Rt Honble the Lord Digby’s at Coles-Hall near Coleshill, Warwickshire On Tuesday in Easter week I, with my Lord, shall set out for Bath and Shall stay there a Month. If you think proper to write to me there Direct to me at the Lord Digby’s at Bath.
If there be any other material Circumstances please to mention them.
I gave you the trouble of a long Epistle from the Uchie town in November last, Since which time I have been imployed till now in the manner my Journall Setts forth.
If in any thing I have behaved myself unworthy of the trust you were pleased to repose in me, nothing could give me greater pain, or more Satisfactione than to tell me wherein, that by quickly rectifyeing my mistakes or neglect, I might demonstrate how cheerfully I would have done anything to merite the Honourable Trustees approbatione of a persone called a poor friend of Mr Oglethorps (the comone appelatione given me in derision in Carolina) and which I hope you’ll give me the liberty to value myself allways upon, while I don’t act anything unworthy of my Patron.
Since I wrote my letter to the Honourabel Trustees I had an interview with Cherekeileigie, first in the Palachocola Squair which Continued from 9 in the forenoon to 2 afternoon, and the remaining part of the evening in Mr Wiggines house. Its impossible to Committ the whole that passd to writeing. I hope you’ll Judge it Sufficient I tell here, that I impeach’d him of treachery & falsehood towards my Master & his Subjects, and that he never observed any promises he had given of good behaviour, on the Contrary betrayed us allways to the Spaniards. I told him the Great King and his greatly beloved man the Esqr [Oglethorpe] bid me tell him, that they would give him this Opportunity once for all of repenting of his former misbehaviours, and an offer of entering into (as the rest of the Creek Natione had done) and ratifying the treaty of friendship & Commerce wt the King my Master. But if he thought to Continue the deceitfull man he hithertoo had been, I would find it out & perhaps pay him a Visite at his house when he least expected it. Cherekeileigie is the Craftiest, most cuning, and the boldest Spoken Indian, I have had as yet occations to Converse with. He told me wt great impudence a great many false Stories, & I as Confidently told him I believed them to be So. What, Says he, doe you discredite what I say, I am a Mico, & Micoes Scorn to Spake lyes. I am not afraid to tell truth. I once of a day was in friendship wt the English, when I gave proofes of my being a man I have fought wt them against the Tuskeroraes. Its true I was Concerned in the Yamasie wars against Carolina, but I was not the Occatione of brakeing the peace at that time; yea I was averse to it, because, I lived as happily as any whiteman in those days in my own house. I wore as good apparel and rode as good a horse as Most of them, but once I was engaged in the wars I did the English all the harm I could, and thereafter tho’ I did not personally disturb them, my men did, but of late years I take your Kings talk wt a Streight heart. I have not been these 10 or 11 years at Augustine, but they Send for me, & presents to me with a talk, I hear what they Say. They desire the liberty to Settle & rebuild a fort at the Appalachies; they and the french (but I believe he mistakes Spainiards of Pensocola for the french) have run out large quantities of land last year, & said they would Settle it this year by the time Watermellones were ripe. I told them (Says he) that I believed the Creek Natione would not give their Consent, & that they’d better let it alone.
You desire (Says he) that I should return to my own town. If I doe not then they’le Settle where I am. Therefore I doe better to Continue at the forks, where I can be a Spy on all the actiones of the Spainiards, which I will Communicate to any beloved man your great King Shall Send here. You forbid us to goe to the Spainiards and french. Why does your own Kings Subjects trade wt them, & think to hinder us who are a free people. Your King allways threatens to demolish Augustine & Conquer the french att Movile, & the Cutt cheek King (meaning the Governour of Augustine) threatens to distroy Charlestown, & the King of Movile Says he’ll destroy both, but I shall never See the day that the one Shall Conquer the other. Amongst many other things I said in return to this, I answer’d to the last part of what he Said particularly, that, if the Spainiards & we were at war, he was mightily mistaken. I desird him to ask of these of his Country who had been in Brittain, if they thought the town they saw could Spair as many men, Ships and great Guns wt ammunitione as would Demolish Augustine fort which had but 400 or 500 men at most in it & 50 or 60 Gunes. I don’t know (Says he) what power or force Your King may have there, but I have seen Severall attempts made in vain by Carolinas upon it; and the Spainiards Say that your King has but a Small Island, in a word I believe that fort is impregnable. A great deal more to this purpose pass’d, needless to Notice here, but he Concluded with a promise of acting friendly towards us, and keeping me allways advised of the actiones of the Spainiards. But its my Opinione, he will endeavour to deceive both parties, as for me I shall allways Consider the man as a rogue and imploy him accordingly. I gave him and Brother 2 blankets & 2 Shirts which I had of Thomas Wiggines, & promised him if he would behave himself wt fidelity as a friend, the great King would take Notice of him.
Some days after I delivered the Talk and presents, Lickho Mico of the Uchesses, a faithfull friend of ours by report, come and told me, that a great many had gone from the lower townes to Augustine. They never will (Says Licko) forbear goeing that way while the path is white, but if it be made bloody they’le allways Stay at home. I want to be revenged on the Spainiards for killing my Brother, out of whose Scull they drink at Augustine. I am resolved to Make that path Bloody; & this will keep our mad young people at home, and if they are not hinderd in this manner they never will be got Stoped from goeing their. I told him he might doe as his heart inclined, for my part I neither would advise or disswade him. I find Licko keept his desighn Secret & is wt 25 men gone to war, but the other Indians Suspect him much where is gone, & Seems much Concern’d for the Consequence, that this will Create enemies below as well as above them. I have advised Mr Caustone of this that he may put the out settlements Capt [James] Macphersone and [William] Ferguson on their guard in case the Spainiards Should think proper to disturb them. I have reasons to believe I could easily get Albamas fort Oversett, if I knew the war was declaired. For that reasone I send this express to Mr Caustone to know the State of Europe by last advices with respect to peace or war, that I may act accordingly here.
Till I have the pleasure to write my next I beg leave to declaire that I am Sincerely with profound Esteem.
P.S. To morrow I goe for the Upper Natione. I forgot hitherto to tell, that if the Company now here is to Subsist or desighn’d to range, as I think they must; Carabines Should be provided for them, for the commone Musketts are too too heavie and unfitt for horses Cariage. If I am to Continue in this Service I beg the favour a Sadie wt Curb bridle breast plate & Crouper [crupper] may be sent me, made very Strong on purpose. These Sadies calld Kings hunters answer best here, with shammie or Course velvet Seat, because leather burnes up very Soon. I had two Sadies broke in the rideing thorow bad Swamps allready, & now I have but a very indifferent Sadie. I beg pardon for this presumptione, & I hope when you Consider I have no acquaintances in London that would Serve me faithfully in this, you’ll easily forgive me. I shall pay the value to Mr Cawston. I beg to know if my bill has been duely honoured for I have had no advices from Brittain ever Since I had wrote them in May last, which makes me Suspect my letters are Miscaryed & for yt reasone, I beg to be excused for Sending this under your Cover.
Cherekeileigei told me St Marcks was a punchion Fourt & had 3 guns, & 30 men, & yt their was no Settlement on this river below him.
James Abercromby to James Oglethorpe, March 29, 1735, Charles Town, received June 18, 1735, C.O. 5/636, pp. 267-268, Egmont 14200, pp. 507-508, concerning South Carolina salaries, North Carolina affairs, and requesting Oglethorpe’s help in England.
Having this Opportunity by Capt [George] Dunbar, I cant let it pass without paying my Compliments, which may have nothing to recommend them but the Distance from whence they come.
The affairs of this Province have had no great Alteration Since Your Departure. Our last Sessions of Assembly ended Yesterday, by a Prorogation (not usual with us) for three Weeks. It was occasioned by the lower house, having thrown out the Tax Bill, upon 2000£ being added to the Estimat for the Cheif Justice’s arrears & Salary by the Council, which addition, the lower house wont admitt of, in no respect whatever. This was put into the Estimat, upon the lower house taking no Notice of a Message Sent them concerning the Judges Salary. This point must be given up, by one Side or tother, before we can have a Tax raisd.
The Affairs in North Carolina are just upon the Point of Confusion Partys pro and Con the Governour already Sprung. The Quitrent Law Bill of a Very Extraordinary Nature as my Letters from thence inform me, thrown out by the Council. In this Bill fourty odd Landings were appointed for his Majestys Receiver General to receive the Quitrents, in Various Commodities, Such as Pitch, Tar, Green Mirtle, Wax, and other Species. What has set them at Variance is the Blank Patents for Lands the Cape Fear first Settlers hold by, or pretend to Do, and Such are Mr More, Mosley, and Swans, who are become now opposers to the Governour, because he Wont Confirm them. In this Bill they made Wacamaw Neck part of their Province, and would now Tax the Inhabitants there, which has Obliged the Governours to Appoint Commissioners on both Sides to Settle the Boundaries. From this Province are appointed Mr [Alexander] Skene and Myself, and recommended by the Assembly Mr [William ?] Waities, who they are from North Carolina I cant yet tell. We Set out next Week for Cape Fear. I am affraid we shall find it hard to bring them into our Way of thinking as it will also be for them to bring us to theirs. If they take it in their Way they Must have all our Indians and Some are of oppinion Savannah town itself. Our Conference Will however produce an Explanation from home of both Instructions.
Before I Conclude I must beg the favour, if upon talking with Mr Horace W—le over Carolina Matters, You would be so good as hint to him the great Disadvantage the Officers lay under here Viz the Cheif Justice, Secretary and Myself by our Salarys not being yet Settled, tho he has promisd it a great while, and has Done it to the Gentlemen of North Carolina, and to none here but Mr St John. This Affair My Lord Cathcart and Mr Drummond have push to him, but have hitherto had only promisses. As You have Done me the Honour to Concern me for the Trustees in this Province Mr Walpole may be the More induced to Consider me in that Service. If an Opportunity should come in Your Way to give us a push in this Affair, we should all of us be Obliged to You, and particularly none More than myself who shall always think myself happy under Your Countenance.
P.S. Our Governour now seems to Mend very fast.
Twenty-four former elders and householders of the Swiss Society177 to the Trustees, March 31, 1735, Savannah, C.O. 5/637, p. 40, concerning their passage to Georgia. Translated from the original German.
Whereas it occurred through the kind foresight of the Trustees of Georgia that we and ours have left London on the ship “Two Brothers, Captain Guiliam [William] Thomson, and as it was expected from us upon our arrival in Savanna, that we state in writing what we remembered of our journey.
Therefore now attest we below named, all of us elders and householders of the Swiss Society, who left London with the said Gu. Thom son, in our own name and in that of all our people, every one included, that Said Capt. Guiliam Thomson and his crew have been alert by day and by night to make the best use of good winds or to prevent damage during stormy weather; further that he was very careful to see that the daily rations which had been ordered for us and of which we had a specification in our hands, were properly given us, and that he did even more than his duty, in that he let every one have as much bread and water as he desired and wanted to take, just as he took best care of our sick and no blame must fall on him if several of our people died on the ship, because several reached the ship so sick that their lives were beyond saving, while others could not get over their sickness on shipboard owing to their old age.
We solemnly confirm this by subscribing our names or making our signs.
Sir Francis Bathurst to the Trustees, March 31, 1735, [Georgia], received June 9, 1735, C.O. 5/636, p. 292, concerning his servants, agriculture, and the Red String Plot.
I humbly crave leave to return yor Honrs my hearty thanks for yr great favours to me in sending of me and my Famiely hither, where we are planted in a Rich and Happy soil. Yesterday Mr [Noble] Jones ye surveyer came and laid out my Lands, wch generally runs very good and pretty free from a Pine Baron. I have ye prospect from my house or Cottage where I and my Famiely Inhabit of a noble Savanna wch goes up to Purisburg. May it please yr Honrs a midst these happynesses, so casuall is dame Fortune, yt I have had ye misfortune to bury 2 of my servants, ye one dyed in a Months time after I landed here wch was 3 Jan. ult. and ye other yesterday. They were both infirm Fellowes as it appears since when I bought them, wch was concealed from me, until nature itself forced it out. I had them of John Taylor a vile Rogue yt lives over against ye Brank in Thread Needle streett. I am resolved nothing shall baulk me in going on. God saying Amen. My humble application to yr Honrs is yt you would be humble please to take ye consideration of my great loss and expence, into your prudent consideration and bestowe 2 Lusty able bodyed men on me, towards repairing my great loss yt I have sustained by their Deaths. I have cleared above 6 Acres of Land and shall plant near 10 Acres. All people are in good health here, and all Very Quiett at present and hope god willing will continue so. There was a strainge comotion in Savanna about 3 Weekes ago, but was happyelly appeased by ye diligence and prudent conduct of Mr Causton &c of ye Magistrates was timely and happyely appeased. They were ye greatest part of them ye Irish transports. I hope Right Honbles I have set my Acquaintance and Neighbours in Glorster a good example, and hope a great many more will follow my Fate.
P.S. My little Son [Robert] and one James Noble my Servant, wth ye Assistance of my Son in Law [Francis] Peirce wch came from England wth us, worke to ye Admiration of all people, Nay ever of mr Jones ye Surveyor and all others that have been here and yt wth abundance of Alacriety and chearfullness.
Edward Massey to James Oglethorpe, March 31, 1735, [no place given], received June 18, 1735, C.O. 5/636, p. 238, concerning his leave of absence.
I fear my Licence of Absence is lost in ye great Storm we have some Accot of; Capt [George] Dunbar will do me ye Pleasure to deliver this with ye repeated Sincere Acknowledgemts of One at present too much in Pain, to write more than in all Conditions of Life he will ever approve himself.
In this Packet we have inclosed an account of ye orphants affects. And must I fear be forsed to take out executions against most that have not paid. We Gain from many People a Great deale of ill will by being pretty urgent to Get ye orphants monys. But as it was your Honours Desire we shiud [should] undertake it, we will do to ye utmost of our Power in Behalf of ye orphants.
Mr Causton tells us we must Pay for ye orphants Clothing out of their affects, We wait for your Honours orders about it.
The Children are Plased as follows:
The Daughter of Henery Clark [Anne] with Mr Hetherinton [Joseph Hetherington]. I Cant speek much in praise of the Place.
Goddard son [John] with mr [Joseph] Fithwater, its to be Doubted will be ruined. We would be glad to have your order to remove him. The Daughter [Elizabeth] with Mr. [James] Carwell & proves an unlucky child. I fear ye ill Conduct of the Master & Mistrise is two much ye Cause. Mr. Causton refused paying ym for ye keeping ye Girl & order we to pay it which we desire to know where we must or no.
The two Sons of Peter Tondees [Charles and Peter] with Mr. [Paul] Amatis. And By his ill Conduct of taking a scandilous wench to himself instead of a wife I very much fear how they will be taken Care of. John Millidge have got him up a hut by ye help of Mr. [Thomas] Young & some of his Neighbours. He desired we woud let his Brother & sisters [Frances, Richard, and Sarah] live with him as we have Consented to, But I fear its two young a family to do well, if they do not we will part ym.
Mrs. Royle Being dead & left two sons, the eldest with Mr. Causton.
The youngest with James Turner who has learnt to be a Taylor & proves an honest man as any in ye Town & Takes a Great deal of Care of the Child.
Mr. [William] Littles Child [William] with Mrs. [Jane Parker] Mercer thay are very kind to ye Child.
Mary Simons yt you Gave to Mr. Egcome [Arthur Edgcomb]. As soon as you went from hence he sold her to James Moore. Moore sold her to [James] Wilson, Wilson sold her to Chesright [Paul Cheeswright], which is a very bad Debauched house, so that amongst them all I fear ye Girl is undoon. Its thought by ye Midwife [Elizabeth Stanley] she is with child. Mr Causton thought as she was a Gift to Egcome he cou’d not Justifye ye selling of her, so Took her away from Cheseright & thinks she comes under our Care, so we have Takeen her & plased her to Mr. Tollaifield [John Fallowfield] wo is Marryed to a Carefull woman. If any in ye Town can Breck her from her ill habbit they will.
[P.S.] I hope your Honour will Be my friend in my request in my last letters by Joulby. I shall be sure to take Care to obey your orders, in what ever you command me.
Thomas Causton to the Trustees, April 2, 1735, Savannah, received July 16, 1735, C.O. 5/636, pp. 269-270, Egmont 14200, pp. 523-528, concerning conditions in Georgia, especially the Salzburgers discontent with their land and Peter Gordon’s actions in Georgia.
May it please Your Honours.
The Store Account of all Goods Reced, Issued and Remaining is now finisht and the Transcripts are making to be laid before Your Honours.
I am now Setling with every One that is Debtor or Creditor with the Store to the 25th of March last, and hope to send their Respective Accounts by Capt [William] Thompson; who loads here.
Your Honours Orders, with Respect to the future Support of the People shall be punctually observed. And as it has ever been my Choice to take advice in all matters, where my Orders are not Express, So I shall be particularly Carefull to advise with Mr [Thomas] Christie and Mr [John] Vanderplank when any Such Occasion offers.
The people being now Cheifly discharged from the Store Provisions I judged it would be agreable to your Honours Intentions to keep Provisions in Store, That the people might be Supplyed either for money or Creditt at the Prime Cost. And accordingly a Barrill of Pork, which costs 10 per Currency is charged 11 per reckoning at the Rate of 10 per Cent for freight, Cranage, Waist and all Charges. Those People who choose Sawing and Labour pay for their goods imediately, And those who go to planting have Creditt till the Harvest be in, or Yor Honours Pleasure be Known.
There are a great many People in good earnest at planting now, and Industry shews itself more every day. To these I deliver also Corn Peas and Potatoes for seed, which they are to Return in Specie, when the Harvest is in. I beleive 500 Acres will be planted before this Month is ended, of wch I will send Particulars. I have been askt what Bounty would be allowed at the Store for Such provisions as the People would furnish the Store with, (being of Growth of Georgia). But having no Orders for this Year, I desire Your Honours Directions what I shall say in that Matter. I thought it my Duty to give the Utmost Encouragemt to Planting, and believe the good Effects will be seen.
I Reced the ten Tons of Strong Beer, which I have disposed off at 50 Sterling per hhd the buyer keeping the Cask.
The People are too Apt to Run in Debt at the Alehouses (tho’ they pay 6d per quart for Beer). The Magistrates have made an Order to prevent such Creditt, And would Regulate the price of Beer & other Liquors if your Honours thought Proper.
The People continue their Healths in a most happy manner, enjoying every thing that can make them happy. And now, every thing seems to move again in Peace, friendship and Industry. ([Joseph] Watson’s party only excepted) who Still maintain their Caballs in full Assurance of Mr [Peter] Gordon’s promisses, which I choose to wink at.
The Saltzburghers, are very Industrious. They have already fenced and planted 100 Acres of Land with Corn, Peas, and Potatoes; They have been much disatisfyed about their Land, and I have had much Difficulty to perswade them to be Easy. Their Prejudice is so Strongly raised, that nothing but Seeing the Produce will Convince them. What they have planted is Chiefly on the Sides of the Rivers where the Oaks grow. And I dont doubt, but they will have good Crops.
The Surveyour [Noble Jones] will soon lay out the 2500 Acres which we have agreed shall be sent (in a Plan) for Your Honours Approbation before the Lotts are disposed off.
Mr [John] Vatt very much desired to have his People Setled on a Red Bluff which is near the Entrance of the River Ebenezer, and gave as a Reason, the Barreness of the Soil where the Town now Stands; The Danger of Starving the People for want of Produce, and the ill Reputation the Country would gain, if the people should write to their friends, that they were Seated in a Barren Soil. This Bluff is about 8 Miles from the Town.
In talking to Mr Vatt and the Minister I have represented to them, the many hardships, the whole Province Suffered from Evil disposed Tongues.
That it was every Ones Duty to the Trustees, to manifest to the World, that they were resolved to be Contented, and depend upon their Orders, and firmly to believe, That if the People did their Endeavours, all Unavoidable Disapointmts would be made Easy.
That I was very Sensible, too many Malitious People endeavoured to raise Uneasinesses among them on many Accounts, and beged they would take care, that the People might not be Ensnared.
That if they would forbear giving too much Creditt, they would find, that the Sume of their Argument is to alter the Trustees Schemes of Setling the Province, vizt. want of Negroes, and Setling every One by himself where he pleases with many other Arguments to that End.
That to give Encouragemt to any Ones Opinion, who have no right to give it, would be of dangerous Consequence, And it would be almost impossible to Support a People to any good Purpose, where prejudice prevailed. I beged and Insisted, that they would give the People the greatest Encouragemt; forbid the Belief of all Tittle Tattle; And assure them, That as God Allmighty had now put them under the Protection of the Trustees, their Industry would allways meet with just Encouragement.
That as to the Land, ‘twas plainly malitious, to call it Barren, when the Valleys were so many and the Runs of water so conveniently intermixt, with such large Tracts of young Canes, making large amends for the little Hills; And in a Small time, would be fine Pasture Meadows to Support a large Stock of Cattle & thereby furnish Manure (by Penning) for the Hills; and make them fruitfull Corn fields; and that this Mixture was so Advantageous for the whole that every freeholder might have a proportionable Share.
Besides the planting above menconed they will plant Rice in the moist ground. The Produce of which, at the Price I now pay for Bread kind will alone Supply them all with Bread Kind for the next Year.
The Abercorn people shew great Industry in planting (except [William] Watkins) who is never there.
Robert Parker Senior, has now left his Mill (being much in Debt) And finding that it is not able to Answer his ends, gives out, that he built it, by Your Honour’s order, And that your Honours must discharge the workmen.
[Walter] Augustine by the Assistance of a Millwright is building a Saw Mill on his own Land; Sir Francis Bathurst, his Lady and Children are in good health and very well pleased with their Scituation; his two eldest Daughters are married and he has buried two of his Servants. By Assistance of [Francis] Peircy his Son in Law he has planted and fenced 8 Acres and built him Convenient Covering.
Musgrove is wholly at the Cow Penn. We are daily in Expectation of Mr [Samuel] Eveleight, when I Suppose All their Matters with [Joseph] Watson will be Settled.
The Indians are at Pipemakers Bluff, and have built a very pretty Town being joyned by the Savannah Indians. They all behave exceedingly well.
According to the Advice of Captain [Patrick] Mckay, a Coppy of which is enclosed, Tomochachi, Umpichi, Hillispelli, Saututche, Tallahumme, Toanahowi, and another Lad are gone to the Southward, and have promised to Return in a Month.
Tomochachi had Sent Saututche to the Nation to Invite the Chiefs of the Towns, to receive Your Honours Presents; And they were to be here the beginning of this Month. Saututche was a little disatisfyed because Captain [Patrick] Mckay had prevented their coming. I wrote Captain Mckay the Enclosed answer, and Sent him the Enclosed List of the Names of Such persons who Tomochachi desired to come, And I suppose they will be here next Month.
The people at Fort Argile are in good health. [Arthur Ogle] Edgcomb is made Lieutenant (by the Captain) [John] Teesdale, [William] Finley and [Thomas ?] Jones are entred into the Scout Service. [William] Calvert and [George B.] Roth are the only people there, who mind planting.
The Scotch Gentlemen on that River are very Industrious & very healthy have built a good Fort [Sterling’s Fort], have planted about 100 Acres of Corn and Peas and very probably will Clear as much more for Turnips at the Season. I have lent them 4 Small Cannon and Small Arms for all their People.
As I am now informed Mr [Peter] Gordon is Sailed for England, with design to give some Unjust Reflections. I beg leave to say, That when he arrived, I reced him, as one I wisht for, I mean a person capable of assisting me, with hopes that he would Save me the Trouble of Acting (on every Occasion,) in the Office of a Magistrate; and I communicated to him, Such parts of Your Honour’s Orders to me as concerned the publick Administration.
I expected, he would have enforct the former Orders, which till then, had been peaceably Submitted to; But to my great Surprize, encouraged Complaints and Raised Discord, As if he came with some great Commission. And there is not one Materiall thing done, but he has endeavoured to Expose it.
As there have been various instances of this his proceedings, It is impossible to Speak of any particular, Unless he would have entered on any One Argument. And I should have given him my Reasons, And have most Dutifully Submitted to Your Honours Orders.
But thus it is, He has made a Voyage to Georgia, Staid here about a Month, Encouraged Complaints against the Administrators of Justice, helped Vilifye, Ridicule, and Oppose all former Management, hearing One Side without the other, and then left us; Without letting us know his Sentiments, (or Staying) whereby to prevent those things which he pretended to Complain of.
I hope Your Honours will not be Offended, if (with great Submission) I say, That this Treatment by Mr Gordon, has given me so great Uneasiness that I had Rather Choose the most Ordinary Servitude Than Execute a Publick Office on Such Terms.
I Rely on Your Honours goodness, Shall patiently expect, and readily Submitt to all Your Honours Orders.
Samuel Eveleigh to James Oglethorpe, April 3, 1735, South Carolina, received June 18, 1735, C.O. 5/636, pp. 275-276, Egmont 14200, pp. 535-537, concerning use of live oak timber by the admiralty and South Carolina political affairs.
I could not possibly gett down but four Pieces of those live Oak Timbers mentioned in my last, which I have put on board the Prince of Wales Capt [George] Dunbar, and consigned them to Messrs Peter Symonds & Compa, as also a barrell of Ashes, which I lately Reed from Mr Welsh Housen Markt 10 and have desired the Said Symonds to deliver it to you. I have by this oppertunity wrote them a Letter, which Suppose they’l communicate to you. It relates chiefly to live Oak. I Should be glad you could prevail with Sr Jacob Akeworth to report in favour of that Timber to the Lords of the Admiralty. Capt Dunbarr dined with me Some days Since. When (after Dinner) wee drank the Health of the Royall family, the Trustees, Yours and Sr Jacob Akeworth’s, He told me that a School fellow of mine at yr House (who is Recorder of Hazell Here) drank my health, and wee drank his also. I Should be glad to know his Name. I am of Opinion, That on the report of Sr Jacob Akeworth to the Lords of the Admiralty on live Oak Timbers, depends the Success thereof in a great Measure, and that if it be given in our favour Mr Symmonds may easily contract with the Admiralty for a quantity to Advantage. I do assure you it’s my Opinion that it will be of great Advantage to England & Georgia and about which I have Spent many Hours in inquireing and thinking thereof. Some Time Since here was a Cap of a Vessell that had been two Voyages from Piscataqua to Marseilles with Ship’s Timbers, Oak Pine &ca and assured me, that he had a good freight and that the Merchant gott money besides; I took from him Minutes of those Things which were necessary, and doubt not but it will turn to a better Accot from Georgia because live Oak Timbers are in great Esteem there, and are certainly much preferrable to any Oak whatsoever. I desire you’l discourse Mr Benja Barry (whose name I have formerly mentioned) his Report of what he knows of his own knowledge, may probably much avail with Sr Jacob. Yesterday I Sent down to Georgia my Young man Wm Buttler, and with him went two white Men, One of them is very well acquainted with live Oak Timbers, and after they have cutt Some Spars Oars &ca Sufficient to load my Schooner back therewith to Jamaica They have orders to cutt Some few live Oak Timbers.
I am almost Impatient of receiving Some Letters from you, in Answer to a great many I have wrote you ever Since the beginning of June last, and if by them I find Incouragement, I’le Send more Strength And cutt Sufficient to load one or Two of Mr Symmond’s Vessells if he desires it. I design the latter End of this Month for Georgia and to carry with me (if I can) Mr Middleton the Pilote, Who was with Capt [James] Gascoigne dureing all his Surveys, and in the first place were forced to Survey the Inlett and ye River of Warsaw [Wassaw], as likewise to See to pitch upon A Commodious place there for cutting of live Oak Timbers.
Our Assembly met here the fourteenth day of January, and drew up A Bill and Sent it to the upper House for Suspending the Indian tradeing Law they past last Session. But the upper house makeing an alteration in the Tax Law, which was in favour of the chief Justice [Robert Wright], The lower House unanimously rejected it. For they would not admit ye Upper House to make any alteration in a money Bill, which may appear Strange, unless you consider, That the King’s Instruction’s to the Govrs Say, That you Shall not admit your Assembly to have any more priviledges than the Parliament of Great Brittain, So that Imply’s they may have as much. I find by Some Letter’s from Mr [William] Jeffries, That the Maligne Party both here and in England are imploying their utmost Venome against the Govr [Robert Johnson]. There are two matters which they make an handle of, which I Suppose was represented home by the Chief Justice. The one is the Affair of Mr Hazle, on which (Mr Jeffries) who has been a very great looser per him Seems to Exclaim. They have infused into his Head that the Govr was the Occasion they could not gett yt money of him, which is very false, for I’me well assured the Govr did not in the least interferr in that Affair. The other is about passing the Law for Assistant Judges, A Law (in my Opinion) as reasonable as any Law in this Province. The chief Justice (as I’me informed) has complained against the Assistant Judges takeing away some of his fees. I have inquired of them all and they Say they never gott one farthing, but gave their Attendance for the good of the Province without any other reward, than A Satisfaction of doeing good to Mankind. They have also represented (as I’me informed) That they are both ignorant and unlearned. And I do assure you that they are Men of good Sense, tolerable Learning and Honesty. And for these reasons I would Sooner Submit my life and Estate to any one of them all, than to the chief Justice. And if [Robert] Humes himself would but tell you, what He told me before he went from hence, He would informe you he was a Man not fitt for Such a post. And I am Satisfied this is the Opinion almost of Every Lawyer in this Place (Except Graham). Another thing is, I find by Mr Jeffries they lay the blame of Capt Gordon’s Death to the Govr, which I think is very unjust. For if the Govern had not taken any Notice of the Judge of the Admiralty’s request, Mr [Benjamin] Whitaker would have Sent home to the Lords of the Admiralty a grievous Complaint against him, and haveing done it, He is Still to blame, and what could the Poor Gentleman do in this Case; It’s here disputed whither the Admiralty’s Jurisdiction did Extend to this Case. If so, Mr Whitaker is most to blame, for he at least Should know ye Extent of his Authority.
John Fenwicke178 to James Oglethorpe, April 3, 1735, Charles Town, received June 18, 1735, C.O. 5/636, pp. 273-274, Egmont 14200, pp. 531-532, concerning defense, Indian affairs, and Fort Toulouse.
I have had ye Honr to receive Your favour’s of ye 28th of Octobr Ulto; wch as it is but very lately since it came to my hands You’l Excuse my not Answering it Sooner. The Zeal wth wch you are pleased to say I have Acted in Your Colony’s behalf, has never come up, to what I have always wish’t it lay in my power to do, Encouraged therein by the good Example of Your Unwearied Endeavours & application for the mutual Advantage of this Province as well as that of Georgia; but more perticularly by representing at home in a just maner ye Scituation and Sircumstance of Our Affair’s here, wch we are bound in Duty, Gatefully to Acknowledge.
My Intrest shal not be wanting in having ye Scout Boate & Ranger’s at Georgia continued; well knowing ye Security & Encouragmt they are of, to those Out Setlemts. There has been some thoughts in ye Assembly of reducing those On this side Savana River to Ease ye great Expence we are at, but the Govermt has concluded they Shal also be continued at least for this Year, Under ye Apprehentions of Warr. We have agreed (tho’ ye Actt not past Yet) to raise in this Tax, ye Sum Stipulated with yt in lieu of Your Setling a Garrison in ye Upper Creeks, tho’ we have no Advice as yet of it’s being done, nor Even of their arival there, altho’ yt affair has been many months in agitation. I could have Wsh’t [Patrick] Mackey had been furnished at ye begining wth an Experienced good officer under him. The french Capt at the Albamah Fort, by his Lettr to Our Governor, is Alarm’d at ye News, & threaten’s hee’l repelí by force any attempts We shal make of Setling a Garrison nigh that of their’s; wch Lettr ye Governr Sent to Mackey before he went from Pallachucla’s. However we are Under no great apprehention of any thing they can do On that head, provided Mackey plays his Cards wel wth ye Creek Indian’s, who have but a mean opinion of the French & their fort, insomuch yt they not long ago Surrounded ye fort in Arm’s, & Oblieg’d them to deliver up one of their Men, yt by some mean’s had killed an Indian Woman wch Man they burnt before their faces. So yt as we have lately had a good Acct yt that fort & Garrison is Capable of making but very little defence, it is to be hoped ye Trustees have it now in their thoughts (in Case of Warr) Imediately to dismantle & reduce ye Same, wch I dare say we shall not be backward in giving our assistance to. You’l no doubt have a more perticular Acct of Mattrs from Your officer’s at Savana, than I am Able to give you; Wherefore I must begg leave to refer yr thereto, as wel as to Several things Mr [Samuel] Eveleigh tels me he has advised you of.
So have only farther to assure you of my readiness to Execute any Commands you think me Capable &c. that I shall always be proud when I have an opportunity to do more.
[P.S.] My Wife desires to joyn with me in her Complements to you. The Governr has been dangerously Ill, but now on ye Mending hand.
Paul Jenys to James Oglethorpe, April 4, 1735, Charles Town, received June 18, 1735, C.O. 5/636, pp. 271-272, Egmont 14200, pp. 539-542, concerning Indian relations and actions of the Carolina assembly.
The repeated Instances you have given (since your arrival in England) of your Attachment to the Interest of this Colony, the assistance which on every Occasion you’ve given our Agent and the unwearied Pains you’ve taken to sett the Affairs of this Province in a True light, merrit the particular thanks of Every one who desires the Prosperity of this Country; and I may Venture to Assure you, that the Present Assembly, will have a great regard to what you recommend.
Captain [Patrick] Mackay has been some time in the Upper Creeks, but in what Town he designs to erect a Fort, or what progress he has made in that undertaking, we have not yet heard. Tis probable that this will create some Jealousy in the French Settlement. The Governour of New Orleans descovers a great concern on account of some Trade, that has been carried on between the Chocktaws and some of our Traders, and complains of some attempts made by the English to withdraw that Nation from the French Interest. He seems to be much Alarumed at the Advice he has received concerning those Indians. I presume His Excellency has Communicated to you the Substance of what Genl Bienville has writ on this Head. The Visit which the Chocktaws paid to your Colony & the Presents, which were there made them, and the Assurances they then gave of Cultivating a Trade and Friendship with your People, will give further umbrage to the French Governour, but we hope be attended with no Injury to your Settlements. A Garrison well Establish’d in the Upper Creeks will (we conceive) be some Awe to the French, & Security to the Traders, and your Colony, and the Sooner this is well Effected the better, as ‘tis like to creat some Jealousy, & we hope Captain Mackay will, with the Utmost Expedition pursue Your Instructions and erect a Fort in some Proper Place. Pursuant to the Engagement which the General Assembly made with you in Behalf of the Honourable Trustees, and which was afterward confirm’d by a Law passed for that Purpose, the General Assembly will in the Tax Act for the Year 1734 raise the Sum of £ 2320 towards defraying part of the Charges of the Garrison to be Settled in the Upper Creeks, and the further Sum of £ 1680 for the Reinforcement of the Rangers now in Georgia, under the Command of Captain [James] Macpherson. Both of these Sums were in the Estimate of the Tax Bill, for the Afforesaid Year, but this Bill on a Third reading was rejected in the Commons House of Assembly the 27th past. As this is an Affair of an unusual nature, I shall give you a Short Account of it, without entering into the Debate or mentioning more than the Reason, why the Bill was rejected. I would observe (tho I believe you took notice of it when here) That all Bills are read Alternately three Several times in each House of Assembly, and not according to the Custom of the Parliament in Great Britain. The Tax Bill had passed The Lower House a Second Reading, and was sent to the Council with the Estimate of the Year Clos’d and on a Second Reading in that House an Addition was by them made of the Sum of £ 2100, and the Bill sent to the Lower House alter’d Agreeable to the Additional Sum. Upon this the Lower House of Assembly rejected the Bill, on a third Reading, and alledg’d for this Procedure, that the Sole right of Taxing the Inhabitants is in their Representatives. Upon this The Governor after giving his Assent to three Acts prorogued the Assembly to the 15th Instant.
Upon The Meeting of the Assembly a Tax Bill will be immediately brought in and Soon dispatch’d, if the Council do not retard it by insisting on their right to alter and amend a Money Bill, which (I find) will not on any Consideration be Submitted to by the House of Representatives. The fatal Consequences of A difference on this Subject, gives me great concern, and the more as it will immediately Affect all of our Garrisons, Scouts & Rangers, who will on this account be kept out of their Pay, and be distressed to the last Degree.
A few days past Captain [William] Ferguson came to Town to discharge himself from the Service of the Publick, but I Believe the Scout Boat & Rangers will be continued another Year in Georgia. I’ve made use of all my Interest with the Members of our House for that Purpose, and hope to Succeed. A Majority will come into it, unless I’m deceived, and the Sooner as I have assured them that the Trustees are like to Obtain some Grant from the Parliament, in order to Settle the Western Frontier; and that then, this Expence will be at an End. The Parliament being now Sitting I’m in Expectation that the Representation of this Province will be recommended by the Ministry to their Consideration, and as Georgia will receive more immediate Advantages from the Success of it. I make no Doubt but you, and all of the Trustees will use your Utmost Efforts to accomplish the Grand Design, which (I may just say) is of your own Forming. Nothing will be more agreeable to me than to hear of Your Success in this Important Affair, which I hope you’l not forget to Advise me of.
I shall not trouble you with any of the News of Georgia, but leave that to Captain [George] Dunbar who is capable of giving you a very full Account. T’is with much Pleasure & Satisfaction, that I can now inform you, that I’ve shipt Your Cannoe by the Prince of Wales; and being Committed to the care & charge of Captn Dunbar, I make no doubt but t’will accidents excepted come safe to Hand. I never met with so many Disappointments, nor so much Difficulty in my life as to convey this Craft to England, and had it not been Mr Oglethorpe’s, the Commander of the Prince of Wales, would not have taken the Charge thereof for any Money. I’ve inclosed to your Address the last Quarterly Accot of the Georgia Duty on Rum; I hope you’l lay it before the Honourable Trustees at their first meeting. We’ve duely paid all of Mr Causton’s Draughts, an Accot of which we shall shortly transmit to the Trustees; they amount to much more than the Duty of Rum, and for the Ballance (we Suppose) Mr Causton will give us a Bill on the Trustees, whose Commands we shall be very proud to execute on every Occasion. If the Trustees have not empower’d any Person to receive what is granted them towards the Charges of Erecting and maintaining the Garrison in the Upper Creeks, we shall be ready (if they please to empower us) to receive it, when rais’d and to pay it as they shall direct. Mr [Gabriel] Manigault is appointed Publick Treasurer in the Room of Colo [Alexander] Parris.
Paul Amatis to the magistrates of Georgia, April 5, 1735, Savannah, C.O. 5/637, p. 51, Egmont 14200, pp. 543-544, concerning his argument with Joseph Fitzwalter over control of the garden. Read in court.179
I am obliged (tho contrary to my Inclination) to read these few Lines with an Intent to Deffend my Character against the wicked Designs of Mr [Joseph] Fitzwalter who certainly has no other View by bringing me into Court than to cover and hide his Mismenagement and great Faults in relation to the Trustees Garden. He might easily have prevented what I have done against him had he done his Duty ever Since Mr Oglehtorpe departure, but it Seems he did not believe that another Superior to him was Appointed by Mr Oglehtorp to overlook his Proceedings and every thing Else relating to the Publick Garden.
I do declare & maintain the Same that my whole View and Intentions has been no other than to do Justice & my Duty to the Trustees according to my Promise to them Long Since.
I have very good reasons for turning out Mr Fitzwalter from the Garden which I will Shortly give the Trustees in person.
I have the Satisfaction to find that I have intirely in the Strictest manner Obeyd & performed the Orders Mr Oglethorp gave me Severall times before Governour Johnson & Severall other persons of Distinction viz The Reverend Mr [Samuel] Quincy, Capt [Patrick] Mackoy, Capt [George] Dunbar & Mr [John] Vanderplank.
I further declare that Mr Fitzwalter has Insulted me in the Garden & acted Contrary to my orders & given away Severall Plants & Trees out of the Publick Garden without the Trustees Leave or mine. I therefore Oppose his having any thing to do there till the Trustees have received My Complaint & there further orders arrivd here which I Expect in a Short time to End this dispute.
I have writ to them twice relating to their Servants being taken away from their Employ in the Garden (in my Absence) and that I Stay in this Town with no other View than to perform my Duty to them and take due care of their Interest which tis Evident I have more at heart than My Rival Mr Fitzwalter.
Richard Cookesey to [?], April 7, 1735, White Ladies near Worcester, C.O. 5/636, p. 184, concerning his son going to Georgia.180
You wear soe good to tell me You would recommend a Son of mine to an honest Person in Georgia to be asisting to him, and to be with at first coming there, till can get into Partnership or have an habitation of his owne. He hath been bread in the Sea Servis, and now after having been on Board severall men of War for 8 Years & spent me near as many hundred Pounds will goe noe more. He is adicted to noe vice as I know off, hath been indolent indeed, or with the intrist I have with Sir Thomas Lyttelton & Mr Winington he might have been in Commission before now. He hath a Brother a Fellow of Merton College in Oxford, but boath being by a former Wife & having severall Children by a second, I cannot at present for the sake of Peace at home, doe for them as I would. Therefore You would be very kinde in asisting this poore unhappy yonge Fellow directing him how to lay out the litle money that at present I could spare him wch is but 50 £ but may send more to him if finde it will answer. He is recommended to You by Sir Jno Roushout & Mr Bromley. I could have got Lord Hardwick and the Master of the Rolls had I asked them, but having soe kind a reception from you my Self & being soe willing to give Yr asistance I only orderd my Son to waite on you himself who tells me hath, and You wear soe good to advise him, for wch I humbly thank You & hope You will further serve me as above.
Since the 24 March last which was the day that I setled your Accompts I have Answered the following drafts of Mr Thomas Causton upon me to pay for provissions that he has purchased for the use of your Colony. vizt
Country Currency. And I have taken ye Liberty to draw upon you of this days date payable into Messrs Peter & J. C. Simond or Order for One hundred pounds Sterling in part which I beg you Will pay and Charge my Accompt therewith.
Thomas Causton to Patrick Mackay, April 10, 1735, Savannah, C.O. 5/636, p. 279, Egmont 14200, pp. 547-549, concerning distribution of Indian presents.
Your favour of the 27th March came Safe and very Welcome to my hands.
I heartily Congratulate you on your good health, & prospect of Success in Affairs of the province.
The presents sent by the Trustees of which I advertized you in my Last, I have orders to Dispose of to the Creek Nation as Tomochaihi shall advice. Nevertheless, I understand it as you do, I mean to such as have the Most Interest, and Since you have the Opportunity to Advice in this Affair, it would Certainly be very proper to Advice Senteche who is the Messenger from Tomichichi, to invite those down here, whom you Discover to have that Interest.
I have taken the Enclosed List from Tomochichis own Mouth, which I thot proper to Send you whereby you will See who he means, and Judge of it in a proper manner.
I have also Enclosed the Quantity and quality of the presents, which are all in my Custody and (pursuant to my orders) will be Delivered to none but the heads of the Creek Nation.
Wee have no account of a Warr (with regard to Brittain at present), But every one Seems to believe it unavoidable. I shall take particular Care to give you Intelligence of what comes to my Knowledge, have given the Necessary Caution to the Out Settlements and have procured some Indians to Cruise towards the Altamahaw.
I send you also the Hand Cuffs as desired, our Collony are all in very Good health.
Names of the Chief Indians to be Invited from the Creek Nation to Receive presents:
William Jefferis to James Oglethorpe, April 12, 1735, Bristol, C.O. 5/636, p. 178, concerning bounties on lumber products and Samuel Eveleigh’s trade.
I thought it my duty to advise you that I have a Ship designed directly from hence for Georgia for acct of my friend Saml Eveleigh so yt if you have any commands, as She may Sail in thre weeks, you wil be pleased to forward ym to me and I shal do ye needfull.
Some persons are asking here to go on ye Trustees Encouragt. Pray Sir is it possible to have their request comply’d wth & what may the Encouragement be?
Both Mr Scrope & Sr A Elton write me this post yt you have agreed in ye Ho [House ?]181 to Revive ye Rice Act wch was very proper to be continued.
Is there like to be any Law pass this Session to give Bounty on Live Oak timber &ca from Georgia and do you apprehend any Claim wch the Carolinians have on Deerskins on board of a Ship wch comes in her from Georgia to Carolina & takes in ye remr [remainder] of her loading there but discharges none of these Skins but are taken in & incerted in ye Plantn [plantation] Certicate to be discharged in Great Britain? I know you are buisie so I trouble you no further.
Sir Francis Bathurst to the Trustees, April 15, 1735, Bathurst Bluff [Georgia], C.O. 5/637, p. 53, Egmont 14200, p. 551, concerning his need for servants.
May it please yr Honrs
This waits on you humbly to beg ye favour of yr Honrs to give me 2 or 3 Servants, for I have lost 2 of mine. One dyed in about a month & odd days after I landed here, of ye Scurveys and a Dropsie. Ye other about 3 Weeks ago of a Dropsie and an ulcer in his Leg. I vastly like ye Country and would be heartiely glad to continue here if possible, I could have Servants. Ye Death of them 2 is a £ 100 lost to me, it now being planting time, and people are hard to be got here. I wish all People were of my mind, and then I am sure ye Colony would soon be peopled. So hopeing yr Honrs will grant me my request, I beg leave in all humility to Subscribe.
P. S. I don’t hear but yt ye Colony is in good health and all very quiet. My Poor little Son does ye work of a man, and is vastly delighted wth ye Country.
Robert Potter to Viscount Percival [Earl of Egmont], April 15, 1735, Savannah, received Aug. 28, 1735, C.O. 5/637, p. 56, concerning his financial reverses and asking for help.
In my letter by Capt Oakly I Inforned youre Lordship of my grivances, I then lay under, & was like to lie under, ocation’d by ye stopping of provisions att ye twelve months end, if not relieved by youre Lordship & ye rest of ye Honorable trustees for establishing this Colluony. In said letter, I appealed to ye Honorable James Oglethorp for a charracter, & to ye revern’d Samuel Quinsy, who then sign’d a certificatt of my behavior & performances on my lott, & now My Lord, I humbly begg ye favour of your Lordship, & of ye Honorable trustees yt your Honours will be pleased to enquire of this worthy bearer John West who has been eye-witness of my behavior, of my improvements, & of my losses, yt I sustain’d in my planting occation’d by my niebours not equally clearing their lotts as I had don. Ye Squerrills destroy’d me, three thousand hills of potatoes, by ye assistance of which I did not doubt, but to build my house. Indeed my house is rais’d, but to my dissadvantage. I chose rather to give a lease of fower years in consideration of building of it, than to suffer a blott or vacancy in ye street it stood in. My losses & disappointmts ware so great yt I could not do otherwise. By said Oakly I wrote to ye Honorable James Oglethorp, to put him in minde of sum perticular oppressions, & grivances yt happened att his departure, & yt onely lies in his power to redress, wch I am in hopes, his Honour will not be backward in. My Lord to avoid being to tedious & troublesum I will adde no more, but waite wth patience, & rely on your Lordships charitable assistance for reliefe.
Thomas Casuton, Henry Parker, and Thomas Christie to Messrs. Brown, Hains & Co., Indian traders, April 16, 1735, Savannah, C.O. 5/636, pp. 281-282, Egmont 14200, p. 555, concerning trouble in the Indian trade.
Being Inform’d by Mr Barker that you are Indian Traders within this Province and are Apprehensive of Some Interuption or Disturbance in the Same. We Shall take the first Opportunity of Acquainting the Trustees of this Matter and in the mean time let you know That the Trustees have here appointed a Court of Record, & Whatever power Except from them Shall presume to give you any Disturbance or Molestation within this Province You may depend upon us of a Legal Protection and that we Shall always be ready to Serve you to the Utmost of our Power.
John West to James Oglethorpe, April 18, 1735, Savannah, received June 18, 1735 C.O. 5/636, p. 283, Egmont 14200, pp. 559-560, concerning his proposed trip to England.
I have mad bould to trobell you with this to harttoley [heartely] thanck you & the Honorbell Trosttees for the gratt [great] faver you was pleas to beestow on me in Letting me Come for England & with a kind ofer of paying my pasegg [passage] to & from England. I shall have ocasion to stay butt a small time in England. I porpouss [propose] Coming with Cpn [William] Tomson. I ham [am] now seattelling my afayors [affairs]. I shall Leave 3 men in my shop to Carey on my besnes [business] while I ham a way. I ham Lick [like] to have abundanc of Leattors to your Honnor & ye Rest of ye Honnorbll Trosttees. Mr [John] Vandarplanck sends his gornell [journal] with me & mr fechwaltor [Joseph Fitzwalter]. I ham macking a Coleckion of foriotteys [curiosities] to breng with me. I beeleve Cpn Tomson will gett his Loding heare & I hope to putt my self 100 barells of riss a bord of har [her]. Thare will be a boutt 400 barells of peck [pitch] & tarr mad heare allsoo on bord ye same & a boutt 20 or 30 hoghegs of skens [skins]. Ye pech & tarr beelongs to mr Leasey [Roger Lacy] ‘ thondorboult & mr Costen & Mr Vandorplanck & ye kens [skins] to mr Euley [Eveleigh]. I hope your Honnor will be soo good as to porteshen [petition] ye Honorbll Trosttee for 500 Eackors of Land. I should be glad of that which was Cpn Skotts [Francis Scott] beetwen ye town & thondor boult. I have rett [wrote] to my father & brother to gett me as maney sarvents as thay Cann again I Com to England which if I Cann imbarck from Bristoll. I ham Vearey sorey for mr [Peter] Gordon that he Deed nott stay Longer with us beefore he went away. Ye pepell are all att preasent Vearey quiott & Vearey industrous. I have & will goo & see what Land Every man have Cleared & what improufments is made on itt in town & Contorey & preng [bring] your Honnor as porteckolor [particular] a Count of itt as posobell I Cann. I beeleve I shall sail in May soo I hope that your Honnor will be Satesfied tell I see you. Ye Pepell in genorell semes to be grattly pleas att my gooing for England butt nott soo well pleased att mr Gordin gooing soo soonne from them & nott to Lett them know of itt. I hope to be abell to gve [give] a trew reeportt of most tranchions [transactions] heare.
Samuel Eveleigh to James Oglethorpe, April 19 and May 1, 1735, South Carolina, received June 18, 1735, C.O. 5/636, pp. 286-287, concerning South Carolina affairs and the fatal illness of Governor Robert Johnson.
Here are four or five Vessells lately arrived from London, and have been So unfortunate as not to have reed one Line from you by any of them, In Answer to Several of mine that must have come to your hands, Some of which were of Consequence.
I am Advised that the People in Georgia are all in good Health, to which Place I design to goe about Ten days hence. And if Mr Middleton is as good as his Word, I design to goe there in the Pilote Boat out at Sea, and to Survey Wassaw Harbour and Inlett and Send you. The Gov. has again Relapsed and was very ill about A fortnight Since, So bad, That he would not be Spoke to, And indeed I do think that He is in A dangerous Condition. Hee’s now Somewhat better, And they are trying Capt Hansen’s Master and People that killed Gordon by Virtue of A Comm[ission] for the Tryall of Pyratts. And of late Cap Hansen and Mr [Benjamin] Whitaker have been very great, and am afraid they’l lay the Blame intirely to the Governr. At least do what Possibly they can. I Pity the Poor Gentn.
I find there have been Several Paragraph’s inserted in the New’s Papers in Relation to Gordons death and neither of them have represented the thing right, And the Blame Seems chiefly to be on the Govr. The Case was this. “Mrs Dean who kept a little publick House (chiefly to Entertain Sailor’s) had money due to her from Some of Capt Gordons Men. She Applys to Mr Whitaker Judge of the Admiralty for a Warrant and gott one, and Sends down the Martial of the Admiralty to bring them up from Rebellion Road, but Gordon would not Suffer them to come on Board, Upon which Mr Whitaker Sent A Letter to the Govr complaining That the Jurysdicton of the Admiralty was obstructed and desired his Assistance, which Letter the Govr Sent to Capt Hansen, who Sent down his Master with Some hands, with A Warrant of Contempt from the Judge of the Admiralty. Who being Opposed, the Master (as I’me informed) Shott Gordon thro one of the Ports. How the Govr can in this Case be blamed I can’t imagine, For if he had refused, Mr Whitaker, undoubtedly would have made A dismal Complaint to ye Lords of ye Admiry.
May ye 1st 1735.
Sr. This comes to Advise you That his Excellency about six day’s Since was taken very ill, and So has continued Ever Since. And the Last Night, ye Docrs and Several Other’s about him, were of Opinion he would not live till the Morneing. Hee’s gott a Violent Flux, which goes from him imperceptable. He has for many Years past been Subject to Melancholly, And it’s generaly believed the vile, malicious and false Accusations that have been laid against him by his Enemy’s have Contributed very much to bring on this Distemper, and which (I believe) will in A Short Time put an End to his Life.182
The Assembly have past a Bill for Appropriateing the Duty’s arising from Negroes for ye Incouragement of Stranger’s that Shall hereafter be imported, and likewise laid A Tax for Sinking the Order’s which would ‘ere now been passt into A Law, had not the Governrs Illness prevented it.
S. Haselfoot183 to the Trustees, April 23, 1735, no place, C.O. 5/636, p. 180, concerning her husband in Georgia and his need of servants.
I hope you will forgive this trouble, but hearing there is a Ship soon to go to Georgia, I beg your Honours will Indulge me in what concerns Mr Haselfoot my Husband. He went to Georgia in April last, on your Honours Grant of 150 acres of Land, & was to carry three Servants wth him, but cou’d get none to go with him. He has wrote to me to send him two servants & to come to him my self, wch I am willing to do as soon as I get ye affairs ended he left me to transact. I understand He has at present a Town Lot of 50 acres, & was building a House thereon. I hope Gentlemen that such Lot it to be accounted only as part of his 150 Acres, & that as he gets Servants to assist him he may have ye Land wch was granted him set out. I am at a loss being a woman how to get him two servants, wch I wou’d send by Capn Yoakley & pay Ten pounds for their passage; & will go to Mr Haselfoot my self ye latter end of ye year; if your Honours wol’d instruct me what I must do to have these servants it wou’d be great favour. My Circumstances are very narrow, & I cannot assist Mr Haselfoot as I wou’d. I am in some concern least he is straighten’d in finding means for his own maintenance; it wou’d be a satisfaction to my mind if your Honours wou’d Credit him at Savannah with some subsistance for himself only, in case he shou’d want it. I am sure he is so honest he will certainly repay when he is able. Your Honours will I hope pardon my freedom.
Samuel Marcer to the Trustees, April 25, 1735, Savannah, received July 6, 1735, C.O. 5/637, pp. 59-62, Egmont 14200, pp. 563-567, concerning sale of liquors and the land not being surveyed.
May it Pleas your Honnours
I have made bould to Write to you Hoping that you will Excuse me, for I am very Sorey that the first Letter that I send to your Honnours should be a Complaint and this is at present to Lett you know the Great Many Grevances that we Lay under.
In the first place Esqr Oglethorp when he was hear was so good as to grant to me a License for Selling of Liquors and Since I am Informed has been Consented to by the whole trust for which I Return the Whole trust a thousand thanks for their goodness and Shall allways Accnowlidge it as a great favour and Shall allways be very willing to Obey any Commands that the trust Shall think proper.
I might Have begun by Selling Liquors When the Esqr Left Georgia but after he was gone Seeing so many people Retaille Liquors that had no Wrighte So to do made me forbear a Longe time and Longe a great deale then what I would have done thinking that those things might be Supresed. And I have often times Spoke to the magistrates of this place and particulare to Mr Causton thinking that they would Supress them but I found all was in Vain and to no manner of purpose. For Instead of Encourigen those Houses that had a wright to Sell Liquors did allways Encourige those that had no Wright and their Reasons for So doing is this.
In the first place the trust have thought proper to Debar us for Selling of Rum or any other Disteld Liquors Which I do asure your Honrs that I never have Sould any nor never will Except I have the Consent of the trust. And because they Can gett punch at these houses that have no Licence they allways Encourege them which think is very hard. For if Ever any Gentlemen Came to See the place, Mr Causton Instead of Encourgen those whome the trust had thought proper to grant Licences to for Selling of Liquors allways went with them to Mr [John] Penrose who have no wright to Sell any Liquors. And these persons having Ready money allways, which Cannot allways be Expected of those that Live in town, has been a very great hardship to us and we have Sufferd very much by it and Shall do more Except your Honrs will be So good as to think of Some Method to Supress those things.
I Did not begin to Sell any Liquor untill Christmas Last Seeing So Little Encouragement for it but was willing then to take a tryal to See what I Could do, but Can finde No Encourigment for Carring on the buiseness at present. Theirfore I have Rather Choosed to forbear Selling of Liquors by the advise of Some friends untill Such times as I might Acquaint yr Honrs of the proceedings that is know Carrid on in this town, for I do belive their is hardley twenty Houses in the town but what doth Sell Rum and all so other Liquors. And those persons whome it is their Buisness to See that your Honnours Commands ought to be Obeyed is the furthest from it. Even So far that Mr [Thomas] Christy our Recorder doth Sell Rum as well as other Liquors by Retail Even by Qrts and not he but Several Others. Their is one Mr James Gould whome Mr Causton Emplys to write in the Stores that Doth Sell Rum and allso other Liquors which Mr Causton is very well Acquainted that he doth, as allso one Mr Houlston [James Houston ?] and one Mr [Edward] Jenkins and Severall which Doth the Same too many to Speake of present. But Mr Gould Selling has been of very bad Consequence to those that had License for those people that was at worke for the publick we must give Credit to them untill Such times as they Could have their money payd and when they have Comed to Recd their money then had they the most part of it to, if not all, to pay to Mr Gould for Rum and to other persons for the Same Liquor. So that it is a very hard for us to gett our money and these persons Selling of Rum Such as Mr Cristy & Mr Gould has made a great many more Sell, more a great Deal then I believe would have done. For the people Says that if Mr Cristy that is the Recorder and Mr Gould that is in the Stores Sell Rum why may not they. And a great many people doth Believe that your Honrs never gave any Such orders as for Rum not to be Sould in this place.
And their Reason for it is because these people doth Sell it, and I do Say that Rum is now Sould as pleanty as any other Liquors and as openly and those people that Sell Rum getts all the Ready Money. For So Long as the people Can gett Rum they never will buy any other Liquor, and when they have gott no money then they will Come to the Publick houses to gett Credit. And we must give Credit or other ways [wise] our Liquors must perish on our hands and then we must suffer very much. For Bear [beer] and wine will nott keep in the Summer time hear their being so much Thunder and Lightning. I hope that Your Honrs will be So good as to take these things into Consideration and not to Lett me Suffer, for I have been at great Charge in Building and making Roome for Lodging and Getting a great many other things on purpose to Carry on the Buissness in a Handsome and Desent way and to Entertain travilers in a handsome manner. So that I hope Yr Honrs will not Lett me Suffer but grant that I may Sell as other people do and not be under the penalty of fifty pound Sterling, or that your Honrs will be pleased to think of Some methods to Supress those that doth Sell Rum and what Ever way your Honrs Shall think most proper. I Shall allways be Ready to Obey your Honnours Commands. Mr Penrose have Continued to Sell Rum and Other Liquors Ever Since the Esqr Left this place without Licence. He hath been fined a Second time for it but doth not minde it Any ways and Continues to do the Same as before and Says that he will So Continue on.
Their is an other thing I Shall Beg Leave to Acquaint your Honrs with and that is about our Lands. When the Esqr Left this place Mr [Noble] Jones our Surveyor promised him that our Lands Should be Run out and that Every man Should now his Land, but we never had any Run out yett nor do not know when we Shall which is very hard upon a great many people. For Several peoples five Acre Lotts Lays So much Covered with watter and in Such Swampy wett ground that it is Impossible for them to be Cleared as yett to be fitt for any person to gett their Bread on. And hear is a great many persons that had they their forty five Acres Run out would have been clearing their Lands and before this time would have had a good deal of Land planted which would have been of great Servis to this Collony. But as things is now a great many people is forced to gett to any Sort of Work in the town to keep them from Starving, which is very great hardships to them and makes them very uneasey.
I am very Sorey that my first Should be a Complaint but I hope that your Honors will Excuse me for I waited a Long time Expecting to See Some Alteration for the Better but found none but Every thing to go worse and worse, which made me that I Could bear no Longer without giving yr Honors an Acct. As for the place, I Like it Exceding well and hope Througs god Almightys Blessing and the great Care that your Honnours hath for this place to See this Colleny in a florishing Condition as any part of America. Which is all at present onley Beging that your Honnours will be so good as to Send me a Line or two of your Advise and what way your Hounners would have me to proced in.
Richard Cookesey to [?], April 25, 1735, White Ladies near Worcester, C.O. 5/636, p. 182, concerning his son going to Georgia.
I gave You the trouble of a letter in behalf of my Son. He tells me that you will recommend him to a Person in Georgia with whom he may be with, till he can get an habitation of his own, If I will repay what may be the charge of his being there. I am very much obliged to You for such an offer, and if You please to give directions to ye Friend to let him be with him, or to get him a convenient place elsewhere I will repay the charge to ye order on Demand if it doath not exceed Twenty Pounds. I humbly beg Sir You will please to give him Yr advise, and You will lay a great obligation on [me].
Lt. Gov. Thomas Broughton to Thomas Causton, April 28, 1735 [Charles Town], C.O. 5/636, p. 284, Egmont 14200, p. 571, announcing the closing of Fort Prince George or Palachocula Garrison.
The General Assembly having Agreed that the Garrison at Fort Prince George comonly called the Palachocula Garrison Shod be Dismist, they being unwilling to make any further Provision for the Same. And as Mr Oglethorpe Did propose when here to place a few Men in the Said Fort in Case the Province Shod thnk fitt to quitt the Same, I now Advise you thereof and have Ordered Captain [Aeneas] Mackintosh who will be the Bearer to Deliver to you or your Order All the Great Guns Small Arms Ammunition Tooles and other things Belonging to that Fort, And also the Canoe, he takeing a Receipt for the Same in Order to be returned for the use of this Governmt.
Simond184 to James Oglethorpe, April 30, 1735, no place, C.O. 5/636, pp. 185-187, concerning the desire of a Swiss gentleman to plant a settlement in America. Translated from the original French.
Here is the copy of a proposition which comes from Switzerland. See if there can be any good derived from it for our new establishment. The idea of forming, at is were, a little independent republic is not practicable, but perhaps the gentleman who proposes it can be induced to content himself with some other thing, and I think it will be necessary to enlighten him upon many things, and then to make him a proposition as favorable as shall be possible and which the constitution of this country will permit. I beg you to cause Mr [James] Vernon to see this, and to confer about it with him, and then to speak of it to the Board of Trustees. It would be very desirable for you to be able to have these people in Georgia.
I am very much obliged to you for the interest which you take in the sickness of poor Suky. She has been in extreme danger. She is better to day, which is the sixth day of the eruption. The seventh, eighth and ninth are the critical days. God grant they be not sad ones to us. This child is very dear to me. Although possessed of sufficient fortitude in the divers events of life, I am feebleness itself when I see her in danger. I have not for the whole week past thought of anything of this affair concerning the Vaudois. I hope that the zeal of those who have this enterprise will not become chilled, and that you will be able so to act as to keep it alive.
I hope that Yoakley will sail at the end of next week; I am having everything prepared for that. He will follow the orders which you shall give him.
A Swiss gentleman of the Reform religion, who is lord of a place in this country, would like, under good conditions and a good contract made in due form, to quit his country with all his people, who can number more than a thousand families, all people of good circumstances, who could not only easily pay their transportation but could carry also considerable wealth into the country. Their purpose is to establish a Swiss colony in South Carolina, for which see the conditions which he would like for his Britannic Majesty to accord to him.
1. He desires a district of three hundred thousand, I say three hundred thousand pauses (or acres as they say in English) of lands to his choice in an inhabited place, and for ten years free of all obligations, but which he will finally pay for as the other subjects of his Majesty.
2. He wishes that his Majesty would accord these lands to him by letters and patents, which would be to him in proper person and to his heirs forever.
3. He will consider his Majesty as rightfully his legitimate and sovereign lord, but by agreement he desires entire liberty of conscience and full power to elect and make themselves their magistrates and name their ministers who shall govern them, for the purpose of being able to form a little republic among them.
This friend hopes that his Brittanic Majesty will grant to him not only the three articles above mentioned, but that he will also do him the grace to accord him every sort of assistance and good encouragement in this enterprise, for which purpose this gentleman offers to send a person expressly into England in order to conclude and treat for that which he will put at once into execution.
The Rev. Samuel Urlsperger185 to [?], May 2, 1735, Augsburg, C.O. 5/636, pp. 329-332, concerning the desire of Mr. Labhart of Switzerland to settle Swiss in America, with enclosures. Translated from the original German.
Honoured and dear Sir.
I hope my last Letter, dated April 28 You have received. I desire to deliver those three pieces to the Honoured Gentlemen Mr Oglethorpe and Mr [James] Vernon, and to acquaint also the Honourable Society of its Contents.
I have lately mentioned to Mr Labhart Merchant in S. Gallen that he might directly send his Project to the Honourable Trustees or to one of them Mr Oglethorpe in the French Tongue but I wrote to him at the same time preliminary.
1 That the Honourable Society with the Trustees had promised to take Care of the Salzburgers that they might always live by themselves, Consequently never mixed with other People.
2 That I hardly could believe the Honourable Society would grant to the 30 Men of S. Gallen what they have done for the Salzburgers and such like because it is quite another Thing with this People.
3 They should not think Ebenezer to be so great a Town as to set up now trading posts for great Merchants.
4 That methinks it would be much more convenient to settle their first Transport of 30 Persons on a particular Place tho’ it might be in the Neighborhood of Ebenezer, because they design’d to send some hundred Persons of S. Gallen afterwards.
5 That if the sending over of the Swissar Colonists should be performed I might assure them that they would not be hinder’d in their Exercise of the Reformed Religion common amonst the Swissars.
6 That I besides had to acquaint them, that as much as I know, only such Manufactures would be allowed to be erected in Georgia which don’t hinder those in Great Britain.
Now You will see what the abovementioned Mr Labhart with his Companions will write to Mr Oglethorpe. I would mention this at this time to the Honourable Trustees a little before, that they had Time enough to consider this Matter.
Mr Commissary Von Reck is sent by me to Regensburg to perform some Business there according to my Order.
To Conclude I commend You to the Divine Grace and Protection giving my humble service to the Honble Society.
An Enquiry and Proposal of the Senior Minister Mr. Urlsperger in behalf of Commissary Von Reck.
My Last Letter directed to the Society takes more particular notice of the Stability of the Resolution, the Carinthians (who are at Ratisbonne) have taken [talked ?] of going to Georgia and that as soon as they shall by the means of England, have their Wives and children (still remaining in Carinthia) return’d to them. And as there is a great Likelihood, that this Summer a fresh Transport will set out for that Colony under the conduct of Mr. Von Reck, because the number of Carinthians alone amounts to 78 Persons. I had a mind to Sound that Gentleman whether he might not be disposed to remain in Georgia for Good, in case the Trustees should think fit to allot him a certain Quantity of Land and to give him a place with a Salary, or only a Pension Sufficient for his Subsistance, untill he could put himself in a way to do without? To which he answered: “That in case he had a call from the Trustees and necessary Provisions was made for his Subsistance, he could gladly resolve for the Sake of his Fellow Creatures to Stay during Life in Georgia to continue in the Service of the Trustees and to employ what little Fortune he has of his own in that Country.” Wherefore I beg the Two Honourable Gentlemen Mr Oglethorpe and Mr Vernon would be pleased to take this affair in Consideration, and if they should think it may be brought to bear, lay it before the Trustees at their meeting, in order for their Speedy Resolution, That the said Mr Von Reck may be able to Govern himself accordingly, and get Such of his Effects in readiness against the departure of a Transport as may be proper to be Carried with him from Germany. For my part should this able, brisk, courageous, disinterested, Serviceable & pious man be employ’d by the Trustees & engaged to continue there, it is my opinion it would be of very great advantage to the Colony. For he is equally Qualified to be of Use in Spiritual and temporal Concerns. His Uncle the publick Minister at Ratisbonne who was lately here & with whom I had some discourse abt this Affair Spoke to this Effect. “I know not which way my Nephew can serve both God and Man better, and if the Trustees should require him, I would gladly resign him for ever on so good an account.
Copy of a Letter of Mr John Henry Labhart Mercht from St Gall dated April 25, 1735 to Senr Urlsperger.
I take the Liberty very Reverend Sr to acquaint you with my humble Thoughts concerning the intended Transportation of some People for Ebenezer in Georgia. A Set of Gentlemen Sent last year 3 of our Citizens upon their Charges to Purisbourg, who were join’d by two others. This was all intirely done pursuant to the invitation, and Promises of Colonel Pury, sent to me. He promised each man should have 50 Acres of good Land given him for ever besides 1 Acre to build upon in the Town for the Habitation of Self & Family together with the necessary Subsistance for one year. The Sending these persons was with a View of becoming able to represent this year to our gracious Governours with good Grounds the possibility, and Facility to find out ways and means of providing in a more plentiful Manner for the poorer Sort of our Inhabitants & at the Same time ease the publick Treasury of very considerable Burthens thence arising. But neither of these 3 Men (contrary to Expectation notwithstanding the repeated charge and Instruction they had given them) having hitherto Sent the least accote. It is to be feared the Success has not answered the prospect, either through their own or Mr Purys Fault. Thus the proposed End remains unanswered and some of those Gentlemen who have disbursed money towards it, are quite dishearten’d, others on the Contrary cheared up by the report of Mr [John] Zubly my Countryman from what he had heard of the highly honoured Commissary Von Reck during his few days Stay at Augsburg, begin to take New Courage. Which induced me to do my Self the Honour to Send to you inclosed my thoughts on that Subject, humbly requesting, you would be pleased after perusal to correct them where it may appear necessary and to favour me with Yor Opinion whether there be Room under Your patronage for me to flatter Myself of bringing about such an Establishment and moreover to give Me some instruction what further Steps you think ought to be taken &c.
The enclosed Thought in the Letter from St Gall.
The Desire of this City as well as others within our Confedracy of erecting a Colony in Carolina, has induced last year Some Gentlemen to Send 3 Burghers to Purysburg, in order to gain by that method a previous certain, and impartial Information of the Condition and nature of that Country the better to be able to lay the Case before our High Majestrates. But having to this very hour not received any such acct we cannot possibly think of any Colony this year, nay People have in a manner lost all inclination towards it.
However Since we are assured by divers accounts that the Establishment of the Saltzburgers at Ebenezer in Georgia has met with Success, and that the Land is better and clearer from Woods, than Carolina, we heartily wish from a peculiar and just Confidence we bear to the Saltzburgers, we might make a Settlement among them at Ebenezer and that in the following manner.
We would pick out about 30 good tempered laborious, and ingenious men fit for Agriculture, planting of Vineyards, Skilled in Handicraft Trades and Sciences, as also understanding the Silk and Linen Manufactures. For these people we should desire a district of Land answering to 50 acres per head the Enjoyment of which they should have the same Conditions with the same prerogatives and priviledges which the Saltzburgers are indow’d with. They desire to continue in the free Exercise of the Reformed Religion as established in Switzerland, in all Civil Affairs they Subject themselves to the same Terms with the Saltzburgers. It is farther judged necessary that these Men should have gratis allow’d themselves in the Town of Ebenezer a certain Spot where they might build a Spacious House with Yard, Gardens and Stabling. They must also be Sure of the Same Quantity of necessaries of life at their arrival, as was given the 5 men who went from hence to Purisburg last year for one whole Year viz.
Provision for a year for 5 Men.
Three hundred pound weight of Beef, 50 of Pork, 20 quarter of Flower, 2 quarter of Salt, one Cow, one Calf, one Hog, an Ax, two Hatchets. It is calculated that to Compleat their Voyage from hence to Carolina they had given them 2000 Florins which Sum was judged Sufficient for their Support during their Journey along the Rhein by land and so afterwards to London and thence to Georgia by Sea, and purchasing of Some Horses Cattle &c.
Of the number of these 30 Men 20 Should be Husbandmen, who should immediately after their arrival in ye month of November Sow 100 Acres with Corn, Rice or other Grains which with the Blessing of God would Yield about 200 Bushels of Indian Corn per Acre or abot 600 wt of Rice to be ripp’d about May. The 20th part of which should be laid up for their Provision of ye year ensuing, this together with the Cattle rear’d the first year is judged to be Sufficient for their Sustenance insomuch that they have an opportunity of Selling the rest of the produce of their Land either northward or any where else where it turns to the best Acct the profit of which they may employ either for building materials or other incumbent Charges. If after such a Tryal—the End of this Current year or ye beginning of the next shou’d furnish us wth the news of the good Success of these people and in the meantime a Convenient Tract of Land has been pointed out proper to establish a Colony in, our Gracious Magistracy will Not be wanting to Send a Colony of some hundred persons taking proper Time for and more mature Deliberation about it as also making necessary Provision and Regulation. In the mean Time assure yourself that for this purpose None but warlike laborious, Peaceable and experienced Men will be employ’d, provided with Pastors and prudent Leaders and what else they shall have occasion for.
Peter Gordon186 to the Trustees, May 7, 1735, London, C.O. 5/637, pp. 9-12, concerning the troubles in Georgia, mainly caused by Thomas Causton.
Finding upon my Arrivall at Savanah the affairs of the Colony in Such A Situation, as required an emediate representation to this Honble Board, by which means alone they can be redress’d, and the evile consequences, which at present threatens the Colony prevented. I thought I could not better express My duty to Yr Honours nor my affection and hearty good Wishes for the Success and prosperity of the Colony, than by returning to England and laying them before You, that thereby the ill consequences that might attend the delayes and uncertainties of letters coming Safe to Yr hands may be prevented.
The grievances the People laboured under and the complaints they made to Me upon my Arrivall were almost generall by those of credite, and reputation in the Colony. The Principle of which was, That many of them notwithstanding their repeated aplications to the Surveyor could not have their Land Run out, nor their lotts Showed to them by which Means they were obliged to live in Town, where their expences bore no Proportion to their circumstances. Provissions of all Sorts being extravagantly dear, Occasioned greatly by the feastings, and Clubs, which were caryed on and encouraged by the Magistrates to Such a degree that at Severall of their meetings they have expended 15 or 16 pounds Sterling which so raised the price of Provissions that I my Self have paid 5. pence and 6. pence pr pound for fresh meat, 10 pence for butter 10 pence for candles 2 pence and 3 pence per pound for bread, and in proportion for every thing else. By this means many of the People not having their lotts appoynted them to retire to, and thereby avoid the extravagant expence of living in Town are almost ruined, and have now no other way left of Supporting themselves but by pawning their wearing apparell for their Subsistance. So that Severall People who brought, in considerable sums to the colony are now reduced to this unhappy condition, besides having their minds entirely weakened and unbent, from the pursuits of labour and industry.
The next grievance complain’d of is the tedious and frequent holding of Courts, by which means at least, one third of the labour of the Colony is lost, to the great prejudice and loss of the laborious and working part of the people. Upon enquiring in to this I found that it hade been the custome upon very trifling occasions to call courts between the Adjournments, which have often held four or five days and during that time, the Tything upon duty consisting of ten men are obliged to attend under Arms, besides all the Tything men of the Ward the Jury Summoned, and the evidences of both Sides; and many idle Spectators who are drawn there out of curiosity and whose labour is likewise lost, and the whole matter in dispute and to be determined by the Court, often not amounting to the Value of twenty Shillings, which practice was so much encouraged that in one adjournment 130 warrants has been granted as Mr Caustin and Mr [Thomas] Cristie have both told Me. This the people were so cencible [sensible] of that they drew up a petition to the Magistrates and which was delivered to Me upon my arrivall, (and which I have with me) praying that all matters under 20 Shilings might be determined without caling of Courts and Jurys, by the interposition and good advice of the Magistrates and thereby prevent the holding of the Courts so frequently to the great loss of the publick, and the hindrance of labour, upon which we agreed to hold A Petite Sessions everey munday to make up all litle differences under 20 Shillings.
They likewise complain that Mr Causton abuses the Authority he is intrusted with in many instances, by which they aprehend that the lives of Severall People has been lost and the administration of Justice greatly reflected upon and that during the holding of Courts, and when upon the Bench has with the grossest names insulted and abused many of the best free holders, and has frequently treated the Jurys in the Same manner. Who after having brought in their Verdict; if not agreable to him, has Sent them out Severall times caling them fools and blockheads and that they did not understand the law. That He has likewise ordered Severall People to the guard for not resting their arms to him upon going to or from the Court, and that upon telling him they would report his conduct to Yr Honours he has answear’d that valued nothing they could doe, being assured that no complaint would be heard against him, which tended very much to the dispiriting of the people and preventing their preceeding with that chearfulness in their Setlements, which they otherwise would have done.
The people who keep the licensed houses Viz. Mrs [Mary] Hodges Mr [Samuel] Mercer and Mr [James] Muer came altogether complaining that notwithstanding Yr Honours were pleas’d to grant them licenses for the retailing of certain liquors and to non else, Yet Your honours good intentions was intirely frustrated by Mrs [Elizabeth] Penrose being encouraged not only to keep public House without license, but also to Sell rum, and punch publickly, and in great quantities, by which means all Strangers and many of the Towns people frequent there and that Mr Causton upon all occasions, caryes Strangers and other company to the Said Penroses house, and that notwithstanding that Said Penrose has been twice fin’d in Court, for Said practice, Yet by the encouragement of Mr Caustons carying all the company there with whome he has any dealings and having most of the public feasts there by which Six or Seven pound has been often expended with her in one day the Said penrose is thereby enabled to pay the Said fines, and to vend large quantities of rum, punch, and other liquors to the great loss of the licensed houses and the encouraging and promoting the drinking of rum, with which comodities they have the Strongest reasons to believe that She is Supplyed by Mr Causton. They further complain that rum is sold both by Mr [Thomas] Cristie and Mr Causton and likewise by the people employed by Mr Causton in the publick Stores, and that Mr Causton by Supplying the People employed at Tybe, and other publick works with rum and other goods at by which means drinking and idleness is not only encouraged, the licensed houses Sufferers but likewise all the money expended upon Tybe, and other Works, (which Stand greatly in need of Inspection) Centers in him and consequently can not circulate amongst the people, and the public work at Tybe greatly neglected. The Men as I am credibly informed often doe not A days work in A week tho fourteen or fifteen in number, which is A Very great expence and Charge upon the trust.
The laying a tax of 6 pence pr Barrell upon goods craned up, they look upon not agreable to Yr Honours intentions. The merchants of Charles Town complain greatly that notwithstanding their applying to Mr Causton—have not been able to obtaine any dividend, from [Elisha] Dobree and Harrises estate. Particularly Mr Pringle who is chief creditor, and has Sent a Pettition to Your Honours with a state of the affair. There is likewise A poor widow Woman [Susan Bowling] in Charles Town who complains, that her husband being Currency Patroon of a Petiaugure and dying at Savannah Posses’d of A Petiaugure and other effects, to the Value of 900 pound Currency, by the appraisment at Savanah, has not been able tho in A Starving condition to obtain any Said Effects.
There are many more grievances a list of which was Sent to Me to Charles Town but as they are of less moment, I Shall not now give Your Honours the trouble of hearing them. And only beg leave to Assure Your Honours upon the Whole, that there is Such a Spirite of resentment, amongst the people against the behavior of Mr Causton. I doe not mean the meaner, but the better Sort of People also, that unless Some Speedy Methode be taken to make them Easy by One of this Honble Boards going over and putting them to rights, which is what is greatly wished for not only by the People of Georgia, but likewise by all well wishers of the Colony, there is very great danger of their faling into Confussion and leaving the Colony, which I humbly presume would be of the utmost consequence to the prosperity of the Colony. For Should the People quitt the Colony, and report the usage they have mett with from the Person in Power it would be almost impossible to gett people to goe and Setle there, though they were labouring under the greatest Misfortunes.
To corroborate what I have here advanced, I have Severall letters to produce, which I received when at Charles Town from of undeniable Veracity, in Savanah, which I hope will be sufficient to convince Yr Honours that my endeavours do not proceed from any personall peek to Mr Caustone with whome I declare I never hade the least difference. On the Contrary Mr Causton was so kind to offer me the Arrears which was due to Me from the Stores, which wou’d have amounted to between twenty and thirty pound, but I chose rather to have my affairs in some disorder and be at the expence of my own passage, thane not endeavour by this representation to Yr Honrs to prevent the evill with which the Colony is threatened.
Daniel McLachlan187 to [?], May 9, 1735, London, C.O. 5/636, p. 327-328, concerning his desire to bring Scotch Highlanders to Georgia.
As what I here beg leave to acquaint you withall, touches the publick Interest, and immediately concerns the Colony of New Georgia; I presume, I need not make any Apologies for the trouble of this Letter, tho’ it comes from one who has not the happiness of your acquaintance.
Why—Sir, in the Highlands of Scotland, our Rents have been raised very much of late; This has not proceeded so much from the Avarice of Landlords, as the vast Increase of the People. And at the same time, the price of our Catle, which is the only Support, and proper produce of this Country, has prodigiously Sunk. Upon this Account, the Bulk of the People is in a poor, Starving Conition.
I have, Sir, in the Shape of a Clergyman, for some years past, traveled up and down those ragged Mountains, But touched with the Malancholy Situation of my Relations and Kindred. As we had then a very favorable Account of New Georgia, I proposed to ‘em, I Shoud go over to view this new Plantation, and, at the same time, exactly learn what encouragement the Trustees would give towards the transportation and Setlement of so considerable a Body of men. To this they readily agreed, and assured me, that, upon my return, they woud be entirely directed by me; As they knew, they were safe in Depending upon my Integrity and Judgement in this affair. And if I can give them proper Encouragement, upon my return from New Georgia, at least 7 or 800 Honest, Industrious Peoule, will set out for this New Plantation. And once that so considerable a Body as this was setled there; When this Plantation had its Character fairly established among our Highland-Class; A great many Considerable Families woud find the way thither, and transport themselves upon their own Charges.
Thus, Sir, the poorest and most barren Country in Britain, woud become a Nursery to that Plantation, which when duely peopled, will certainly turn to vast Account, and be a growing Benefit to the Nation. This, Sir, will effectually civilize our Highlanders and Divert that boisterous humour, which used, upon the least Commotion, to fly out in the face of their Sovereign. And withall, Sir, this will put numbers of poor People, who are now in a Starving Condition, in a way to live Comfortably. To my certain knowledge, this Country has been so crowded of late, that some of our Clans attempted to go over, in a body, to new England; But they soon dropt this Project, as they found, upon a litle examination, that the charges of transportation woud run so deep into all the money they coud muster out; That they shoud not have wherewithall to set themselves upon a right footing, after they got there. And this, Sir, is the present Situation of those who woud, upon my giving them proper Encouragement, set out for New Georgia. Its true, the most of ‘em are in such Circumstances, that I believe once they were landed there they woud not give the Trustees much trouble. For those I have now in my eye aren’t a parcel of Vogabonds that go about, a pilfering, robbing, and doing mischief; But honest, industrious Farmers, who from the barrenness of the Country they now live in, are in a Starving Condition.
But the Trustees may possibly look upon all this as a Chimerical Scheme that never will be put in execution; And as they woud not have their money missaplied, they will not lay out any this way.
But if the Trustees will condescent to allow a certain sum towards the transportation of every honest, industrious Farmer; Upon the Credit of this their promise, those poor people may easily fall upon a method to get themselves transported. So that, in this case, the Trustees can’t be in danger of having their money missaplied, as they aren’t to advance any before these people are actually Setled in New Georgia.
Shall I then beg, Sir, you woud be so good as to let me know, how you think of this proposal? If it don’t deserve to be taken Notice of; I hope, Sir, you’ll forgive me, as I meant well, in attempting what, in my aprehension, woud, be very beneficial to the Nation in general, and contribute in particular, to the immediate relief of more than a thousand people, who are now in poor miserable Circumstances.
P. S. Was it not I under Confinement, I woud, Sir, have waited upon you. Some weeks ago I very unhappily threw out to the publick a Ludicrous Piece of Humor upon Fornication. Upon this I Surrendered my self to Custody, as I had learned there was a warrant issued out to apprehend me. And as I have since ingenuously owned my Fault, and declared my ready to give any Christian Satisfaction for the offence I must have given, I hope I shall be soon set at Liberty.
Honoured and Dear Sir
Here I communicate to you what hath been wrote to me from Vienna, and what I have wrote to Ratisbonne on that account; Likewise a Copy of a Letter which I receiv’d this day from Mr John Tobler Mathematician in Reketobel in the Canton of Appenzell in Swisserland, beseeching You to deliver the Same to the Trustees, whom I most humbly desire to Send an instruction to Mr [George P. F.] Von Reck what answer he must give to the People who desire to go to Georgia and are no Emigrants, especially to the abovementioned that have wrote to me from St Gall. It is impossible for me to mind any other Business, besides that of the Emigrants, But if I am able to give good advice, I will do it with all my heart, and serve Mr Von Reck in his Correspondence with the Trustees particularly Mr Von Reck should be inform’d whether Georgia is really so good and fruitfull a Country as hath been wrote about it Two years ago to the end that he may give a good account of it to the people in Swisserland. I would fain take the Correspondence with the Trustees upon one, but am afraid of undertaking more than I am able to perform.
Isaac Chardon to the Trustees, May 13, 1735, Charles Town, received July 16, 1735, C.O. 5/636, p. 288, concerning bills for provisions for Georgia.
My last to you with Duplicate thereof was of the 7th April last, which I expect you will receive before this comes to hand. I have since answer’d the 8 following Drafts of Mr Causton’s for provessions Amo to £ 2368. 15/-besides there is about 2500 Gals Molasses, which I’ve Bought at 6/3 per Galln which makes in all £ 3150. The Molasses compleats the Allowance up to this present Quarter Vizt.
for which sum I have this day drawn upon you a Sett of Bills for Four Hundred & Fifty Pounds Sterlg in favour of Messrs Peter & J. C. Simond or to their Order, which I begg may be punctually paid.
I have reced but One Letter from Mr Causton since the 24th March, which mentions his having drawn more Orders upon me, but no other News.
Isaac Chardon to the Trustees, May 13, 1735, Charles Town, C.O. 5/636, p. 290, concerning a bill for £ 450 sterling to be drawn on the Trustees.
I have this day drawn a sett of Bills of Exchange on you for Four Hundred & Fifty Pounds Sterling, Payable at Thirty Days after Sight to Messrs Peter & J. C. Simond Merchants in London, which Bills I hope will meet with Due Honour being for Sundry Provissions paid for the use of the Colony of Georgia.
Samuel Eveleigh to James Oglethorpe, May 16, 1735, Savannah, received Aug. 27, 1735, C.O. 5/637, pp. 64-65, Egmont 14200, pp. 583-585, concerning Georgia’s trade, navigation possibilities, agriculture, need for Oglethorpe, troubles caused by Irish convicts, and the poor land at Ebenezer.
My last to you was from Charles Town by Capt Knox wherein I gave you an Acct of the Death of our good Governr Mr Johnson.188 He was the first Vessell after & he promised me to forward that Letter to you as Soon as he Arrived by the first Post & to keep the rest of his Lettrs till ye next. This I did that you might have the first Acct.
The 6th Inst I Left Charles Town, Cap Colcock Mastr, and in 23 hours after we gott off that Barr we arrived at this Bluff. The same Evening I got in Company with Capt [William] Thompson ye bearer hereof who Complaining for want of a Full Load I agreed with him to fill him up with Live Oak Timber and ordered Some men that I had then working at Thunderbolt to go to Tybee and hire 8 or 10 Men more for that Purpose. I agreed with them or most of them at 3s per day besides Provisions wch I reckon will be full four so that I don’t think to get any thing by this agreement. Two or three days after Capt Thompson, Colcock, Miller & my self went down to Survey the Inlet at Wassaw and the inconvenience in the insides for Entertaining Ships of War wch we found to be very Agreable and Capable of Receiving a Great Number of his Majesty’s men of War as Cap Thompson can better Inform you, but when we came to try the Channell we found at dead Low water but 16½ Foot Contrary to what [Roger] Lacy, Causton & [Nathaniel ?] Ford assured me again & again wch gave me a very great Disatisfaction & Dissapointed my very great Expectations.
I am inform’d theres a much better Channell close by Little Tybee. I have agreed with Miller to go down & Sound it and what Reports he makes I shall advise you with.
The people here are grown much more Industrious than when I was here Last. Arthur Johnson hath Cleared & planted fifteen Acres, five wth Rice & ten wth Corn and I am told the Corn is very good notwithstanding we have had a great deal of Dry weather.
Sterling189 informs me that he has Seventy Acres of Corn planted at his Bluff and good quantities at other Places, but its a General Observation that the most Industrious People are fixt & Setled on the worst Land.
I found the People very much divided here like Court & Country in England. The Magistrates & the better Sort as I take it of one side. The Populacy if I may So Call em with a few of the better Sort on the other. I find if any person wants any thing of Mr Caustons and he refuses them tho it be unreasonable & contrary to his Instructions they presently turn Grumbletonians & Side & herd with one another as in the Corporial Body if there is a wound in the Leg all the Malignant humours will Imediately fly to that Place. If a Person has a Tryal with another the Looser Imediately Exclaims, nay I observed when I was last here, that after a Tryal both Parties were disatisfy’d and both Reflected Chiefly on Mr Causton, for as he is the Chief Magistrate all the Reproaches Seems to be Levelled at him. I must needs Say theres a great many things here that wants to be Rectified and that your Presence or Some other Person of weight & Ability is Absolutely Necessary here. I Shall not enter into the detail of those things but Leave off that to Mr [John] West & Capt [William] Thomson the Latter having made very Just Observations during his Stay here. Mr Causton hath his Faults as all men have, but must assure you tis the Common Vogue that he was the most Capable of Such an Office than any men in the Province when you went off, but he has too much business to Act in both Capacities as Magistrate & Storekeeper. You cant Imagin what Uneasiness ye Irish Convicts gives him. There was no Less than five of these Whipped one Morning when I first came here for Theft & Running away & Some of them very Severely, I think too Severe, and yet they are so incorigible that Fair & Foul means will not reclaim them.
I must be free to Acquaint you that after a very Strict Enquiry I find that the Poor people at Ebenezer are very Industrious, but the Land there is So very poor that they cant reap any Advantage thereby. I hear they wants to be Removed Six Miles farther and I think it will be a piece of Justice in the Trustees and of great Service to this Colony if they Grant their Request.
When I went up to See Sir Francis Bathurst, [Walter] Augustine told me that the Cattle you had put on Argyle Island were very fat and well. Right opposite to his Landing is anothr Island by what Title tis distinguished I cant tell wch to outward Appearance believe to be Extra good for Rice & Cattle.
Extract of a letter from the Rev. Samuel Urlsperger to the Rev. Friedrich Michael Ziegenhagen,190 May 16, 1735, Augsburg, ordered to be communicated to the Trustees, read May 27, 1735, C.O. 5/636, p. 335, concerning German immigrants to Georgia coming through Holland. Translation from the original German.
Because the last Swissers had occasioned great Complaints in Holland, their high Mightiness have ordered their Residents and amongst these the Resident at Ratisbonne to notify every where and consequently to the Commissary Mr Von Reck that they would not permit any more Colonists to pass their Territories, except they are Provided with an authentick Passport and can travel through without giving any Trouble to the States. Whereupon I wrote to the Dutch Minister de Galliers, that the two Transports of the Colonists of Georgia had not given the least Trouble to the States, nor was any such Thing to be fear’d of a future Transport, But if his Excellency would be pleas’d to intercede with His Principals, for obtaining a free passage for the Emigrants as Colonists of Georgia without paying any Toll or being unnecessarily detained, considering that they carry nothing with them but their Penury, it would be very thankfully acknowledged. To which his Excellency was pleas’d to return this answer, that as to the free passage there would be in his Opinion no more required, then that the Trustees and Society did endeavour to represent their case by their high Mightiness in few words to the English Envoy at the Hague not doubting but that it would be taken into Consideration, he himself having humbly recommended it.
The Rev. Samuel Urlsperger to the Rev. Henry Newman, May 19, 1735, Augsburg, C.O. 5/636, pp. 337-338, Egmont 14200, pp. 587-591, concerning emigrants from Carinthia.191 Translation from the original German.
Upon my Commissions, given to the Commissary Mr Von Reck, who is at present in Ratisbonne, he sent me the following answer, dated the 17th Instant.
I. Concerning the Saxon Envoy Mr Von Schoenberg.
This Gentleman has often advised the Carinthians192 who are here to give a Memorial to the Imperial Embassy in behalf of their Wives and Children left behind them, which out of too great fear they never would do; wherefore I offer’d my Self, not only to draw up a Memorial, as Letter A sheweth & get it signd by the Carinthinas, but also to deliver it for them, with which His Excellency was well pleased, and promises himself a good effect thereof. As to the Maintaining of the Carinthians, who are very poor, and have no work to get their Living by, it is thought proper, not to maintain them out of the Emigrants Cash, for fear the should grow idle, and have a mind to stay here, but if they would go to Georgia, the Saxon Envoy would procure them a considerable Viaticum193 of money.
II. Concerning the Electoral Brunswick Envoy Mr Von Hugo.
a) In respect to the Carinthians Wives and Children left behind, he is of the Opinion of the Electoral Saxon Envoy, and promises to second my Memorial with a forcible Representation by word of mouth.
b) He, as well as the Electoral Brunswick Envoy at Vienna, Mr Von Erff, hath got a Rescript from Court concerning the B. B.194 according to which he will do his utmost Endeavours for their Best, and send the Bohemian Memorial to Vienna.
c) In Case the Envoy Mr [George P. F.] Von Reck should die, he will be very glad to correspond with You Sir, as well in Affairs concerning Religion as that of Georgia; likewise
d) His Excellency will have an Opportunity to send your Letters along with the Kings Packet to London.
III. Concerning the Envoy from Holland Mr Gallieres.
(1st) He assures us that in the Bohemian Affair, he intirely concurs with the rest of the Envoys, and that by the last Post he had sent to the High & Mighty States General a very forcible and moving Representation in favour of the B. B. which he does not doubt will have a good Effect, He together with some other Envoys, does not only think it proper, but highly necessary, that the Bohemian Memorial be printed and published in England without delay, because it is intended to do the same in Holland.
Their High Mightiness assure the Trustees and the Society of their Assistance in this affair, and would by the help of the King of England, endeavour that when, as is expected a Peace is to be concluded with France, a particular Article may be inserted in favour of the B. B. the Crisis of the present time being so favourable that either one must make an advantage of it, or by neglecting such an Opportunity, renounce his right almost forever.
(2) As to the March of the Georgian Transport thro Holland it would be very acceptable to their High Mightinesses if the Honble Society or the Trustees would give Notice of it to Mr Dayrolles which would contribute very much to a more easy and speedy Journey for us. This Week God willing I shall take an Opportunity to speak with the Electoral Brandenborgh, Danish, Swedish and other Protestant Envoys.
If nothing shall be done in the Bohemian Affair, the Envoys here are of Opinion that the Grievances, and the Redressing thereof be represented to the Emperor in a particular Audience.
High and well born Free Lords of the Empire;
Your Excellences’s praise worthy Clemency & Commisseration towards all miserable People, causes Us also in our Affliction most humbly to seek our Refuge by You. For, whereas we have, for the sake of Liberty of Conscience, left our Country, Effects, Wives and Children, lived here for a while, and now are obliged to proceed on our Pilgrimage into other Protestant Countries, which is very hard as well for our Wives and Children as for us; We most humbly beg your Excellences, graciously to consider our miserable Condition, and to grant that our Wives and Children may follow us, and that we may get some of our Effects left behind us, to bring us to our Journey’s End. Which Act of compassion the most gracious God will reward, and hear our Prayers for your Excellencies Welfare. In hopes of your Excellencies granting us our Desire, we remain with all Submission Your Excellencies
most humble and most obedient Emigrants frm Carinthia.
Extract of a Letter from Ratisbonne dated 17th May 1735.
The Dollar you sent me, to which I have beg’d another for the Emigrants Cash, which makes in all 3 Guilders, shall certainly be delivered by ye first Opportunity into the hands of Lerchner the good Saltzburger now in prison at Raab in Hungaria, to whom I sent a while ago some Guilders. I have also procured 8 Guilders for honest Simon Sigel from K. who is likewise at the same place in prison, and as it is said, for his life time, which he hath received, just in the time when he was in the greatest misery, and as he himself mentions was ready to starve of Cold for want of Cloths so that No body could well know him. I knew him because by his letter from K. he was the first that told me of the powerfull Finger of God which happened at the said place, of which more might be said. I pitty him with all my heart, God send him Strength & Comfort, and give him Grace for his faithfulness. I have heard good news from Holland, concerning the Emigrants in Cadsand; Those who are there still, thank God, and do not desire to go from thence. Several of them have bought themselves necessaries. They have now a Church of their own, and got a House for their Minister Mr Fisher. God give his Blessing to his word in their Souls! Many are very well placed in Hannoverian Countries, some return; the Artists are gone to Nurnberg. Just now the Carinthians were with me and signed a Memorial, concerning their Wives and Children, which to morrow will be delivered to the Imperial and Austrian Embassy. God grant it a happy Effect! Mr Von Reck will tell you more. Here follows a Specification of the Age Names &ca as far as I could be informed by those that are here, especially of those who are married. Several are gone to Anspach to work. In Ratisbonne it is impossible that so many Emigrants can get work, however as much as possible.
A farther Specification of the Names Age & families of the Emigrants from Carinthia & their relations.
From the Jurisdiction Biberstein
I.) Frantz Sandter, a Master Linnen Weaver 36. Years Old his Wife Brigitta of the same Age, They have 4 Children.
|1. Maria||14 Years|
|2. Matthias||10 Years|
|3. Ursula||7 Years|
|4. Eva||3 Years|
II.) Nicolaus Neidhart
a master Taylor 42 Years, his Wife Maria 26 years & 4 Children.
|1. Matthias||8 Years|
|2. Simon||6 Years|
|3. Balthasar||3 Years|
|4. Caspar||1 Year|
III.) Christian Steinacher, a Bricklayer 52. years his Wife Margaretha 43 years and one Child—
|1. Elizabeth||6 years|
From the same Jurisdiction Biberstein three single Women namely—
(1) Magdalena Anna Weinin 25 years (2) Maria Sublin 21 years
(3) Cath. Sieblin 16 years.
From the Jurisdiction Muhlsadt [Muehlstadt].
I.) Matthias Egarter a Countryman 34. years, his Wife Susanna 27 years and one Child—
|1. Christiana||6 years—|
II.) Gregory Kochler a Countryman 32 years, his Wife Lucia 27 years & one Child—
|1. Maria||1 Year|
III.) Clement Leidler a Countryman 48 Years, his Wife—44 years & 2 Children
|1. Maria||13 years|
|2. Maria||6 years|
IV.) Simon Moser, a Master Linnen Weaver & Bricklayer 43. years, his Wife Maria 39 years, and 3. Children—
|1. Maria||18 years|
|2. Christiana||12 years|
|3. Afra||6 years|
V.) Johan Unterwald a Countryman 49. years, his Wife Maria 47 years and 5. Children whose names are yet unknown—
VI.) Bartholomew Globischeig, a Countryman 49 years, his Wife Christina 45 years & 7. Childn whose names are yet unknown the father being in Anspach at work.
VII.) Johan Egger, a Countryman 53 years, whose Wife and Children never owned themselves Protestants.
The Wives and Children are yet in Carinthia, as I have signify’d in my former letter.
I expect an answer upon this as well as my former Letters as soon as possible, because they contain weighty Affairs. I remember very well, that upon the Desire of the Society, I have promised to give a further Account, of the Demarches & Views of Count Zinz; but because it cannot be done now, it shall perhaps be done in my next. Since 3. Weeks ago things have happened which are not to be allow’d. I recommend the Saltzburgers in Eben Ezer and remain.
J. Seris to James Bousquet in London, May 20, 1735, Geneva, C.O. 5/637, p. 67, concerning establishing a colony in Carolina or Georgia. Translation from the original French.
I have communicated your obliging letter to Mr Millenet, who joins with me in thanking you for the kindness and care you have used in interesting yourself in the project he has formed of establishing himself in Carolina with a colony. We trust you will continue your interest and obtain for us what we desire.
In answer to what you had the kindness to say in your letter, I have the honor to assure you that we are certainly informed that not only has nourishment for a year been accorded Mr Pury’s colony, but that the allowance has been increased to 20 months. We are sure the like favor will be granted Mr Millenet’s colony, about to be formed. We know that His Majesty agrees and that the province of Charles-town will furnish victuals as said.
Following are the conditions under which Mr Millenet and his colony will settle in North Carolina:—
1st He undertakes to bring over at least 100 effective men, without counting women and children.
2d His Majesty’s permission must be given for the establishment of the colony in Carolina or Georgia and for the year’s food supply.
3d If it is possible to obtain credit for half the passage money for those who are unable to pay the whole of it, and for whom the Colony as a whole could become responsible to the shipmaster.
5th Free transportation for the colonist and his family, and a bonus for expenses he must incur for the benefit of the said Colony. This matter can be left, however, to the wisdom of whomever is concerned.
6th Finally, if possible, an endowment for one Minister.
It would be earnestly desirable to have the settlement on the Pampan River, yet any location desired will be accepted.
You can see, Sir, that the above stipulations are not unreasonable. After all, it is right to help a group of Colonists going to occupy uninhabited lands.
Moreover, in this Colony, only useful and honorable persons would be admitted, people of the Reformed Religion and whose honesty is recognized.
I pray you will continue your care towards this end.
P.S. Would you have the goodness to tell me when you reply how much land will be given to each person and where or on what river the colony will be placed.
Samuel Eveleigh to James Oglethorpe, May 28, 1735, Savannah, received Aug. 27, 1735, C.O. 5/637, pp. 69-70, Egmont 14200, pp. 595-596, containing a description of Purysburg, South Carolina, and its people.
Last Saturday Capt [William] Thompson and I went to Purysburgh where we were handsomely received as we had been at Georgia. That Town doth not make the Appearance as Georgia, because it is much Lower and a Swamp of dead Water runs thro the Midle. The People appears to be very Industrious and have their Gardens pretty well Improved with Divers Necessaries of Life. There Seems to be amongst them a Sort of Emulation for Industry. Every Town Lot contains one Acre of Land by far too much—as Georgia (Excuse the Liberty) has too Little. I was in Sevl of their Gardens. In one belonging to a German or Dutchman I with Pleasure observed a Large Spot of Land planted with Flax, wch was better they told me than they Ussually had in their Country notwithstanding it had had but very little Rain from the time of its being Sowed till I was there. The old man told me he could dress it fit for the Spinner wch his Wife could do, and that there was a weaver amongst them that could make it into Cloth. I also observed in that Same Garden a good Patch of Wheat, Barley, Oats, Buck Wheat, Indian Corn, Rice & Potatoes, all wch appeared to me to be pretty good Considering the Dryness of the Season. I was in anothr Garden with Mr Bellinger where was a Small piece of Rice wch he thought better than any he had Seen in Carolina.
On Monday there was a Review when there appeared under Arms about 120 men besides Officers who were very Gay or at Least Gayer than I could have Expected. There was Several persons absent Some at their Plantations Some one way & Some another. I was there told they could make about 250 Effective men. They Exercis’d tolerably well according as I am Capable of Judging. I was informd that a great Number as well Officers as Centinels had been in the English Dutch French & German Service. I found there was men there almost all Europeans Nations as English French Dutch High German Prussians Russians Switzers Savoyards & Italians. Severall of them Proposed the Propagating of Silk perticularly Monsr Albergoti by Birth an Italian who told me that he understood the Management of Worms & Silk very well, and I have promised to Send him a Quantity of Mulberry Trees in ye Fall. This place if it thrives as I hope it will will be of a great advantage to this Colony—for whatsoever they Produce must be Shipped off from hence and what Supply they want will be Furnished from Georgia.
Right Opposite to Purysburgh is another fine Island belonging to this Province Furnishd with great Quantities of Birch & Beech, a Wood or Timber as I am informd the most proper to make Pot Ashes and the Land very good both for Rice & Corn Especially the former.
I find in falling of Live Oak Timber upon Tybee, a great many Trees are rotten decay’d & good for nothing and the Sooner those Trees are cut down the Sooner others will grow in their Room and I have been informed by Coll. Bull & others that Notwitstanding Live Oak is very hard is of a very Quick Growth.
Thomas Christy to the Trustees, May 28, 1735, Savannah, received Dec. 6, 1735, C.O. 5/636, pp. 302-303, Egmont 14200, pp. 603-606, concerning the sale of rum, his brewery, people leaving Georgia, health of the people, and his desire to move to the country.195
Gentlemen & Most Honrd Sirs
I have perused your Honrs Letter of the 15th of May writt by Mr Herman Verelst yor Accomptant.
Wee think ourselves thrice happy at your Honrs consumate prudence & Wisdom is not determinating any thing without giving Us an Opportunity of defending Ourselves.
As to what imediately regards my self I beg leave to Answer that neither my self or Agent have ever dealt in Rum, but on the contrary it is notoriously known by my Example have led a sober & regular life always paying regard to your Honrs Orders especially those agst Rum & have been most Instrumental in decreasing the consumption of it in this Colony.
As to my taking a shilling for a Warrant & a Shilling for a return it is intirely groundless. Noble Jones is absent but I hope the Inclosed Certificates196 will be lookt upon as sufficient.
It will appear upon the Records that it was not above 10 days before I had the Honr to receive yor Letter That one Morgan of Charles Town had entred severall Barrels of Cyder wch on the landing was discovered to be Rum. When Mr Causton & myself received the Information We were then holding a Court & sent for Morgan to answer ye Information & to show cause why it shod not be condemed. Upon Examination of the matter the Information appeared to be true & Morgan cod not Shew Cause. Capt [james] Macpherson appeared in Court and said he had bought the Rum for the Use of his people but that being Examind into appeard to be since the Landg & to serve only as a Screen.
Wee proceeded to Judgment & gave directions to [Joseph] Coates & [Thomas] Gapan the Constable & acting Tything man then attending the Court to stave it Imediately, but there appearing a dilatoriness in the Officers & Guard & a number of people getting together & murmuring the Officers seemed afraid to Execute Our Orders, upon which We (Mr. Causton & myself) rose up took Each an Ax & staved the Rum Ourselves.
I have now above Ten pounds Sterling to pay for persons assisting me in Writing the Affairs purely relateing to my Office & the publick & I shall crave leave to lett some other person Informe yor Honrs of the Trouble in it but at the same time beg to returne yor Honrs my humble & unfeigned thanks for the many favours receivd & particularly this last of Two servants & another years provision wch was indeed a great Indulgence & more than We had reason to Expect.
I can assure yor Honrs the Orders concerng Tipling have been strictly put in Execution and We have found a great deal of ease & benefit by it so that I hope We shall have no occasion to Informe your honrs against any one in particular notwithstandg. We shall observe your honrs Instruction on that head.
Gentm I Beg leave further to explain what I said in a letter of mine to yor Honrs concerng people thinking of selling their lands & running away wch I presume was Intelligble verifyed by the red string plot wch was soon after discovered when it appeared that a certain number of freeholders as well as Servts wore red strings, being Persons who had got themselves into desperate circumstances were underhand making over to others their lotts & were designed to make off some of which were [Francis] Mugridge [Richard] Cannon [Will?] Horn & Edwd Johnson &c.
Gentm We cod do no more than by Our publick Orders & private directions to declare against the one & the other as an actual forfeiture and they were far from receiving any Encouragement from Us, for by our diligence We defeated & preventd both the one & the other. I have inclosd a Copy of a Warrt. lodgd in ye hand of Capt. [William] Ferguson whereby you will see our sentiments in yt affair.
I can assure the Trustees the Improvements the people in General made last year in their houses & this year in their lands considering the heats of the summer season & as a new Settlement have never yet been paralled by any people under the sun. So that altho We have had some drones amongst us We have much the greater number good industrious People & I shod be sorry to be understood when I complaind of a few to mean the whole Colony of Georgia much more that another sett of people whatsoever shod sett us an Example.
I can with pleasure acquaint yor Honrs That the Colony seems to be better settled than ever in peace, Order, discipline, & Industry. Tipling & Extravagance, has by our Orders, & Example greatly declined & Religion been promoted.
We have now every thing pleasant & agreable for life & when in my letter to yor Honrs I spoke of monyd People I meant that the place was now Convenient & fitt to Entertain People of the best of Circumstances & We seem now to have overcome all those difficultys Incident to new settlements.
I have sett up a Brewhouse of Beer & good wholesome drink is brewed both strong & small wch seems to take so well that a great many working people instead of spirituous liquors have taken to Beer and I humbly beg yor Honrs protection therein.
We have had few people dye this Summer & considerg We begin now to be very numerous & the heats great the Country & Air must be said to be very fine & wholesome. [Noble] Jones has been by our Influence much more diligent this year in running out Our Lands & severall Industrious People in the Town have gott up the Cattle & the Publick have now the benefit & Enjoyment of them.
Your Honrs Orders to me relating to Wm Little the Infant have been obeyed & the Guardianship given to Mr [Samuel] Mercer.
I cod Wish yor Honrs wod give me leave to settle my Improvemts in Town & my own Lott for life to such persons as you shod approve of & grant me 500 acres on the River Vernon on the usual conditions. I shod by that means be able in a more conspicuous manner to convince yor Honrs how much I had at heart the welfare & service of the Colony.
Robert Howes to the Trustees, May 30, 1735, Savannah, Egmont 14200, p. 607, asking for provisions and a servant in return for his services as parish clerk.
I make bold to let your Honours know the Nature of my Case, hoping that your Goodness will excuse me. I have tended as Parish Church Clerk and performed all the parts of the said Office from April 1734, and for Six months we had no Minister, which in his Absence I have read Prayers on a Sabbath Day, visisted the Sick, buryed the Dead and tended on several Persons which lay under Sentence of Death, which has took me up some time. Likewise I and my Brother did work 10 Weeks for the first People when I was in my best Health and without receiving any Satisfaction for the same.
Wherefore I humbly hope that your Honours will take into Consideration, I having a large Family and none to help me, find it difficult to Support them.
The Honble. Mr. Oglethorpe did promise that I should have Twelve months Provision for a Servant and did leave Word with Mr. Causton to let me have it, but he has denyed it unto me, so that I am in great Want still for a Servant to Assist me in Clearing my Land and helping me to do other Work; But I humbly hope your Honours will consider of it.
Samuel Eveleigh to James Oglethorpe, May 30, 1735, Savannah, received Aug. 27, 1735, C.O. 5/637, pp. 72-73, Egmont 14200, pp. 611-613, concerning Sir Francis Bathurst, Walter Augustine, their farming, etc.
Yesterday Morning I went up to [Walter] Augustine Plantation and from thence paid my Respects to Sir Fran. Bathurst who Lives in a Small house 20 foot Long & 12 foot broad Divided into two parts, one is a Bed Room & the other a Dinning Room, the Sides Ends & Coverings of Clapboard, it may be in some Measure water tight but I am certain it cant be wind tight. He seems to be tolerably well contented. When I came there he was Just going to Breakfast; he Invited me & I partook of part thereof. There was a Large Dish of Cat Fish & Perch Fry’d caught the Evening before by his Son, and a good peice of Cold Pork. I carryd with me two Bottles of Punch & two Bottles of Red Wine, the former we drank after Breakfast the latter I Left with him, and in the Last Glass we drank his Cousins health My Lord Bathurst. He has planted Eight Acres of Corn & if the Season proves good beleive he will have a good produce therefrom, tis now in the Weed but Mr Causton’s has promised to send him two of the Trustees Servants to help him out. Augustine & others on the Bluff gives a good Character of the Old Gentlemen and tells me that his Wife & Son works in the Fields themselves. Tis great Pity he has not wherewithall to buy him some Cows Calves & hoggs wch would Contribute very much to their more Comfortable Living. His Plantation has a Pleasant Situation and would be more agreable if the Trees were fallen round it but that he cant do yet having but one Servant. This Place hath a very great Conveniency for Cattle if what Augustine Informs me be true, Augustines Creek gows up one side I believe 8 or 10 Miles and he says there is another Creek wch I believe that belonging to Capt Bluff So that a Fence from Creek to Creek wch may be about one Mile and half or Two Miles would Inclose Many Thousand of Acres in which is a Vast Quantity of Cane Savannahs. In one place Augustine Assured me there was no Less than One Thousand of Acres Choice Land and do beleive that if the Trustees would buy 1 or 200 Cows & Calves & put em upon it under the Care of a diligent Carefull Man it would be in 2 or 3 years time of vast Service to this Town & Province.
About Ten Clock Augustine being very hot, him and I went up his Creek in a Canoe to ye Place where they dessign to build a Saw Mill, for which they have made a good Progress, and it would have been much better had they not been hindered by Sickness. He has a partner Named Layson who Seems to be a Discreet man he told me that he had been Concerned in making Mills in Pensilvania these 20 years.
I am altogether unacquainted with the Nature of Mill Work, he told me how he dessigned to perform it, wch to me appeared Feasable but I am afraid the Charges will be too great for their Pockets. Theres Abundance of Choice Pines round the Place.
From Augustine up to the Place where the Mill is to be is four Miles and I observed as we went up Severall Bluffs fit for Settlements and the Creek in two or three places divided wch I beleive Leads up to more, and in our Passage up I took Notice of a vast Quantity of Grapes, Some of which hang down to the Water. I returned on foot to Augustines house passing thro Severall Cane Savannahs & Gullies, and on our Right hand I observed one that was very Large & Spacious, a great part of wch as he informed me is at Spring Tide covered with Water wch Undoubtedly is Extr. good for Rice and may be planted for ever and will never fail, it being Extraordinary Rich and will never fail of a Crop because it will never want Water.