I do my self the honour to write this Letter to You, by Order of the Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia. Which is to inform your Excellency, that an Imbarkation of Eighty, or thereabouts of his Majesty’s Natural Born Subjects will be ready to set sail on the seventh of the next Month for the said Colony, and are to be set on shore at Port Royal within Your Government. James Oglethorpe Esqr. One of the Trustees will accompany them himself, and will bring with him His Majesty’s Orders contain’d in an Instruction for Your Excellency, by which you are directed to give all due Countenance and Encouragement for the settling of the said Colony of Georgia, by being aiding and assisting to such of His Majestys Subjects, as shall come into the Province of Carolina. After such a Recommendation, there will be little Occasion for any other, Especially considering, that the success of this Undertaking must so greatly redound to the security, and Advantage of that Province, the Government of which His Majesty has intrusted to Your Care.
What the Trustees have now to desire of Your Excellency, is, That you would be pleased to use your immediate Endeavours with the Council and Assembly, that Provision be made according to their Promise for the sustenance of the new Comers, till they can raise it themselves; and that twenty Negro Labourers, and four Pair of Sawyers be hired to assist in clearing the Ground for this new Settlement, which is design’d to be made on the South side of the River Savanah, as near to Port Royal as will be convenient. And Your Excellency is further desired to take proper measures for informing the Indian Neighbours of the approaching arrival of this new Settlement, and to dispose them to live in Friendship, and Good Neighbourhood with them, by Assuring them they will meet with the Like; and that you would, (if Your Excellency think it advisable,) engage some of the most Friendly among the Indians to come down, and assist them in Hunting, &c.
Mr. Oglethorpe will bring with him an Authentick Copy of the Charter, under His Majesty’s own Signet, and annex’d to the Instruction, by which you are required to cause it to be forthwith register’d, and enter’d upon Record by the proper Officer within Your Province.
The Trustees direct me to acquaint you, that they cannot conclude this Letter without remonstrating to Your Excellency, the great Consequence, that no Disappointment should happen to this first Imbarkation, on their first arrival within Your Province; both in regard to so great a Number of His Majesty’s Subjects, who expose their Lives and Fortunes to come and settle by You, and likewise in regard to the worthy Gentleman, who has so charitably undertaken the Conducting them, and to whose Zeal, and Indefatigable Care the whole Design is so much indebted.
Benjamin Martyn to Governor Robert Johnson of South Carolina, Jan. 24, 1732/3, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 2-4, concerning Georgia’s intended settlement.
By Order of the Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia, I have the honour to acquaint you, that they have receiv’d a Letter, dated September the 28th 1732,3 from Your Excellency to Mr. Oglethorpe, whom by this time they suppose you have seen. In the Absence of Mr. Oglethorpe, it was sent to them by Col. [William] Cecil.4
It adds not a little to their hopes of success, to see their Designs approved by One of Your Excellency’s knowledge, Directed by Your Advice, and supported by Your Generosity; For Which they think themselves much obliged to you, and particularly for preventing a Survey and Purchase of any Lands in Georgia, and for not granting any Titles.
They entirely agree with Your Excellency, that the first Imbarkation required a Man of Knowledge for the Director. As Mr. Oglethorpe has been pleased to undertake it, they have nothing to fear on that Account. One of Mr. Julian’s5 Capacity and Character must undoubtedly be very serviceable on their first Arrival, and Whatever Assistance he can give to the Settlement will certainly be acknowledg’d with thanks by the Trustees.
They are very much pleased, that their Conduct hitherto agrees so well with Your Advice; They have sent none but People inured to Labour, who are prepared for the hardships they must undergo, and are determin’d chearfully to support them. All of them likewise have the Character of Sober, Industrious, and Moral Men. As you have advised, None of them will go ashore at Charles Town; The Ship will go to, and lye as near the Place, where they are to be settled as possible. The Place will be determin’d by Mr. Oglethorpe; But the Trustees have thought proper to plant them as near the Savanah, as conveniently they can, that they may be at a greater Distance from the Spaniards, and be better able to receive from, and give assistance to that Province under Your Excellency’s Care.
The Trustees order me to return their thanks for your intended Subscription,6 but are pleased to find by Mr. Hutchinson, that you will dispose of it in Carolina in such a Manner, as will be of greater advantage to the Settlement, than if it was receiv’d by them here.
They are very much concern’d, that your Excellency’s happiness has been disturb’d by any Domestick Losses, and hope for the future it will meet with no Interruption.
The Trustees are very sensible, that it is needless to recommend any further to Your Excellency the Assistance and Protection of this new Settlement; But they direct me to assure you, that whatever shall be done by Your Excellency for their Service, and support, will be remember’d with that Esteem, which is due to such Humanity.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, Jan. 24, 1732/3, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 5-8, concerning land grants, new settlers, Trustee finances, and other items. By the James, Capt. Yoakley.
As the Trustees have resolved to omit no Opportunity of writing to You, I have receiv’d their Commands to send you an Account of what they have done since you went, and the present State of their Affairs.
They have deliver’d their Grants of Land to William Reyner, John Salmon, Charles Harrison, Thomas Smith, and John Coates,7 the Copartnership for carrying on the Potash Trade. Ten Able Men on their Account are to be landed in Georgia before Christmas 1733. The Trustees have likewise deliver’d their Grants of Land to Roger, and James Lacy, Theophilus, and Joseph Hetherington, and Philip Bishop.8 Each of these is oblig’d to carry four Servants with him, and they are all determin’d if possible to carry more. For your fuller Satisfaction Sr. I have inclosed with this Extracts of the said Grants.
The Common Council of the Trustees have also agreed to grant Mr. Henry Pinkerton9 three hundred Acres of Land, on his carrying at his own Expence three Servants with him. His Servants at the Expiration of their Service are to have twenty five Acres each of them, which the Trustees are of Opinion should for the future be the settled Allowance.
All these I believe have resolved to imbark as soon as they can conveniently.
The Trustees have receiv’d a Letter directed from Governor Johnson to You, it was (with another of no moment) sent open to them by Col. [William] Cecil. I have inclosed herewith a Copy of it, and of the Answer, which by order of the Trustees I have writ to His Excellency.10
The Trustees have in a manner fix’d on a Clergyman, (Mr. James Quincy)11 who is very well recommended; They have reason to believe, the Society for propagating the Gospel in foreign Parts will give him as good a Salary, as they allow any of their other Missionaries; as he will be sent over very soon, they suppose Sir you will think it necessary to get what Conveniences you can for him, to lay out the Site for the Church, and order preparations for building it, as well as the Ministers House. They doubt not, but you will take care, in setting out of any Lands, to reserve Necessary Roads to the Church, as well as to Markets, and Rivers.
Mr. [Francis ?] Harbin has attended the Trustees and inform’d them, that one Thomas Bacon, a square well set Man, about forty years of Age, thick lips, pale face, and dark brown hair, sailed from hence some months ago for Carolina, with a Design to inform the Spaniards of the Intentions of the Trustees and the State of the Colony. Tho’ they themselves lay no Stress on the Information, they have thought proper Sir to acquaint you with it.
An Invitation is already sent to Germany, for sending over Fifty Saltzburgh Families, to be transplanted at the Charges of the particular Collection for those People.
The Trustees hope for a publick Encouragement of the [next] meeting of the Parliament, that may enable them to send over a considerable Number of People, for strengthening the Colony. At present the Subscriptions come in but slowly, which you will observe by seeing the State of the Cash, which for Your satisfaction Sr. is here drawn out.
The Trustees thought an additional Strength would be very necessary to the Colony, and agreeable to you. They have therefore by the Ship sent Paul Cheeswright, a Sawyer, and Rebecca his wife, Robert Hows, a Sawyer, Ann his Wife, and Mary his Daughter, Henry Hows, a Sawyer, Edward Johnson, a Carpenter and Sawyer, Thomas Tebbut, a Sawyer, and Ann his Wife, Jacob Watts, a Turner and Sawyer, and William Savery a Blacksmith.12 Ten heads of Freight at £ 4. each.
The Trustees Sr. hope you have enjoy’d a perfect Share of health, as well as Dr. [Henry] Herbert.13 They hope also that no Sickness has happen’d among the People, as they doubt not by your Care no Uneasiness has been to disturb the pleasure of Your Voyage.
I think myself very happy, that in Obeying the Trustees Commands, I have at the same time an Opportunity of assuring you.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, Jan. 24, 1732/3, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 8, concerning Botham Squire. By the James, Capt. Yoakley.
The Bearer of this is Mr. Botham Squire, whom the Trustees order me to recommend to you to be settled in the Township of Savanah, under Mr. [Thomas] Christie’s Grant. He pays himself the Expence of his Voyage; but in all other Respects is to be on the same foot with the first Imbarkation.
Benjamin Martyn to Sir Thomas Lombe,14 Jan. 24, 1732/3, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 9, asking his opinion on raising silk in Georgia.
As the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia think the raising Raw Silk in the new Settlement will be of great Advantage to the Trade of Great Britain, They desire Your Sentiments of the Design, of the Probability of succeeding therein, and the proper Steps to be taken to bring the Work to Perfection. They are likewise desirous of knowing, if you have ever made any Experiments of the Carolina Silk; and would be glad of Your Opinion of the Nature, Quality, and Usefullness of it. They are sensible Your Judgement will add a weight to their Proceeding, and will be an Inducement to the World to give their Approbation of it.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, Feb. 21, 1732/3, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 10-11, concerning land grants and silk personnel.
I had the honour to send You by the James Capt. Yoakley, An Account of the Proceedings of the Trustees, of which I should have transcrib’d a Copy to send by Mr. Gough, the Bearer of this, But his going away immediately will not allow the time.
The Common Council of the Trustees have granted to this Mr. William Gough Eighty Acres of Land, and the same Quantity to his Son William Gough,15 on their carrying each of them one Servant, who are separately to have at the Expiration of their Service twenty Acres.
The Common Council of the Trustees have deliver’d a Grant to Mr. John Pennefather16 of three hundred Acres of Land; He is to carry three Servants with him, and to pay the Expences himself.
They have resolv’d likewise to grant five hundred Acres to Mr. Robert Hetherington, who is to embark with his Brothers and Mr. Lacy on the Silk Trade, and to be on the same Terms with them Except the Grant of Provisions and Arms.
The Trustees Sir appointed me about a fortnight ago to Wait on Mr. Alvars Lopez Suasso, Mr. Anthony Da Costa, and Mr. Francis Salvador Junr. for the Redelivery of their Commissions, because they apprehended an Opinion of sending Jews would prejudice several People against contributing to the Design. The Gentlemen were unwilling to give up the Commissions, and desired at least they might keep them till Your Return. By Order of the Trustees I left with them a Copy of the Minute.17
This Evening Mr. Amatis’s Brother attended the Common Council. He arrived last week with Giacomo Ottone, and Jacques Camuse, who has brought with him a Wife and three boys.18 They are to attend the Common Council again next week, who propose at that time coming to some Agreement with them.
The Trustees Sir desire their Services to You, and Doctor [Henry] Herbert. As they are very Sollicitous for Your Welfare, they are very impatient for the News of it. I hope You will believe me so too.
Benjamin Martyn to the Mayor, Aldermen, and Corporation of Liverpool,19 March 1, 1732/3, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 12, concerning Liverpool contributions to the Trustees.
The Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America, being inform’d of Your generous Resolution to give out of Your Corporate Stock fifty Pounds for the Purposes of their Charter, have order’d me to return their hearty thanks for the same, and your promoting a Collection thro’ the Town of Leverpool. They assure you they will always have a great Regard to Your Recommendation of any Persons to be sent and settled in Georgia by Yours and Your Friends Collections, as far as these will enable them. They cannot help acknowledging with thanks the Piety of Your Rectors in zealously promoting by their Sermons and Collections a Design, that sets Charity on a right foot by providing for the honest and Industrious Poor, and making them usefull at the same time to their Native Country.
The Trustees have no doubt but to Gentlemen, who have the Undertaking so much at heart, it is a pleasure to hear of Mr. Oglethorpe’s safe Arrival at Carolina with the Colony.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, March 31, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 13-15, concerning settlers, land grants, finances, and election of new Trustees.
The News of Your safe Arrival with the Colony at Carolina was receiv’d with general Satisfaction by the Town, and a very particular one by the Trustees, who are sensible, that the health of the People is chiefly owing to Your great Humanity, and care of them.
Since the Letter which I had the honour to send You by Mr. [William] Gough, the Trustees have resolv’d to send over Nicolas Amatis, with his Servants Jacques Camuse, His Wife, and three Sons. The Quantity of Land to be allotted them, and the manner of settling them, The Trustees Sir leave entirely to you, having no doubt of your regard to the ability of the Corporation; Their Balance at present amounting to no more than £847:7:10 1/4.
|For Religious Uses||162:16: 8.|
|For Botany and Agriculture||25: 0: 0.|
This Balance of £847: 7: 10 1/4 the Trustees are of Opinion should stand answerable for any Engagements you have made, For those Engagements they lye under for providing Meat and Flower for those who have been sent, and for House Rent, and necessary Expences at home.
The Common Council of the Trustees have resolv’d to send over Henry Fletcher, Mary his wife, Henry his son, Ellen and Mary his two Daughters, a Man and a Maid Servant, and have resolv’d to give him two hundred acres of Land.20
The Common Council have settled the Quantity of Land to be given to Each of the Servants going with Roger Lacy, the Hetheringtons, and Philip Bishop, to be twenty five Acres, and have resolv’d that for the future twenty shall be the settled Allowance. They have likewise granted a Licence for James Lacy’s staying at home, on his Alligation of the Necessity for his transacting the Business of his Brother, and the rest concern’d with him. This I mention Sr. to You, that his Grant may be register’d.
I believe it will be some pleasure to You, to know that the Corporation of Leverpool have set a very good Example to others, by having subscrib’d Fifty Pounds out of their Corporate Stock; Their Rectors have also recommended the Encouragement of the Under taking in their Sermons, and are at present going from House to House thro’ the Town to collect private Benefactions.
The Trustees have receiv’d two Letters from Mr. [William] Houston, directed to You. One from Madeira dated November the 9th 1732, with advice of his having sent two Tubs full of the Cuttings of [grape] Vines directed to Mr. [James de] St. Julian at Charles Town, and that there is but one Cinamon Tree in Madeira; The other from Kingston at Jamaica, Dated Decr. 21st. 1732. with an Account of his having obtain’d of Mr. Prather, the South Sea Company’s Agent, a Conveyance to Panama.
On Thursday the 15th. Instant Mr. [John] Burton preach’d the Anniversary Sermon at Bow Church in Cheapside, and the Trustees pursuant to the Charter elected Nine new Members of the Common Council, and one in the room of Mr. [William] Belitha, who has resign’d, because his Confinement in the Country prevents his Attendance. The New Members are the Rt. Honble. the Earl of Shaftsbury, the Rt. Honble. Lord Visct. Tyrconnel, the Rt. Honble. Lord Visct. Limerick, Richard Chandler, Thomas Frederick, Henry L’Apotre, William Heathcote, and John White Esqrs., Robert Kendal Esqr. Alderman, and Dr. [Richard] Bundy. At the same time they chose the following Trustees, The Rt. Honble. the Earl of Derby, the Rt. Honble. Lord D’arcy, Christopher Tower, John Page, William Hanbury, Erasmus Phillips Esqrs.. Sr. John Gonson, and Mr. George Tyrer Alderman of Leverpool.21
The Trustees desire their Services to you, and Dr. [Henry] Herbert. They hope the Country answers in Every Particular Your Expectation, and that Your Health continues perfect.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, April 4, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 16-17, concerning Nicholas Amatis and the terms for his work with silk. By the Peter and James, Capt. Cornish.
The Bearer of this is Mr. Nicolas Amatis, whom the Trustees have sent over with his Servants, Jacques Camuse, His Wife, and his three Sons. Since the last Letter, which I had the honour to write to You, the Common Council have come to a final Agreement under the following Resolutions.
That a House be allotted for him, and his Servants, and that One hundred Acres out of the five thousand granted in Trust to Christie and Others be granted to him; and that fifty Acres be given to his Servant Camuse at the Expiration of his Service.
That Provisions for One Year be allowed him, and his Servants, in the same Proportion as to those already sent.
That proper Materials be furnish’d him to carry on the work of making Raw Silk.
That the Profits of his Labour be for his own Use.
That a Salary be allowed him for four Years after the Rate of £25 p. Ann. On Condition that he delivers as many Machines and Coppers as the Trustees or their Agents shall require on the payment of three pounds for each Machine and Copper: and shows how to use them; and discovers the secret of making the raw Silk to such Persons as shall be appointed for that Purpose.
That the Charge of his and his Servants Passages from Georgia to any Port in England or Italy be defrayed, if required; He quitting all Rights and Pretensions to the Grant of House and Lands (except such as shall be cultivated at the end of five years, Which is to be at his own Disposal, with the Consent however of the Trustees, and under the usual Limitations,) and leaving all the Machines, Coppers, and Materials, which are, or shall be furnish’d him at the Expence of the Trustees.
The Revd. Mr. Quincy is embark’d. The Trustees have order’d, that he shall be a Passenger on the great Cabin; and have given five Pounds for Refreshments during the Voyage.
Benjamin Martyn to the Earl of Derby, April 5, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 18, concerning his aid to the Trustees and election as a Trustee.
It is a very great Pleasure to the Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America, to find their Undertaking approved of by Your Lordship, not only in Your generous Benefaction of fifty Pounds p. Ann. for three Years, to be applied to the maintenance of Mr. [William] Houston the Botanist, but likewise in Your Lordships reprinting and publishing in the Country at Your own Charge their Designs.22 This Goodness of Your Lordship’s very much enlarges their hopes of succeeding; To this they are persuaded they owe the handsome Collections, which have been made in Leverpool, and other Places in that Part of the Country: For this they have order’d me to return their sincere thanks to Your Lordship.
As Nothing can give Success to an Undertaking of this Consequence, but putting the Conduct of it in Gentlemen of Disinterestedness, and Integrity; the Trustees are sensible, that your Lordship’s Name must add the greatest Weight to their Proceedings; They hope therefore You will not disapprove of their having Elected Your Lordship One of the Corporation, with the Rt. Honble. the Earl of Shaftsbury, the Rt. Honble. Lord Visct. Tyrconnel, the Rt. Honble. Lord Visct. Limerick, the Rt. Honble. Lord D’arcy, Richard Chandler, Thomas Frederick, Henry L’Apotre, William Heathcote, Christopher Tower, John White, John Page, William Hanbury, Erasmus Phillips Esqrs., Robert Kendal Esgr. Alderman, Sr. John Gonson, and Mr. George Tyrer Alderman of Leverpool.
Benjamin Martyn to the Rev. I. Stanley, Rector of Liverpool, April 7, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 19, thanking him for his contributions to the Trustees.
The Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America have receiv’d Yours of March the 30th with great pleasure, and have order’d me to return their thanks to You, and the Revd. Mr. Baldwin, for the great Charity You have shown in recommending their Designs in Your Sermons, and the great Pains you have taken in collecting Benefactions for carrying them on; They desire You will give their thanks to the Contributors. They have already made their Compliments to the Rt. Honble. Earl of Derby for his Goodness, and have elected his Lordship one of the Corporation. The Trustees have no doubt but so worthy an Example as Yours will have many Followers, The Rector of Aldgate Parish has already begun, and St. George’s Hannover Square designs it very soon.
The Trustees have directed me to assure you of what I wrote to the Mayor, Aldermen, and Corporation, that they will always have a just regard to Your Recommendation of any Poor to be sent and settled in Georgia, as far as Your Collections will enable them.
They desire You will be so kind as to remit the Money in your Hands to their Office in Palace Court Westminster, or to order Your Correspondent to pay it into the Bank of England for their Use, and to send the Banks Receipt to their Office.
Benjamin Martyn to the Right Rev. John Hough, Bishop of Worcester, April 11, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 20, thanking him for his contributions to the Trustees.
The Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America have receiv’d, by the Hands of the Rt. Honble. Lord Visct. Percival, One hundred Pounds, the Benefaction of Your Lordship towards settling the said Colony. The Pleasure, with which they receiv’d it, was heighten’d by Your Lordship’s approbation of their Designs, and they doubt not but Your Lordship’s Example will (as it formerly has on the most Important Occasions,) have the greatest Influence on Others. Tho’ this particular Instance of Your Goodness gave the Trustees so much Delight, it could give them no surprise, as Your Lordship’s Life has been One Series of Noble Actions for supporting the Liberties of Mankind, and Beneficient Ones for relieving their Necessities.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, April 11, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 21, concerning Samuel Holmes going to Georgia. By the Pearl, Capt. Thompson.
The Bearer of this, Samuel Holmes23 a Bricklayer, applied Yesterday for Grant of Lands, I summon’d a Common Council to meet this morning for that Purpose, because he go’s on Board the Ship this afternoon, which is to sail to morrow Morning. As the House of Commons sat till eleven o’clock last Night, and are busily engag’d to day, it is impossible to get a sufficient number to make up a Common Council. Therefore he is contented with the Promise, that his Grant shall be sent after him, Which will be finish’d next week. As he is to carry over two Servants with him, the Grant will be for two hundred acres of Land, and twenty for each of his Men. It will be directed to You Sir to be deliver’d to him.
Benjamin Martyn to the Earl of Abercorn, May 9, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 22, thanking him for gifts to the Trustees.
The Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America, being inform’d of Your Lordship’s second Benefaction of one hundred Pounds for carrying on the Purposes of their Charter, have order’d me to return their thanks for the same, which they hope Your Lordship will believe are as hearty and sincere, as Your Lordship’s Generosity has been peculiar on this Occasion.
Benjamin Martyn to Thomas Penn, Proprietor of Pennsylvania, May 24, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 23, concerning Penn’s gift to the Trustees.
Your Letter dated the [6th March 1732/3]24 directed to Mr. Oglethorpe has been in his Absence transmitted to the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia. Mr. Oglethorpe went thither with the first Embarkation for the greater Security, and better Settling of the People. The Trustees observe with pleasure and return with sincerity their thanks for Your intended Benefaction. They leave it entirely to Your Judgement to dispose of it either in Money or Corn.
The Trustees believe Sr. it will be a Satisfaction to You to hear the undertaking meets with Encouragement, and has been attended hitherto with great Success. They have no doubt but you will meet with the same in Your intended Collections, not only from that Zeal, of which You have already given the greatest Proof, But also from the Sense which the People of Your Settlement must have of the great Advantages, which England will receive by the Establishment of Colonies in which a new Trade will be open’d; and the extensive Humanity of settling the Indigent in Plenty, and making the Idle Usefull to their Country.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, May 11, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 24-28, concerning settlers, land grants, Parliamentary grant for Georgia, and other matters. By the Susannah, Capt. Bailey.
Your Letter from Savanah dated Febry. the 10th was receiv’d by the Trustees with great Joy, and read by the Town with a general Satisfaction as well on Account of the Pleasantness of the Country, and Your success in Establishing the People, as your own Welfare in particular. It is with pleasure Sr. I can acquaint You that the Credit of the Undertaking has since the Receipt of Your Letter been every day gaining greater Strength, and the Petition of the Trustees to the Parliament has met with the desired success. It was deliver’d to the House by the Master of the Rolls, seconded by Sr. John Barnard, and supported by Mr. [Horace] Walpole and Col. [Martin] Bladen. The House have voted ten thousand Pounds of St. Christopher’s Money, to be given for carrying over Foreign and other Protestants, and a Clause for it is order’d to be inserted in a Bill that gives fourscore thousand Pounds of the same Money for the Princess Royal’s Portion on her Marriage with the Prince of Orange. Upon this Resolution of the House Mr. [James] Vernon immediately writ into Germany for some of the persecuted Protestants to be sent over. He has likewise acquainted the Board that a Sum between three and four thousand Pounds which has been collected for the Saltzburghers is ready to be applied to the sending them to Georgia, so that I believe Sr. You may soon expect a considerable Embarkation.
The Grant for two hundred Acres of Land to Samuel Holmes, which I mention’d in my last would be sent after him, comes by this Ship.
The Trustees have receiv’d a Letter from Mr. [Thomas] Pen from Philadelphia directed to You, and transmitted to them by Col. [William] Cecil, I have inclosed with this a Copy of it.
The Common Council on Sr. Abraham Elton’s desire have given three several Grants of Land of five hundred Acres Each to Mr. Robert Williams, John Williams, and Cornelius Sandford25 of Bristol, Each of them carrying six servants, who are to have at the Expiration of this Service twenty five Acres each; Two of them embark’d before the Grants were deliver’d.
Sr. Robert Clifton attended the Board for two Grants of Land to Mr. Christopher [Clifton] and Mr. Charles Clifton, which was consented to, and the Grants were prepared, but it appearing afterwards that they were Roman Catholicks, the Grants were not executed. One of these has since been given to Mr. Edward Jenkins on changing the Names, Which I mention Sr., that You may know the reason of the Rasures. Jenkins is to have One hundred Acres of Land, and is to carry over two Servants paying all Expences himself.
The Common Council have come to a Resolution to grant no more Land to Persons going at their own Expences, till they hear from you, lest too much of the most valuable Part of the Land be engross’d by a few to the prejudice of those, who are to be sent on the Charity.
They desire Sir for the future You will be so kind as to send them Word directly what Bills are drawn by You on the Trustees.
They are likewise desirous that you will acquaint them what you think the Subsistance of Every Family or Every Man in Georgia will amount to for a Year, that they may be better able to calculate the Expences, and the Numbers they can at any time send over.
The Common Council have just come to a Resolution to send over fifty Men with the utmost Expedition for the greater Security of the Colony.
They have sent by this Ship Mrs. Mary Overend who desired to go to her Husband, Mrs. Elizabeth Bowling and Mary Bowling her Daughter, Martha Causton, her Son Thomas Mancer Causton, and her Neice Sophia Christiana Hopkey. They have sent likewise the Silver Chalice and Patine, the Gift of an unknown Benefactor for the first Church in Savannah.
The Common Council desire You will acquaint them, whether the Tools sent by the first Embarkation were all necessary, or whether any and what were improper, and whether the Proportions were right, or of what sort there should be greater Quantities sent, and what Ammunition likewise is wanting, or what Proportion is proper on another Embarkation. And whether there is a good situation for a Saw Mill, and what you think the Expence of erecting one may be.
They desire also that you will give them a description of the several sorts of Land, and let them know what time You think the People should be there, before they begin to prepare the Lands for sowing their seeds.
On a Petition of Robert Hetherington and Theophilus Hetherington setting forth that Robert Heatherington having sent his Grant of Land of five hundred Acres with Mr. [Roger] Lacys Grant to Georgia, and being since Married, which prevents his going immediately, and desiring that the Grant of the said Robert Hetherington may be waved and made to Thomas Fawsett of Woodstock; and that Theophilus Hetherington having also sent his Grant of Land of five hundred Acres; That two hundred and fifty Acres of the said five hundred may be granted to his Brother Robert Hetherington. The Common Council finding that Thomas Fawsett has given no other Consideration than twenty Guineas (the Charge which the said Robert Hetherington had been at) agreed to the same, and have order’d new Grants accordingly. They desire therefore the former Grants may be sent back again, and have allowed Robert Hetherington three Years to go over in.
The Trustees Sir hope You enjoy Your health perfectly. They desire their Services to You.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, June 13, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 29-30, advising that settlers are to be sent and asking what seeds and other things are needed in Georgia. By the London Spy, Capt. Mackless.
The Trustees being sensible of the Necessity of an immediate Embarkation both for the Assistance and Security of those who went before, have selected a Number of the most able Men, and the least incumber’d with Families, who are to have forty acres Each Man. I have inclosed with this a Copy of their Names. They are to sail the latter end of this week in the Georgia Capt. Henry Daubuz. The Ship is large and airy for them. She draws but ten foot and a half Water, and proposes therefore if possible to sail up the River, and land the People at Savanah Town. Of this I thought proper to give You an early information by this Ship, which sails to morrow, as some preparations may be necessary to conduct her up the River, and receive the People.
They desire You will send them an Account by the next Ship what Turnery Ware26 is necessary to be sent over on future Embarkations, and whether You want now, or when it will be proper to send over Hemp Seed, Flax Seed, Clover, St. Foyne, Lucerne and any other of the Grass Seed.
They desire likewise to know what Garden Roots, Seeds, and Plants are wanting, and what Wheat, Barley, Oats, and other Grain shall be sent, and when You think there will be ground clear for them, and whether any more Oyl shall be sent, and what will be proper to use instead of Candles.
I have inclosed with this two Catalogues of Seeds &c.; that You may mark in One of them the Articles which will be wanted, and the Quantity of Each, and transmit it to the Trustees.
They desire Sir You will acquaint them What Stores are wanted, and that you will order an Account to be kept of the Remain of Stores, and to be sent over every half Year to the Trustees.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, June 15, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 31-32, concerning delayed sending of settlers, land granting, and other items. By the Georgia, Capt. Henry Daubuz.
I had the honour to write to you last Monday June the 13th. by the London Spy Capt. Mackless, giving an Account of this Embarkation by the Ship Georgia Capt. Henry Daubuz. Some of the People, who were selected to go, have fail’d, and One or two new Ones are appointed; I shall inclose with this the true List of them as they appear on the Muster, which the Trustess are going on Board this Afternoon to take. The Ship as I mention’d in my last proposes to sail up the River if possible and land the People at Savanah Town.
With this Sir you will receive a Power to set out, Limit, and bound two thousand Eight hundred Acres granted to John Barnes, Henry Parker, and Joshua Sacheverel, also a Power to direct the granting and disposing the said two thousand Eight hundred Acres, and Exectuion of the Trust reposed in the said John Barnes, Henry Parker, and Joshua Sacheverel. There are also sent four Appointments of Additional Constables to the Town of Savanah and the Precincts thereof Vizt. John Barnes, William Brownjohn, and James Turner, and Henry Parker.
You will receive Sr. a Box of Tellicherry Bark, which is to be taken by Infusion in White Wine, and is allowed in the East Indies to be the best Remedy in Fluxes.
The Earl of Derby, and Bishop of Worcester, who have been great Benefactors, and to whom I send constantly Accounts of the Progress that is made, very earnestly desire their services to be sent You, with wishes for Your health and Success.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, June 22, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 32, concerning Joshua Sacheverel and quit rents. By the Georgia.
Joshua Sacheverel, who is named in the Trust, do’s not go in this Ship. He was design’d to be put under Christie’s Grant, in consideration of his carrying over a great many Tools of his own.
In the Grants of forty Acres that are to be made, the reserved Rent of four Shillings p. 100 Acres is to be of lawfull Money of Great Britain.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, Sept. 12, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 33-35, concerning settlers to be settled near Savannah, relations with Carolina, Parliamentary grant, Salzburgers to come to Georgia, and seeds. By the Savannah, Capt. Wood, and by the London Merchant, Capt. Thomas.
The Trustees are very much delighted with the Resolutions of the Assembly of South Carolina. They are sensible that they are indebted for these to Your unwearied Endeavours for the Success of the Colony.
As the Trustees know the great Advantage of Your Presence in the first settling of the People; They are desirous of sending over as many as they can before You leave the Place. This induced them to make the present Embarkation, which is a considerable One. You will receive an Invoyce of all the Passengers on Board as well as of the Goods. But as so many of the Gentlemen are out o’Town, that it is impossible to get a Common Council to put the Seal to the proper Powers and Indentures. These will be sent afterwards, with the Ratification of the Treaty with the Indians. As this Ship cannot with convenience carry all the Goods and the People design’d for this Embarkation, The rest of the Goods, and about forty Persons will be sent in another Ship in a fortnight.
The Trustees Sir believe You will think it right to settle as Many of the People in the Town of Savanah, as are wanted to compleat it; and with the rest to make a new Village; this to be set out as near the Town of Savanah as possible, being to be Part of the Precincts of that Town, and to be by a River or Rivulet running into the Savanah River. The Reason why they desire this is for the convenience of Saw Mills and other Mills for the Use of the Colony, which they intend to send over as soon as possible; wherefore they think it necessary that this should take place of any Persons whatever, who are desirous of Land so contiguous to the Town of Savanah, and the River, who have not already Grants under the Common Seal of the Trustees, and already set out. They desire likewise You will chuse as high and healthy a Place near such River or Rivulet as may be.
The Trustees Sr. desire You will if possible get a Law pass’d in Carolina to prevent any Persons running from Georgia receiving any Encouragement or getting any Settlement there. An Application has been already made to the Board of Trade for the same Purpose.
The ten thousand Pounds given by Parliament last Sessions have been paid into the Bank. On an Application of the Trustees to the Treasury, The Lords Commrs. order’d it to be paid without the Deduction of Six Pence in the Pound: The Officers of the Treasury and the Exchequer gave up their Fees, which with the said Deduction would have been a Drawback of five hundred Pounds.
I believe Sir You may soon expect an Embarkation of Saltzburghers. Some Difficulties have been thrown in their way by the Popish Magistracy of Augsburg, but Mr. [James] Vernon is using his utmost Endeavours to get all the Obstacles remov’d, and to have a sufficient Number in readiness.
As the Trustees are desirous of producing Raisins and Currants if possible, Some are sent by this Ship to be sowed there; as likewise the Cubebs27 and Cardamums,28 and the Gourd Seeds. The Shells of these will serve for Bottles.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, Sept. 12, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 35, regarding Pierre Randolph Morell.
The Trustees recommend to you the Bearer of this, Pierre Rodolph Morell, to be put under Christie’s Grant if possible, in the Town of Savanah; or else to have fifty acres set out for him, for which a particular Grant must be made, in consideration of twenty six Pounds being paid towards the Passage and Subsistence of himself and his Family.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, Sept. 26, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 36-37, concerning more settlers and stores, Hector de Beaufin [Beaufain], Trustees’ desire for news of Georgia, and William Wise’s misbehavior. By the James, Capt. Yoakley.
The Rest of the People who were appointed for the Embarkation by the Savanah Capt. Wood are sent by this Ship, as likewise the Remainder of Stores, Part of which were sent by the Savanah, and Part by the London Merchant Capt. Thomas. You will receive inclos’d an Invoyce of the Goods and Passengers.
Joshua Sacheverel, who was named in the Trust with Barnes and Parker, and was to have been under Christie’s Grant, in consideration of his carrying over Tools sufficient for himself and Another, having declin’d to go when he was appointed, and misbehaved himself since, is struck out of the List; And the Trustees desire no Regard may be shewn to a Letter of a former Date, which he may produce, recommending him to a Grant of fifty Acres.
A Gentleman of fortune, Hector De Beaufin [Beaufain] Esqr. is gone to Purisburgh, by Captn. Thomas, and intends to visit Georgia. As he is very well known to several of the Gentlemen here, and his only Motive in going is the Service and Good of the Colonies, they have no doubt of his meeting with an agreeable Reception.
As the Trustees are desirous of being inform’d of every Particular relating to the Establishment of the Colony; They think it necessary that Mr. [Thomas] Christie, [Joseph] Hughes, or whoever else may seem most proper, may keep a constant Journal of the health of the People, of the Progress that may be made in their Buildings and Plantations, of their Harvests, and the Arrival of any Embarkations, and of any other Transactions fit to be known; and send over such Journal by every Opportunity.
Mr. [William] Wise,29 who went in the Savanah, having misbehaved himself, and imposed on the Trustees by carrying a Woman of the Town on board the Ship, whom he had recommended to the Trustees as his Daughter, and having since occasion’d great Disturbances among the People, the Trustees have sent Orders to several Ports, in which the Ship may put, to set him on Shore.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, Sept. 26, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 38, concerning Robert Parker.
The Trustees recommend the Bearer of this Mr. Robert Parker, (lately an Alderman of Lynn30) to be put under Christie’s Grant in the Town of Savanah if there is room; or else to have fifty Acres set out for him for which a particular Grant must be made.
Benjamin Martyn to Governor Robert Johnson of South Carolina, Oct. 18, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 38-39, acknowledging South Carolina’s and Johnson’s help to Georgia. By the Volant, Capt. Smytet.
I have the honour of Your Excellency’s Letter dated July the 28th. 1733; and have receiv’d the Commands of the Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia to return their thanks for it.
They have a just Impression of the great Service the Contributions in South Carolina have been for subsisting the People in Georgia, and think themselves under the greatest Obligation to You for using Your Interest with the Assembly for promoting the same. They doubt not but the Inhabitants of the Province under Your Excellency’s care will, besides the satisfaction of Mind for their Generosity, receive an ample Retribution by the Assistance and Security which the new Colony may shortly afford them.
The Trustees have the liveliest Sense of Your Excellency’s Goodness in promising Your kindness to the Georgians when Mr. Oglethorpe leaves them. They know it will be of the greatest Consequence to the Undertaking; Indeed they pleas’d themselves before with the Assurance of it, not only from the Good Offices which Your Excellency has already done them, but from the Advantage, which the Colony must be of to Great Britain.
The Trustees hope Your Excellency will meet with in return all the Prosperity such Extensive Humanity and Charity deserve.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, Oct. 18, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 40-41, concerning Salzburger colonists, William Wise, lost of subsistence in Georgia, reports to the Trustees, and Jews in Georgia. By the Volant, Capt. Smytet.
In my last which I had the honour to send You by the James Capt. Yoakley, I inform’d You, there would soon be an Embarkation of Saltzburghers; You may expect very speedily Sixty of them. The Trustees believe they are already in their Journey to Rotterdam, and are sending a Ship immediately to receive them. They desire they may be settled as near together as possible to have the Benefit of their German Ministers.
I acquainted You Sir in my last with the Behaviour of Mr. [William] Wise, who went in the Savanah, Capt. Wood; That he had imposed on the Trustees by carrying a Woman of the Town on board the Ship, who was receiv’d as his Daughter. The Trustees were afterwards inform’d, as the Ship put into different Ports, that there were great Differences and Distractions among the People, chiefly, if not entirely owing to him. They sent their Orders for him to be set on Shore, but the Ship sail’d before these were receiv’d. As the Trustees are apprehensive he may be the Cause of Disturbances among the People in Georgia, they think it improper that he should be permitted to have a Settlement there, and desire he may be sent back with the Baggage at their Expence. The Trustees Sir want very much to be inform’d, how the People, that have been sent, are subsisted in Georgia, and what You may compute the annual Charge of maintaining a Man there to be.
As I mention’d in my last, the Trustees desire that Mr. [Thomas] Christie, or Mr. [Joseph] Hughes, or whoever may be found most proper, may keep a Journal every Week of the Health of the People, of their Progress in their Buildings and their Plantations, and their Harvests; and what kind of Government is settled, and how they submit to it; and any other Transactions necessary to be known; and send it over every opportunity to the Trustees.
The Trustees have heard with concern of the arrival of Forty Jews with a Design to settle in Georgia. They hope they will meet with no sort of Encouragement, and desire Sir You will use Your best Endeavours that the said Jews may be allowed no kind of Settlement with any of the Grantees, The Trustees being apprehensive they will be of prejudice to the Trade and Welfare of the Colony.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, Nov. 22, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 42-44, concerning misbehavior and illness of settlers, outlawing rum in Georgia, Dr. Samuel Nunis, new settlers, supplies sent, Scots to Georgia, designs of Spaniards, and Oglethorpe’ Parliamentary election. By the Purisburgh, Capt. Fry.
The Trustees have receiv’d your Letter of August the 12th. 1733. They are very much concern’d to hear of the Misbehaviour of the People. And as they are very sensible of what Consequence Your Presence has been to appease the Mutinies, they are likewise afraid these may revive when you come away, and are therefore more sollicitous to have some Man of Abilities, of Spirit and Temper as Super Intendant over them. They think not only themselves, but the Publick under the greatest Obligation to You for Your great Humanity in staying to take care of the Sick. As it appears evidently by Your Letter that the Sickness among the People is owing to their excessive Drinking of Rum Punch, the Trustees do absolutely forbid their drinking, or even having any Rum, and agree with You so entirely in Your Sentiments, that they order all that shall be brought them to be immediately staved.
As the Trustees are apprehensive all their Orders to this purpose may be ineffectual, while the Trading Housed31 is so near and can supply the People, they are of Opinion that the Trading House shall not be permitted, but on the Condition that they offer no Rum to sale, nor indeed keep any.
The Trustees are very much pleas’d with the Behaviour of the Jewish Physician,32 and the Service he has been of to the Sick; As they have no doubt but You have given him some Gratuity for it, they hope you have taken any other Method of rewarding him than in granting of Lands.
You will receive Sr. an Invoyce of the Goods and People sent by this Ship. All the Saltzburghers who could be collected to go this Imbarkation are thirty six in Number making thirty One Heads: As the Trustees could not tell till they came to Rotterdam, what the Number would be, and therefore provided a Ship capable of carrying about Seventy or Eighty Heads, they have mixd with the Saltzburghers other People from hence, and have enlargd the Imbarkation to Sixty Seven Heads five Sixths.
They have sent by this Ship some of the Seed of the Egyptian Kali, that produces a Plant that makes the best Potashes. The Seed is to be sowed for trial in all the different kinds of Land, particularly the low and rich Land.
They have sent likewise Pens, Paper and Ink Powder, and repeat their Desire that a constant and regular Journal of all Occurrences may be takers and sent over by every Opportunity, and that not only Mr. [Thomas] Christie but Mr. [Samuel] Quincy be desired to do it.
The Common Council have given grants of Land to several Gentlemen in Scotland, who are preparing to set out for Georgia with their Servants to the Number of about Ninety.
They have heard by private Letters from South Carolina of the Design of the Spaniards at the Havanah against Port Royal, and the new Settlement; They are taking the best Method they can to defeat these Designs, in the mean time they hope with impatience, for a more particular Account Sr. from you.
They have heard likewise with the greatest Concern of the Accident which befell you, and tho’ they were inform’d You was out of Danger, they cannot be easy till they hear the News of Your perfect Recovery.
It is with great pleasure I can tell You that I believe there will be no Opposition to You in Your Borough,33 and that I have an Opportunity of subscribing my Self.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, Nov. 22, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 45, recommending Edward Bust [Bush] for a land grant. By the Purisburgh, Capt. Fry.
The Trustees recommend the Bearer of this Edward Bust34 to have fifty Acres set out for him in consideration of his paying ten Pounds towards his Passage and Maintenance in Georgia.
Benjamin Martyn to Secretary of State Lord Harrington, Nov. 23, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 45-46, expressing the Trustees’ concern over the Spanish threat against Georgia and South Carolina.
All the Advices lately receiv’d from South Carolina agreeing that the Spaniards at the Havanah intend to make a Descent on Port Royal35 and to destroy the same, and the new Settlements of Georgia and Purisburgh, which was design’d last Spring, and postpon’d only for want of good Pilots; The Trustees think it their Duty to communicate the Intelligence to Your Lordship, and to desire it may be laid before his Majesty; Since such a Descent must it is greatly to be fear’d entirely ruin the Southern Settlements.
Tho’ the Trustees in discharge of their Trust have sent as many People as their Fund would enable them, and supplied them with Arms and Ammunition; yet they conceive their Number is too small to make a sufficient Defence. They think it proper therefore to acquaint Your Lordship that the Fortifications of their Settlement of Savanah in Georgia are very weak and not sufficiently provided with Cannon, and they are credibly inform’d that Port Royal is in no Posture of Defence.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, Dec. 15, 1733, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 46, recommending land grant for Thomas Trip.
The Trustees recommend the Bearer of this, Thomas Trip36 to have fifty Acres set out for him in consideration of his paying ten Pounds towards his Passage and Maintenance in Georgia.
Benjamin Martyn to D. Wolters of Rotterdam, March 6, 1733/4, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 47-48, rejecting application by Vaudois (Swiss) who desire to come to Georgia.
The Revd. Dr. [Richard] Bundy has laid Your Letter with that of Mr. [Jean Lovis] Poyas before the Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America with the List of the People and their Engagement. The Trustees have directed me to acquaint you that they observe the Vaudois37 cannot be assembled before the beginning of May, and that they insist on several things which the Trustees cannot grant without breaking thro’ such Methods as they have thought proper to establish. Their Fund will not enable them to provide a Minister for the Vaudois, and indeed they find by the large Embarkations which have been lately made, it will be proper for some time to defer the Consideration of sending over the said Vaudois, because they would have the same regard to them as all the Rest that have been sent; They would preserve it always in their power to maintain them. As the Prospect of their going is therefore so distant, the Trustees desire they will not disengage themselves from any Business in which they may be at presnt; As soon as the Trustees find themselves enabled to send them, I shall acquaint them by You with their Resolutions.
As for the Rest of the Money in the hands of Mr. Poyas, the Trustees are desirous he will accept of it for the trouble he has taken; which they will always remember with a proper Regard, as they will Yours with the sincerest thanks.
It is some time since You was so kind as to acquaint me with the Collection made at Leverpool for the Charity of Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America, and that You had something further in View for promoting and enlarging the same. I must beg a Line from you that I may communicate to the Trustees Your Proposal, and at the same time I must desire by their Order that You will send as soon as you can what has been already collected; That You will send it to the Trustees Office, or Order it to be paid into the Bank of England for their Use.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, March 25 and 27, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 49-52, concerning correspondence and reports to the Trustees, Trustees accounts to the government, South Carolina gifts to Georgia, land grants, Jews, Oglethorpe’s bills on the Trustees, Lowland Scots, and new Trustees elected. By the Friendship, Capt. Compton.
It has given the Trustees a very great Concern that they have not heard from You so long, because You have been ill, and they are Uncertain of the present State of Your health, and because they are ignorant of the Condition of the Colony.
They have found the Want of a constant and exact Correspondence so very prejudicial to the Business of the Trust, that they have thought it necessary to appoint a Committee of Correspondence and finding You are so much engag’d that it may not be possible for You to attend to such minute Accounts, as may be proper to be known by the Trustees, they desire You will appoint Somebody and transmit his Name (that he may receive a recompence for it.) to correspond constantly with them by every Ship, and to keep a Journal of all remarkable transactions, and an Account of the health of the People, and send with it a List of those who are dead, or may hereafter dye, and of what distempers, if they have good Medicines, and proper People (Vizt. Apothecaries and Surgeons) to take care of them; an account likewise from time to time of the Progress they make in their Buildings, and cultivating their several Lots in order to supply themselves necessaries; how the People are subsisted, and what the Annual Charge of maintaining a Man there has been; To send by every Ship with the Journal an Account also of Stores received, issued, and remaining, which of the tools prove faulty and are most wanted, and the Price of any Stores that are bought at Carolina, that the Difference may be known between those bought there and at home.
The Want of such a Journal and such Accounts disables the Trustees from giving as directed by the Secretaries of State and the Board of Trade any Account of the Progress of the Colony, that may give a Credit to the Undertaking. Whereby the Trustees are at a full stop, till they have a specifick Account of What Sums have been expended, and Estimates of all Expences that may arise; They cannot expect any Money from Parliament this Year, and are asham’d to ask any, till they give in their Account. They find the Contributions come in very slowly, by which means, being low in Cash, they do not think proper to incur any new Expence, ‘till they know the present State of their Affairs, and the demands upon them.
The Common Council desire to know what the Contributions at South Carolina and the Gift of the Assembly amount to, and how they have been laid out; what Grants likewise You have directed to be made in pursuance of the Power of disposing of the Trust Grants, and to Whom; They hope no Grants will be made without acquainting them; They want very much to know what has been done with the Jews (who went without their knowledge) and how they are settled.
Several Bills Sr. to the Amount of £450 have been received without any Letters of Advice. The Common Council from a full Belief they were drawn by You, for the honour of the Drawer, and to support the Credit of the Colony, have paid them; But they have also, from an Apprehension of the Dangers that may attend such Payments, come to a Resolution to pay no more Bills without proper Advice; They desire that for the future no Bills may be drawn on the Trustees for a shorter time than thirty Days after sight, that every Bill may be drawn on George Heathcote Esqr. and Co. on Account of the Trustees, and that the Letters of Advice may as far as possible Specify the particular Services for which such Bills were drawn.
If the Person Sr., Whom You appoint to correspond with the Trustees, shall not appear to be a proper One, they Order me to say they will send one. They recommend to Your thoughts some Method of breeding Black Cattle.
The Common Council having received a Letter from Hugh Stirling, Patrick Tailfer, William Stirling, and Jo. Baillie (to whom they have some time since given Grants of Land) setting forth, that twelve of their Servants, after they were embark’d for Georgia, were inticed from them on Board the King’s Ships at Portsmouth (a warm Press being on foot,) they desire a Possession of their Land may be given them, till they can compleat their Number again; The Common Council think it reasonable that such a Part only of the Land may be given them as is proportion’d to the Number of Servants they carry with them, and the rest on their compleating the Number stipulated.
Last Thursday March the 21st. being the Annual Meeting of the Trustees, they elected the Nine following Gentlemen Vizt. the Revd. Dr. [Thomas] Rundle, William Talbot Esqr. (Eldest Son to the Lord Chancellor) Thomas Archer, Henry Archer, William Woolaston, Francis Woolaston, Robert Eyre, Robert Tracy, and Richard Coope Esqrs.
P.S. March 27, Since my writing the above, the Trustees have receiv’d a Letter from Mr. [Thomas] Causton with advice (by Your Order) of Bills for £200 drawn by You some time ago. The Trustees Sir suppose these to be Part of the Bills for £450 of which there was no Advice.
The Duke of Kent has paid six Guineas for the use of [William] Dalmass.
The Trustees have this day receiv’d Your Letter dated Septr. 17 1733 by Capt. Daubuz of the Georgia Pink.
Benjamin Martyn to the Rev. Mr. Dumont of Rotterdam, April 6, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 53-55, concerning land inheritance in Georgia and arrangements for colonists from Vaud.
Your Letter of the 16th. of March, N.S. has been read to the Trustees appointed by Royal Charter for settling the new Colony of Georgia in America, who (for removing Objections made without foundation to their Proceedings,) have order’d me to make You the following Answer.
There is not any Clause in the Royal Charter, which prescribes Conditions or Rules to the Trustees for their granting of Lands in Georgia; But as the Crown has given them an absolute Propriety in those Lands, they are trusted with the care of granting them out to such Persons and on such Conditions as may in their Judgement best conduce to the End proposed in Establishing the Colony, both as to the Preservation and Augmentation of it, which Views have directed all their Proceedings hitherto. For the Conditions they have annex’d to such Grants made by them to Persons sent over entirely at the Charge of the Trustees Vizt. That the Land should remain to them and their Heirs Male cannot be deem’d a hardship to them, but has upon the best Deliberation been thought most suitable to the infant State of a Colony, and wisely calculated for its Defence. For as these Estates in Land are barely sufficient for the maintenance of a Family, the Trustees thought it expedient to keep them entire in the hands of a Grantee, capable both to cultivate and defend them, but the Trustees were not so ignorant or absent as to forget how necessary a Part Women are in a Family, and that to keep them in good humour their Interest is not to be neglected. The Law of England has a great Regard to this, and that is the Rule the Trustees have acted by; Assigning to Widows a third in their Husbands Estates. As to Daughters or Younger Children of either Sex, the Trustees have not been unmindfull of them, having engaged themselves to make new Grants to such of them as are grown up, and are willing to marry and settle, which they look on to be a better Provision for the Younger Children than the splitting of the first Grant would be, and better calculated for the maintenance of them, and encouragement of Marriage, and the increase of the Colony. It must be observed likewise that the Grantees have full power to dispose of their personal Estates. But a main Objection still remains unanswer’d; What becomes of the Original Grant made to the Man and his Issue Male? If he dies without having such Issue, are his Daughters to be deprived of all Benefit of his hazard and Labour, And an Estate improved by him given to others, because he has no Son, tho’ his Daughters be equally dear to him? To this I am order’d to answer, that the Trustees in their Cases are ready to grant this Estate to any Daughter proposed to them by the Grantee, on Condition of such Daughters marrying to a Person willing to settle there, not being possess’d of such another Grant. And this has been already done in favour of Persons who were destitute of Issue Male and had Daughters.
As to Mr. [Jean Lovis] Poyas and the forty Vaudois, I can now have the pleasure of acquainting You, that the Trustees are determin’d to send and settle them, and that a Sloop will be ready to take them on board at Rotterdam (of which they will have Notice) in the Month of August. This will be the most proper time to send them, as they will arrive there in the healthy Season, which the Trustees look on as of the greatest Consequence, and will always have the strictest Regard to.
Benjamin Martyn to James Oglethorpe, April 10, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 55, concerning the whereabouts of Robert Saunders.
The Wife of Robert Saunders38 (who went with his Son as Servants to [Will] Gough and his Son) has attended the Board with a Complaint that she hears her Husband and Son were sold by their Masters in South Carolina. The Trustees desire to know the State of the Fact, because the Woman is desirous to be sent over, if her Husband and Son are in Georgia.
Benjamin Martyn to the Rev. Richard Lowther at Rotterdam, April 12, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 56, giving conditions for settling in Georgia.
I have recd. Yours of Aprill 13. 1734 N.S. wherein You mention three Women and One Man who are desirous of going to Georgia, and of knowing what Encouragement is given to those who go; The Trustees give no money. They only give a Tract of Land to Every Man and his Heirs Male, sufficient to maintain himself and a Family, They carry the People thither at their expence; subsist them for a Year, or till they can get in a Harvest, and supply them with Tools. There will be no Embarkation of Saltzburghers, or any others for some months, so that I believe You will think it adviseable to give them no hopes of going, that may induce them to neglect their present Business or Subsistance.
Benjamin Martyn to the Rev. I. Stanley at Liverpool, June 3, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 57, concerning settlers for Georgia.
Since the Elections are over, I hope You will find the People at leisure to listen to those Proposals You have to make relating to the Colony of Georgia; In the mean time, the Trustees desire You will be so kind as to remit what Sums You have already in Your hands for them; because they are to close their Annual Account in a few days. In Answer to what You intimated in Your last, that a Tract of Land might be transfer’d to certain Persons to dispose of to Any of the Poor in Your Neighborhood, it is really impracticable, and inconsistent with the Charter; But (as I formerly acquainted You and the Corporation of Leverpool) the Trustees will always have a regard to any, who are recommended by You on the Corporation, so far as your Contributions will enable them. The following [above] Letter, which is a Copy of one sent to Holland to the Revd. Mr. Dumont by Order of the Trustees, will I hopes remove all Your Scruples relating to the Settlements on the Heirs Male.
Benjamin Martyn to Monsr. De Pfail at Ratisbon, July 4, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 58-59, giving conditions for settling in Georgia.
The Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America have receiv’d a Letter sent by You to the Honble. Mr. [James] Vernon, and have directed me to write You the following Answer, and acquaint You with the Tenure of the Lands which they grant, and the Charge of subsisting People in Georgia.
The Tenure is to the Heirs Male of the Body of the Person to whom they are granted for ever, and the Widows of every Man will have a third of their Estates.
To You Sr. the Trustees will grant five hundred Acres of Land (the greatest Lots which they can give) with all the Rights and Priviledges of a Gentleman. Among which Priviledges, One is, always to serve on Horseback. A Second, That in all criminal Proceedings a Man cannot be judged, unless four Gentlemen are of the Jury, and decide against him. A Third is the Right of shooting and fishing in any Part of the Province that is not inclosed.
In five hundred acres of Land a Gentleman is oblig’d to keep ten Servants, who at the Expiration of their Service will have twenty Acres of Land each Man granted by the Trustees to them and their Heirs Male for ever.
To the People, whom You carry over with You, who are not servants, the Trustees will grant fifty Acres each Man, And in consideration of Your gaining for them the said fifty Acres, paying their Passage thither, and subsisting them there, till they can raise Crops to support themselves, You may stipulate with them in what manner you please; and whatever Contracts You make with them will be for Your Security enroll’d and register’d by the Trustees.
The Expences will be: -- For the Passage from Rotterdam to Georgia £ 6 Sterl. each head. Or from London to Georgia £ 5 Sterl. each head. Every Person above twelve Years of Age is computed to be a Head, Between seven and twelve Years of Age two are reckon’d to a head, and between two and Seven Years three are computed to a head. For those below two Years no freight is paid. Fifteen Bushels of Indian Corn p. Head for a Year at One Shilling and Six Pence each Bushel, and three hundred wt. of Beef or Pork at thirteen Shillings Each Hundred Weight, and Sixteen Gallons of Melasses for making Beer at two Shillings each Gallon must be allowed them.
These articles with some Others, such as Butter, Cheese, Sope, Oyl for Lamps make the Charge of subsisting each Man to be £ 6 for a Year besides the Passage.
Benjamin Martyn to Thomas Causton, July 23, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 60, directing him to furnish aid to settlers at Purrysburg, South Carolina.
The Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia direct You by this to deliver to Captn. Pury out of the Storehouse such Provisions as he may want for the People, whom he is now conducting to Purvisburgh, till they can get to their Settlements, for which they are afterwards to make a Return in kind; They do likewise direct that they may have the Use of any Boats that can be spared, and that such a Number of them as can conveniently may be lodged in the Guardhouse, and that You give them such further help and assistance as You can afford.
Some time since I acquainted You, that the Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia, who are always attentive to the Interest and Welfare of the Saltzburghers, desired they would send over Inventories of their several Effects they left behind them in Saltzburgh; and at the same time send a proper Authority to the Trustees, or whoever else the Trustees may appoint, to receive the same for the Use of the Saltzburghers, and they will be remitted to them as soon as receiv’d.
I hope Sr. You and they are in perfect Health, and that the Country answers fully their Expectations.
Benjamin Martyn to John Vanderplank at Savannah, July 27, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 61-62, reaffirming the staving of rum and constable’s authority in Georgia.
The Trustees approve greatly of Your deligence in complying with their Orders for staving of Rum, and other distilled Liquors; But think You ought to have proceeded further, and have staved the Rum belonging to John Wright, and all other Persons whatsoever, notwithstanding any Combination for the prevention of it, for they don’t believe any Combination dared to have resisted a Constable in the Execution of the Orders of his Superiors.
With respect to Threats to sue You in England, You ought wholly to have slighted them; and I hereby acquaint You, that no Body can give directions in the Colony but the Trustees, and their Instructions must be pursued, and they will support those who obey them; They renew them again to You to stave all Rum and other distilled Liquors in Georgia; and if any Person shall resist or refuse to comply with these Instructions, You are to compel them to submit, and if You have occasion for any Force, the Trustees will give Directions for the Effectual supporting the Execution of their Orders.
Upon the Receipt hereof, You are to go immediately and search Wright’s house, and stave all the Rum You can find there, and for that Purpose take such Assistance with You as You shall find necessary.
Mr. John Wright having refused to conform to the Orders sent by the Trustees, and having under pretence of his License for selling Beer and Ale, sold Rum, and refused to suffer that which he had in his House to be staved; You are hereby required to take away his License for selling Beer, Ale, or any other Liquor whatsoever, and to give the said License to the Widow Hodges; Provided that She doth not pretend to sell any distilled Liquors; And You are to proceed in the severest Manner against Every Person, who shall under any Pretence whatsoever dare to sell any Rum, or other distilled Liquors.
Benjamin Martyn to Thomas Causton, July 27, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 63-66, concerning stores in Savannah, maintenance of settlers, clearing land by settlers, building at Ebenezer, South Carolina help to Georgia, drawing on Trustees for funds, sale of beer, and Indians in England. By the James, Capt. Yoakley.
Your general Letter to Mr. Oglethorpe of May 4, 1734, was read at the Board last night, and the Trustees desire You will send them an Account of the Stores Received, issued, and remaining; As also of what time Each Person’s Maintenance commenced upon the Store, and when any Person’s time of Maintenance expires, Such Person is not to be continued to be maintain’d without an absolute Necessity, which Necessity is to be judged of by Your self in conjunction with Mr. [Thomas] Christie and Mr. [John] Vanderplank; and where Necessity so requires, the allowance to any such Person is not to exceed the rate of 15 Bushels of India Corn, and a Barrel of Beef a Year for such Person so long as such allownace shall be necessary, but not exceeding a Year after his first Year’s Maintenance, or already limited time of his said Maintenance, and nothing else to make it necessary but the Inability of the Person to maintain himself.
As soon as the September Corn is in, it is the Opinion of the Trustees, that Mr. [Francis ?] Lynch and his numerous Servants should be continued on the Store for maintenance no longer; For they recommend it to You to be as good a Manager of the Stores as You can, and cautious of all Expences; But at the same time as an Encouragement to the Inhabitants, and for the good of the whole to permit none to want who cannot subsist themselves. Therefore even after the Expiration of the Year, all in Necessity You are to subsist after the rate of 15 Bushels of India Corn, and a Barrel of Beef a Year p. Head which Necessity, as I said before is to be judged of by Your self, Mr. Christie, and Mr. Vanderplank; You will remember however that the first Forty39 are to be continued on their present allowance to the first of Febry. next.
The Trustees desire to know how soon any of the Persons on Your List can subsist themselves wholly or in part; and also desire you will call on Mr. [Joseph] Fitzwalter to send his Journal of what Progress Each Person has made in the clearing and sowing his Land, according to the Instructions sent him by Mr. Oglethorpe from Charles Town, and that Mr. Vanderplank may send a Copy of his Journal also.
Your Advice to the People at Skidoway was perfectly right, and they must continue where they were posted by Mr. Oglethorpe.
If another Carpenter is not sent to Ebenezer, You are to send two Working Hands there for their Woodwork, and You are also to buy four good Horses and send to Ebenezer.
You are to put Henry Lloyd recommended by Mr. Augustin in possession of a Town Lot on the usual Tenure, till Grants can be sent.
You have a Letter from Mr. [Harman] Verelst to let Richard Millechamp have a Town Lot making 50 Acres, he is to be maintain’d a Year, and furnished with proper Tools.
Mr. Oglethorpe having remitted for the Assembly at Charles Town £200 Sterl., which Mr. Beal is now ready to repay, You are directed to draw on Him for what may be absolutely necessary as far as that Money goes, the Trustees thinking it proper to employ that Money first.
Mr. [Paul] Jenys and Mr. [John] Baker having a Letter of Attorney from Mr. Oglethorpe to receive the Rum Duty, You are to draw on them after tha above £200 is exhausted, to answer such Occasions as necessarily occur, and therefore You have no further Occasion to draw on Mr. [Isaac] Chardon till order’d.
When You draw any Money in pursuance of these Instructions You are required to acquaint Mr. Christie and Mr. Vanderplank to sign their Names as Witnesses, that the respective Sums, from time to time drawn for, may by their signing appear attested to have been laid out according to the Account given for drawing each Bill, Copies of which must be transmitted from time to time to England.
The Trustees have sent You ten Tons of Strong Beer in forty Hogsheads, which You are to dispose of at the prime Cost with the Charges, and avail Your self with the Produce as Cash to enable You to defray, as far as that will, the necessary Expences of the Colony. The Bill of Lading is inclosed, and the Prime Cost in England without the freight to Savanah is £80. Sterling.
The Indians40 are all well, and Tomo Chachi desires that Ichko Saona or Savanah, and Mahokly the Uchy Indians may stay till he comes back, and that You would let them know he is doing a great deal of Good for them all and their Children, and You are to let them have what Corn they want as usual.
Mrs. [Mary] Vanderplank and Maid Servant and Boy are to be put upon the Stores and William Hadley.
Benjamin Martyn to the Bailiffs and Recorder of Savannah, Oct. 9, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 66, directing land be granted to Joseph Smith.
The Trustees direct that Joseph Smith the Bearer of this have a Town Lot of fifty Acres. He is to subsist himself, and find his own Tools.
Benjamin Martyn to the Bailiffs and Recorder of Savannah, Oct. 9, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 66, directing land be granted to Francis Piercy and William Calloway.
The Trustees direct that Francis Piercy, and William Calloway have each of them a Town Lot of fifty Acres. Francis Piercy is to subsist himself, and find his own Tools. William Calloway and his Servant are to be put on the Store, and furnish’d with Tools.
Harman Verelst to Baron Philip George Frederick Von Reck at Ratisbon, Nov. 6, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 67, asking King that settlers from Bohemia be stopped. Sent in the care of Mr. Walters, at Rotterdam, and desired him to send it to Von Reck wherever he is.
Mr. [James] Vernon having this day laid before the Board, the Contents of your Letter dated from the Frontiers of Bohemia the 7th. of October (being the first Meeting after receiving it). The Trustees were very much Surprized at the Contents of it, having had no previous Notice of Your Intention of bringing any Persons from Bohemia; And as the Trustees are at present in no Condition to Contribute anything to the Sending over either them or any other Persons to Georgia; They desire You will immediately put an absolute Stop to Your Proceedings.
Benjamin Martyn to Thomas Causton, Oct. 28, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 68-74, concerning reports desired by the Trustees, John Vat, Trustee mail, Indian trade, Salzburgers, sale of liquors, bills of exchange, aid to sick, orphans, William Wise’s death, and individual settlers. By the Prince of Wales, Capt. Dunbar.
The inclosed is the Copy of a former Letter dated July 27th. 1734. The Trustees have receiv’d no Advices from You since May 4. 1734, which occasions great Uneasiness.
Mr. [Thomas] Christie had Orders from Mr. Oglethorpe to keep an exact Journal of all Proceedings in Court, Warrants, Writs, and every thing else worth Notice. The Trustees expect he will send it the first Opportunity, and that he will write a Journal every fortnight, and have it ready to send them by every Occasion.
The Trustees direct that Mr. [Noble] Jones the Surveyor do keep an Account of the Land he runs out, and send it to them every Opportunity, and send at the same time an Account of the Number of Acres cleared on each Lot, and with what the same is sowed and planted, and how cultivated. The Trustees expect Mr. [Joseph] Fitzwalter’s and Mr. [John] Vanderplank’s Journal also to be writ constantly every fortnight. They would likewise have from You Mr. Causton an Account of the health of the People, and a List of those who are dead since the last Account, and of what Distempers they died. In short the Trustees expect You will write every fortnight of all remarkable transactions, and send by every Opportunity. They have therefore sent You a Man and Maid Servant41 who are to be on the Store; and have directed Mr. [John] Vat, who conducts this Imbarkation of Saltzburghers, to write out such Accounts and Letters as You shall think necessary. Mr. Vat is to have a Lot in the Town of Savanah on the customary Tenure, and Conditions, and is to have a Servant, who is to be on the Store.
The Trustees being apprehensive that the Accounts You have hitherto sent may have been stopt at Charles Town, direct that for the future Your Letters be always carefully sealed, and directed to the Trustees inclosed to Mr. [Samuel] Eveleigh42 at Charles Town; And that he be desired to forward them the first Opportunity.
If Charles Gallier of Highgate in the County of Savanah is resolved to come away, the Trustees are willing, that, paying his Passage home, surrendring his Grant, and returning his Tools, and the Utensils he has receiv’d, he may have leave to come away, and he is hereby discharg’d of any Debt to the Trustees contracted for Provisions; If Gallier has a Mind to stay, and finds a Man who has no Lot, and is desirous of marrying his Daughter, the Trustees will substitute his Son in law as his Heir Male, who with the Daughter shall hold it to them and the Heirs Male of their Bodies for ever: If he refuses this Offer, and persists in coming away, he must make up an Account with the Storekeeper for what he has receiv’d, and sign it; In this Case, the Lot reverts to the Trustees, And therefore You are to put a proper Person, who has already no Lot (if You can, the Trustees would have him to be an Englishman with a Family,) into the possession of that Lot, and send over his Name to the Trustees, and direct Mr. [Noble] Jones the Surveyor to send a Description of the Lot, that the Trustees may send over a Grant for the same.
You are to take care that No Body do trade with the Indians without Licenses, and acquaint the People, that if they will be prosecuted with the utmost Severity according to Law, This do’s not however extend to Mr. [John] Musgrove, he being already licensed by the Trustees.
If You can get fresh Meat and flower for them, You must give it to the Saltzburghers, as the most proper refreshment for them on their Arrival. And You must take the Biscuit and Salt Beef, which is sent with them, in lieu thereof, and use in the common Store.
The Trustees think it proper that the Tiber [Tybee] and Skidoway People should be kept on the Store for another Year, and that they may be encourag’d to stay where they are, the Trustees have sent them Shoes and Cloaths.
All Persons, that sell Beer, Ale, Small Beer, Wine, Cyder, or any other Liquors by retale, that is to say, any Quantity under twenty Gallons, are Sutlers; And You are to suffer No One to settle but Who has a License; And You must take care that no Sutler sells any thing but Liquors; the Sutler however may keep Ordinaries, and sell Victuals and Provisions of All sorts to be drest and eaten in the said Sutler’s House; But he must not sell any dry Goods nor keep Shops, for that would be incroaching on others; And the Sutlers having the sole right of vending liquors, should not interfere with the Shopkeepers; Therefore if Mrs. Hodges accepts of a License, to sell Beer, she must give over her Shop. All Persons who have Licenses must be obliged to have in their houses Accommodations for Travellers.
The Trustees direct that no Bills may be drawn on them for less than thirty days after sight, and whenever You make any Draught on Mr. Jenys and Baker, they expect that You should express in those Draughts, that they pay the sums so drawn for out of the Monies receiv’d by them, by Virtue of the Order of James Oglethorpe Esqr. impowering them to receive the Monies arising from the Duty on Rum, granted by a late Act of Assembly of South Carolina, entitled an Act for the speedier, better, and more effectual Relief of his Majesty’s Colony of Georgia, and for continuing the Duty of three pence p. Gallon on Rum for the use of the Brick Church in Charles Town for the time therein mention’d; which, tho’ it may seem long the Trustees direct to be mention’d in every Draught.
If You find any of the People really sick, without friends to help them, and incapable of supporting themselves, You are to assist them as Occasion shall require. You will however certainly take care to be well satisfied, and to have good Evidence, and the Testimony of some of the Magistrates of their being really sick and indigent, before You give them such assistance. As the Trustees believe, Your Humanity will always induce You to take a proper care of those who really want, they trust to Your Judgement in disposing of the Stores to no Others.
The Orphans, who have no other means of supporting themselves, and have no Friends to take care of them, are by the Trustees Orders to be put on the Store. Till they are of Age to be put out Apprentices; They must to be sure be put out Apprentices as soon as conveniently may be.
The Trustees being inform’d that Mr. [John] West was desirous to retire from the Magistracy, and being inform’d that Henry Parker has been very diligent in cultivating his Lands, and Active in maintaining the publick Peace; have therefore appointed the said Henry Parker to be their Bailiff, and have sent him a Servant,43 that he may have more time to do his Duty. Mr. [Peter] Gordon the first Bailiff gos over by this Ship.
The Trustees think it proper that John Millidge should have a License to occupy the House and Lot, which of right belong to his Elder Brother Thomas Millidge, till the said Thomas Millidge comes of Age, that the said John Millidge may be thereby enabled to take care of his two Sisters, and his Younger Brother in Georgia. John Millidge must be look’d on as a Freeman, and must not be appreatic’d but to any other Person.
The Trustees direct that William Calloway should have a License to sell Beer, Ale, and all other Liquors except distill’d Liquors and all Mixtures therewith.
The Trustees order that the following Persons should be put on the Store; Vizt. George Hows, Thomas Egerton, William Calloway and his Servant, Henry Loyd his Wife and Servant, William Ewen, whom the Trustees have sent You as a Servant for two Years, William Russell bound to Thomas Christie, (and Henry Bishop sent by the Trustees as a Servant to Mr. [John Martin] Bolzius for seven Years.) John Millidge his Brother and Sisters are likewise to be kept on the Store, and his Servant is to be put on it.
There will be sent over a Grant of two thousand five hundred Acres to the three Bailiffs and Recorder in trust for the Saltzburghers and Others, And also a Power to the said Magistrates to set out, bound, and limit the same. You must direct Mr. [Noble] Jones the Surveyor to measure out the Lands in pursuance of the said Grant and Power.
The Trustees direct the Magistrates to send over an Account of what Proceedings have been on Mr. [William] Wise’s Decease, with regard to his Effects, and whether he has left any Will relating to them, for the information of his Sister who is his Heir at Law.
The Trustees want to know what is become of [Joseph] Watson the Indian Trader, whether he is living, and how he goes on.
As Capt. [George] Dunbar, by desire of the Trustees, designs to visit the Southward Settlements, they hereby order, that the Scout Boat in the Georgia Service attend him thither; and all the Assistance that can must be given to him in unloading his Ship, whilst he is gone to visit the said Settlements.
The Trustees do also direct that the Magistrates do grant a Warrant to Capt. Dunbar, during that Voyage to the Southward, to secure any idle, vagrant People, or any Persons whatsoever, who have enter’d on the Lands of Georgia without the Authority of the Trustees, and bring them before the Magistrates to be dealt with according to Law.
The Trustees direct that Mr. Roht and his Family, and Mr. Bromberger44 be sent and settled at Fort Argile, on Account of many Disturbances they have raised among the Saltzburghers.
The other Letter which is inclosed You are to read to the People.
Benjamin Martyn to the Bailiffs and Recorder of Savannah, Oct. 28, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 75-76, concerning murder in Georgia, Elisha Dobree, rum in Georgia, behavior of Georgians, and religion.
The Trustees have heard by private hands of a very barbarous Murder committed in the Province of Georgia,45 As they are very sorry there are any People in the Colony wicked enough to do such an Action, so they hope, that Part of the Account, which says, the Guards suffer’d them to escape, is not true. They are very well pleased with the Behaviour of the Magistrates and Jury on this Occasion, and no less with the Diligence of those who took the Murderers, and thereby procured Justice to be done. The Trustees suppose You have sent them an Account of this, but, as by some Accident, it has never come to their hands, they expect You will transmit to them an Authentick Account, that they may be able to show a proper regard to those, who have exerted themselves in the Maintenance of Peace, and the Execution of the Law.
The Trustees have seen an Account in the Carolina Gazette of Mr. Elisha Dobree,46 who seems to have run away from Carolina to Georgia with a design to defraud his Creditors; They very much approve of your Conduct in this Affair, as it will tend to keep up the Authority of the Court, preserve a good Intelligence with Carolina, and let Mankind see, that Justice may be always expected, and will be duly executed.
The Trustees, who have nothing in View but the Good of the People, their health, and Success, expect that they will for their own sakes abstain from the use of that pernicious Liquor Rum; and they again require You to put the Laws for staving it in execution with the greatest Strictness and Severity. The Judgement, which the Trustees have made of it, must be strongly confirm’d by the Experience there has already been in the Province of its bad Effects.
The Trustees are very well pleased with the Conduct of the People in general; They hope they will persevere in it, and will always think, that Industry, Sobriety, a peaceable, regular, and just Behaviour are the proper and best Returns for all the pains which the Trustees have taken, and are ready to take for their Welfare. This will likewise conduce most to their own happiness, give them the best Title to the care of our Legislature, and be the strongest Inducement to other sober and industrious People’s settling amongst them.
As a free Enjoyment of Religion is One of the best Privileges of an Englishman, the Trustees hope the People will set a just Value on it, and be constant in their Attendance on Divine Worship, and duly consider to whom they are indebted for their Preservation, and from Whom they must expect a Blessing on their Labours.
Benjamin Martyn to Samuel Eveleigh at Charles Town, Oct. 28, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 77, on Eveleigh’s interest in Georgia and his desire for Indian trade. By the Prince of Wales, Capt. Dunbar.
Mr. Oglethorpe having shown the Trustees Your Letter, They have order’d me to return You thanks for the regard You have for Georgia; They think themselves oblig’d to You for Your good Wishes, and for the many Services You did the Colony, whilst Mr. Oglethorpe was there. As to the Proposal You mention about the Indian Trade, Most of the Trustees are at present out o’Town, so that it cannot be taken into consideration before this Ship go’s; But when a sufficient Number are in Town, Your Proposal will be consider’d by them, and Mr. Baker will be acquainted therewith, as also concerning the Lot You desire for Your Son at Savanah. The Trustees desire Your Correspondence, and that You’ll forward all Letters from Georgia to them that come to Your hands.
Benjamin Martyn to Secretary of State Lord Harrington, Nov. 27, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 78, concerning Swiss settler for Georgia.
The Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia have receiv’d the honour of Your Lordship’s Commands with the Inclosed from Mr. [Horatio] Walpole, and they have order’d me to assure Your Lordship that the Swiss mention’d in his Excellency’s Letter have come out of their Country without any previous Notice or Encouragement from the Trust. The only Foreigners by them invited from abroad have been those Families which were drove out by the Arch Bishop of Saltzburg for their profession of the Protestant Religion, and were brought over at the Charge of a Collection, made by his Majesty’s permission for that Service, and are settled by the Trustees in Georgia pursuant to the Powers granted to them by their Charter. But if his Majesty finds the Arrival of these People brings any Burden on the Publick the Trustees are very desirous of being subservient to his Majesty’s good pleasure if he would have them settled in Georgia, in case they are enabled to bear the Charge of sending them over, and maintaining them for a year; which they are at present in no Capacity to perform, their Fund being entirely exhausted by the late Embarkations already sent.
Harman Verelst, to Thomas Causton, Dec. 13, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 79-80, concerning allowance for people on the store, fencing the glebe, letters from Causton, and bills drawn on the Trustees. Sent by Capt. Nicholson to the care of Samuel Eveleigh at Charles Town.
In Mr. Martyn’s Letter dated the 27th. of July last you were directed (where Necessity requires) to allow to any Person after the time of Maintenance expires, 15 Bushels of Indian Corn & a Barrel of Beef a year for such Person, so long as such allowance shall be necessary, But as an allowance of Molasses, Lamp Oil & Cotton are also proper, where Persons want them such Necessity being Judg’d of by Your Self Mr. [Thomas] Christie & Mr. [John] Vanderplank conjunctively; You are hereby directed to continue such Allowance while Necessity requires it, in proportion to the Necessity, and not exceeding to each Person after the rate of 64 Quarts of Molasses, 12 Quarts of Lamp Oil & one pound of Spun Cotton a Year, which was the Allowance while on the Store, But if any Person shall drink Rum, notwithstanding such allowance of Molasses to prevent him, his allowance of Molasses must immediately be stopp’d.
The Trustees have ordered the Sum of £ 43:13: 4 Sterling to be applyed for inclosing the Glebe for the Minister of Savanah, and that You should get the same done, and Draw on them as the Work is done, and that the Reverend Mr. [Samuel] Quincy do Certify on each Draught that the work is so done. In pursuance to which Order, You are desired to Imploy Persons to Inclose (with a good Worm Fence six feet high) as much of the Glebe as that Sum will Pay for, and send the Trustees word what more Money it will require to Inclose the whole.
The Trustees have received a Draught from you dated the 23d. of August last for £50 Sterling for Live Cattle & Provisions, but no Letters of Advice, which they are surprized at, and are very impatient of Letters from you never having received one from you since Mr. Oglethrope’s Return.
It is most proper to draw Your Bills on the Trustees, and therefore for the future, such Bills as You have Instructions to draw on them instead of drawing them to George Heathcote Esqr. & Co. on their Accot. Direct them to the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America at their Office in Westminster, and be sure you always draw them payable thirty days after sight & not sooner.
All Letters You send to the Trustees, be sure to send Duplicates of them, by the first Opportunity after, in case of Accidents.
[P.S.] The Soape & Cheese for the Colony, & I hope some Beer for Mr. [Will] Calloway to Retail, will come by the first Ship bound for Savanah. I have inclosed a Letter for Mr. [Samuel] Quincy, which please to give him, as also Letters to John Barnes & Alexander Johnson. I hope the Indians & Passengers by the Prince of Wales will arrive safe & well. Your other Bills drawn are all paid.
Harman Verelst to the Rev. Samuel Quincy, Dec. 13, 1734, Westminster, C.O. 6/666, p. 80, concerning fencing the glebe and asking for reports on the state of the parish. Enclosed in Causton’s letter above.
The Trustees having directed the Glebe to be inclosed, and ordered £43:13: 4 Sterling to be now applyed for that purpose, and that Mr. Causton should draw on them as the work is done. They desire you would inspect the going on of the said Work, and Certify on his Draught for the Money to Pay for such work, that the work is done.
The Trustees are surprized they have never, in all this time, heard from you of the State of Your Parish, and desire you would from time to time send them Duplicates of the Accots. thereof, which you are obliged to send to the Society for Propagating the Gospel; and that you would by every Opportunity write to them, with a Duplicate of each Letter (in case of Accidents) by the next Ship after.
[P.S.] Mr. Oglethorpe received a Letter from you which he show’d the Trustees, & gave them Pleasure to hear of you; But it only mention’d your being at Charles Town.
Benjamin Martyn to Thomas Causton, Jan. 25, 1734/5, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 81-84, concerning reports desired by Trustees, grant to Count Zinzendorf, grants to Moravians, surveying of land in Georgia, Indian traders, John West, Bulfinch Lamb, and Isaac King Clarke Skidoway lands, Humphrey Bright, and no letters from Causton. By the Two Brothers, Capt. Thomson.
You will receive herewith a Duplicate of the last Letter sent to You by the Trustees. They direct You to pursue always this Method, that is to say, to send to them Duplicates of all Letters and Journals by the next Ship after the first are sent.
As the Trustees want very much to know the State of the Colony, they again repeat their Orders, that Journals (as mention’d in the Letter Octr. 28th. last) be constantly wrote every fortnight, and transmitted to them by every Opportunity.
The Trustees have granted five hundred Acres of Land to Nicholas Ludovicus Count of Zinzendorf and Pottendorf; A certified Copy of his Grant is sent to You by this Ship to be register’d in the proper office and possession of the Land is to be delivered to Mr. August Gotlieb Spangenberg, Attorney for the said Court Zinzendorf, as if the Original Grant was produced. The Original Grant is sent to the Count, who has the Trustees leave for absence, in consideration of his sending over ten Male Servants by this Ship to cultivate his Lands.
The Trustees have resolved to grant to Each of the said ten Servants at the Expiration of their Service twenty Acres contiguous to the Lands of their Master: They have likewise granted a Lot in the Town of Savanah to the beforemention’d Mr. August Gottlieb Spangenberg, and another to David Nitschmann on the Customary Tenure and Conditions.
You are to acquaint Mr. [Noble] Jones, that he is to mark out the five hundred Acres of Land for Count Zinzendorf on the North Side of the Ogeeche River at or above the first Fort Argyle. He is to mark out that 500 Acre Lott in the same Form as is usual, along the sides of Rivers with the Trust Lott on the side of it, and upon the back of it he is to set out 200 Acres to be reserv’d for Count Zinzendorf’ s Servants when their time is expired. He must take particular Care not to set out any Lands beyond the River Ebenezer, nor along the Bank of the Savanah River from Musgrove’s to Abercorn, for those Lands (as Mr. Ogelthorpe order’d him before he left Georgia,) are to be kept Vacant for the Trust to dispose of. But all the Gentlemen’s Grants that shall after this come to his Hand he should set out beyond the Township and Villages belonging to the Township of Savanah, (that is to say,) beyond where Mr. [Roger] Lacy’s and Mr. [Joseph] Hetherington’s Lands were order’d to be run out, and one of the Lots that Way, which shall lye upon a Navigable River is to be set out for Mr. Bulfinch Lamb, (to whom the Trustees have granted five hundred acres of Land,) when he shall come to demand his Land to be set out. And Mr. Jones must go on to set out the Lands in the regular Manner that is order’d by the Plan laid down by Mr. Oglethrope. Take care that Mr. Jones shall instantly mark out for Mr. Spangenberg his Town Lot, his Garden Lot, and his 45 Acre Lot, that his People may immediately go to Work upon their Land: For if they (Who are ten Hands) should stand Idle for want of their Lands being marked out, it would be an unpardonable fault in Mr. Jones. You should tell Mr. Jones that he has been in the Wrong not to return the Plotts of the Lands by him run out, together with the Names of the Possessors, as Mr. Oglethorpe order’d him; And indeed Yours, Jones’s. [Thomas] Christies, and [John] Vanderplanks neglecting to correspond with the Trustees occasions great uneasiness here; they not having receivd any Letter from You since the Arrival of Mr. Oglethorpe.
You must take particular Care not to suffer the Indian Traders to advise the Indians to remove from the Places and Lands, where they are already fixd, and You are to discourage the removing them on all Occasions.
In regard Mr. [John] West has behaved himself very well in the Magistracy, the Trustees have put Another in his Room to give him an Opportunity of coming to England, which he has leave to do if he desires it, and will on his Return be put into Employment again. In the mean time, the Trustees would be inform’d, whom he will leave to take care of, and clean the Indians Arms in his Absence.
When Mr. Bulfinch Lambe has built his House, the Trustees are willing he should have a License to be Absent for a Year, on condition he leaves two Male Servants to cultivate his Lands in his Absence.47
The Trustees have receivd a Letter from Mr. [Isaac King] Clarke the Physician, desiring to have his Attendance on Guard dispens’d with, and to have others restrain’d from practising Physick in Savanah; The Trustees do not think proper to grant either of his Requests (as I have inform’d him by Letter,) but if he consents to stay, they would have his House built for him as soon as it possibly can be.
If there are any Disputes about the Limits of the Lands of Skidoway, Mr. [Noble] Jones must take care to decide them; And the People need not be apprehensive of any Disputes about their Titles. The Trustees will take care to protect them in them.
As to the Sope and Cheese, which are sent for the Stores, and the Strong Beer credited William Calloway by Thomas Hucks Esqr. to, retail in Georgia, You are refer’d to Mr. Verelst’s Letter.
Humphrey Bright, who went over in the Friendship Capt. Compton, and have forty Acres of Land given him out of the Grant to John Ambrose, Isaac King Clarke and Others in Trust: And he is to be treated on the same foot with Others, who went on the Charity.
The Trustees, having receiv’d no Letters from You, are apprehensive in case You have wrote any, that they may have been stopt at Charles Town, or thrown away by the Captains of the Ships You sent them by, or neglected to be deliver’d, You are therefore to make all the Inquiry possible, where such Letters from You, or any Other Letters from Savanah may have been intercepted.
Benjamin Martyn to Isaac King Clarke, Jan. 25, 1734/5, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 85, answering his questions on guard duty, his medical practice in Georgia, and ordering his house to be built. By the Two Brothers, Capt. Thompson.
The Trustees have receiv’d a Letter from You with complaints of Your being oblig’d to do Duty on Guard, of other People’s practising Physick in Savanah, and that Your House is not built for You. In answer to which the Trustees have directed me to say, They cannot dispense with Your Attendance on Guard in Your turn; At the same time, they think there is no Ground for complaint of Your not attending the Sick while You are on Guard.
The Trustees know of no Order given for prohibiting Watkins or Any Others practising Physick; Nor was there any Reason for such Order from the Terms of Your going over; Indeed they think it absolutely improper to grant any One whatsoever a Monopoly of Practise.
If You consent to stay on these terms, the Trustees have sent Orders that Your House shall be immediately built.
Benjamin Martyn to Thomas Causton, Feb. 15, 1734/5, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 86, ordering a town lot to Martin Eversen. By the Dolphin, Capt. Luck.
The Trustees direct that Martin Eversen the Bearer of this have a Town Lot on the Customary Tenure and Conditions. He is to be put on the Store for A Year and furnish’d with Tools.
Benjamin Martyn to the Rev. J. Stanley at Liverpool, February 24, 1734/5, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 86, asking that the money pledged by the Corporation at Liverpool be sent.
I troubled You some time since with a Letter by Order of the Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia: In Your last You said, the £50 subscrib’d by the Corporation of Leverpool for the Colony was paid into the hands of the Members of Your Corporation. They have been applied to for the Money, and have answer’d that they cannot pay it without an Express Order of Your Council for that purpose. The Trustees therefore desire You will procure such an Order, and send it up as soon as You conveniently can, which will be an Addition to Your other Favours.
In pursuance of Your Lordships Letter to the Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America the 6th. Instant, desiring their Opinion in what Manner the Security of the Province of South Carolina may be best Effected, the Trustees command me to acquaint Your Lordships that they have persued the Representation to his Majesty from the Genl. Assembly of So. Carolina of the State and Condition of the said Province, which by Your Lordships Order was inclosed to them, and are of Opinion that the only Method for the Security thereof, is the settling Colonies from the Sea along the Alatamaha and Ocony Rivers, and from thence under the Apalation Mountains to the Ogeeche and Savanah Rivers of proper Distances from each other, and opening Roads and settling Communications both by Land and by Water, which will not only secure the said Province on that side, but likewise cover many Millions of Acres, and give Encouragement to Numbers of People to settle on the same, by which there will be an Increasing Strength for Defence of the said Countries: And they beg leave to observe farther to Your Lordships, that such a Chain of Settlements will require at least 800 White Men with their Families; That this with the Settlements already made & improving in Georgia, they think will be the most Effectual Means of securing and preserving Carolina on that side from whence they apprehend most Danger in case of a War.
But for what may be necessary for securing the said Province on the Northern Frontier and the Sea Coast they submit that to Your Lordships.
Benjamin Martyn to Thomas Causton, March 17, 1734/5, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 88-89, concerning Joseph Watson, gifts in memory of Indian Skee, and Edward Jenkins reconciling Indians and capturing murderer.
The Trustees receiv’d Your Letter dated 16th. of Jany. last, and have sent a particular Direction to the Magistracy on Mr. [Joseph] Watson’s Case. You are on the Trustees Account to make Mr. [John] Musgrove a full Amends for the loss of his Servant Justice, and You must see that Mr. Musgrove is reconciled to Esteeche; and Esteeche must be told, that he was to blame in doing himself Justice, for the Trustees would have taken care that Justice should have been done him; But you are to desire him to come again into friendship with his People. For the Trustees out of regard to his just Grief for Skee, and because Tomo Chachi (whom he might have complain’d to,) was not there, will not pursue him; and are willing, that all that is passed should be forgot, excepting that Mr. Watson shall be tried and punish’d. And You are to desire, that the Indians would not hereafter go about to do themselves Justice, untill they have had a Denial of Justice from the Trustees.48
The Trustees loved Skee, and therefore You must give from them to Tallafolechee, the Brother of Skee, to be distributed by him amongst all Skee’s Relations the following Gifts Vizt. 6 Guns, 100 flints, 6 Mantles of Blew or strip’d Duffils, 6 Yards of Strouds, a Pound of Beads, a pt. of red Inkle,49 and some large Needles and blew sewing thread for the Women, 6 Hatchets, 2 Indian brass Kettles, 12 knives & some whet Stones and also some Paint.
You are to acquaint Edward Jenkins that the Trustees approve very much of his Behaviour in reconciling the Indians, and taking the Murderer of [William] Wise, and direct that You should pay £50 Currency amongst Jenkins and the Others Who took the said Murderer.
The Other Parts of Your Letter shall be answer’d by the first Opportunity.
Harman Verelst to Thomas Causton, Jan. 25, 1734/5, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 89-93, concerning supplies sent, beer to William Calloway, madder roots, coins sent to Georgia, Moravian settlers, money for William Johnson Dalmas, Isaac Chardon’s accounts, and swans for Tomo-Chi-Chi.
The Trustees have sent You for the use of the Colony, the following Parcels, for which you have a Bill of Lading inclosed, the Particulars in each Package are as follow.
One barrel of Cannon Powder.
Two barrels of Gun Powder treble F.
Four Pigs of Lead.
6 holes each & 10 Iron Ladles.
In Casks 16 Firkins of Soap.
In Casks mark’d G x C No. 1 to 8 fifty five old Cheshire Cheeses weighing 15 [cwt.]: 1:16. and in the same Bill of Lading is contained a Ton of Strong Beer in 4 hhds. mark’d W C No. 1 to 4 which Thomas Hucks Esqr. has credited Wm. Calloway with to retail in Georgia on the Recommendation of Mr. Alderman Kendal in London, and for which as he retails it, he is to Pay you from time to time what he can until Six pounds, the Price thereof, is fully paid, and which when received you must acquaint the Trustees with, that it may be paid here to Mr. Hucks, & for which a Bill of Parcels is inclosed. You must also Debet Wm. Calloway with 2 lb. for the hhds., 2 lb. for the Freight, & 8d. the Searchers Fees at the Custom House, which he must make good to the Trustees as he can; so that the Prime cost of the said Ton of Beer delivered at Savannah amounts to £10: 0: 8. The Trustees have given leave that if Calloway returns You the 4 hhds. when empty, You may take them of him at 40 shillings the Price they cost, he paying the other £2: 0: 8 for the Freight & Searchers Fees at the same time he returns the Cask, which the Trustees have paid for on his Account. For Mr. Hucks only Credits him with the £ 6, the Price of the Beer, which you are to take care to receive for him, and acquaint the Trustees of it when received; that they may Pay it to Mr. Hucks, on Advice that you have had the said 6 lb. paid You.
There is also included in the said Bill of Lading a Box directed to Mr. [Joseph] Coles & a Box mark’d B C No. 2. Medicines for Ebenezer, both which take care to deliver as Directed.
There is also on board as by the said Bill of Lading a Box or Tub with Roots of Madder to be propagated in Georgia, when they arrive, the Roots must be taken out of the Box & planted in Rows two feet asunder & about ten Inches distance in the Rows, observing in Summer to keep them clear from Weeds, which is all the Culture they require, and for which please to give the proper Directions to have planted in the Trustees Garden. Great Quantitys of Madder being consumed in England, it will be usefull to Propagate it.50
By the same Bill of Lading, you will find on board a Cask Marked G x C Copper half pence & Farthings containing 17 Bags & in each Bag the value of forty shillings in halfpence & farthings making 34 lb. Mr. Spangenberg who comes a Passenger on board will pay over to you in Six pences the Sum of Ten pounds & ten shillings for which you must give him a Receipt making with the said Copper Money together £44:10: 0 which is ten shillings a head remaining part of 6 lb a head for which Bonds have been given for Repayment to the Trustees in five years by the several Persons mentioned in the inclosed List being 89 heads in the whole to be paid after the rate of ten shillings a head in 111 Persons, of which Persons you have also a particular List, which List you are first to Examine to see that every Name therein contained comes on Shore at the Town of Savannah in their way to Purysburgh where they are going to Settle, and if it shall so happen that any Person therein mentioned shall not be landed by reason of Death at Sea, so much of the said £44:10: 0. as after the rate of ten shillings a head for such Person or Persons now Computed (12 years old a whole head, 7 years old & under 12 half a head, 2 years old & under 7 one third of a head, & under 2 Years old nothing) must not be paid to the Persons in the said List mentioned to have given Bond; as the amount on every such Persons Death shall lessen the said £44:10: 0. at that rate; in which Case you must send immediate Advice to the Trustees by the next Opportunity, that they may indorse from the Bond or Bonds in their hands so much of the 6 lb a head, which is not to be repaid to the Trustees on every such Person’s Death at Sea.
The List of Distribution of the said £44:10: 0 mentions the Persons only who are bound in the several Bonds taken for the Repayment of 6 lb a head to the Trustees, and the same Persons mentioned in each Bond should sign their Name or Mark for having received of you the several Sums in the said List mentioned against the respective Sum remainder of the Consideration Money for each Bond therein specified, & which they have so received by Order of the Trustees, and in full for their said respective Bonds so given; Ten shillings a head having been laid out here for them, Five pounds a head paid for their Freight, and the other ten shillings a head, paid by you in the six Pences & half pence now sent you for that purpose (except so much as they shall not be intitled to by the Death of any of them at Sea which the Survivor or Survivors in each Bond, where more than one bound, are not to repay, and where but one bound & for more than one head, if the Person bound dies at Sea, his or her Executors or Administrators are likewise not to repay).
In this Ship there is on board the following ten Persons, Mr. August Gottlieb Spangenberg, Master of Arts, John Toltschig, Anthony Seytfert, Peter Rudolph Rose, Godfrid Haberecht, Friedrick Riedel, George Haberland, George Waschke, Michael Haberland, & Gotthart Demuth, who have had 6 lb a head lent them by the Trustees for their Passage, and Provisions for the Voyage and Necessarys for them, which has been all paid here so that they have received the whole Consideration Money of their joint Bond in England; But if any of them shall happen to die in the Passage, you must send an Accot. thereof to the Trustees by the next Opportunity. These ten Persons go to Clear and Cultivate, 500 Acres of Land which the Trustees have granted to Count Zinzendorf, & Mr. Spangenberg being a very deserving Gentleman You are desired to do him what Service you can. They have brought with them an Iron Trap, made here, after a Pattern one of them directed, for catching wild Beasts, which has been made at the Trustees Expence, being a Publick Use, and which you will see the use of, by their Setting it & using it in the manner they know.
There are shipped on board the same ship 2 half hhds. of Vinegar, and a Box of Medicines for use in the Voyage, which Mr. Spangenberg has the Captain’s Receipt for, and a List of the Medicines, and if any left, such Residue of the Vinegar & Medicines will be delivered to you by the Captain’s Receipt in Mr. Spangenberg’s hands, which he will give you in case any Residue happens.
You are to furnish Mr. Spangenberg for him & the nine Persons with him belonging to Count Zinzendorf with 5 Cows & Calves, 5 breeding Sows & 1 Boar, 10 Geese & 2 Ganders, 10 Turkey Hens & 2 Cocks, 20 Hens & 4 Cocks & 12 Ducks & 2 Drakes with some Corn for their Nourishment, the whole Value to the amount of £16: 5: 0 Sterling, and when so furnished you are to draw for the same, which will be answered in England.
His Grace the Duke of Kent has given £6: 6: 0 Sterling to be applied for the use of Wm. Johnson Dalmas, which you are to furnish for his use, and take his Receipt for the same, & a Duplicate of it to send over to the Trustees; which will be answered here in England.
Mr. [Isaac] Chardon’s Accots. are now under Examination, and the Trustees find his Draughts very large, and he mentions his wanting Accots. from you to send with his Drafts: In Order therefore to regulate the Drafts for the future, it is necessary to make double Drafts which must specify each Service; & send double Advices from time to time, that the Trustees may have one sent them, (without which no Bills will hereafter be paid) & the Person you draw on the other: But you are to be very cautious of Expence & drawing more Bills at present without the utmost necessity.
I have sent you by this Ship, which is included in the Bill of Lading, a Ream of Cartridge Paper, which should have come by Captain Dunbar, but in the hurry was left behind, & which please to deliver to Mr. [John] Vat for the Saltzburghers who went over with him.
Since I wrote the foregoing, Margaret the Wife of Gasper Meyer is gone on board, & I have paid Mr. Spangenberg ten shillings more which he will pay You, & you must give hima Receipt for, & which makes the Remainder of Gasper Meyer & Rodolph his Son’s Bond £21:10: 0 (if she arrives) which was before stated only 2 lb & the Total £45. which before was £44:10: 0.
My Service to Mr. Gordon & the rest of the Magistrates.
[P.S.] I have enclosed a Letter for William Calvert which please to deliver; & also another for Mrs. Elizabeth Sale. There are two Swans put on board, which if both or either or living, please to deliver to Tomo Chachi, or in case of his death to Tooanahowi, being a Present from the Trustees.
Harman Verelst to William Jefferys at Bristol, May 3, 1735, Westminister, C.O. 5/666, pp. 94-95, concerning Salzburger settlers, food and supplies while crossing the Atlantic, and procuring German servants for Georgia.
Your Letter to Mr. Martyn was laid before the Trustees. As the Ship does not go from Bristol till the 30th. Instant I desire you will return me the two Pacquets for Georgia you reed, from Mr. Martyn and inclose them to the Office, by reason I have some additions to make, and I will trouble you with them again. The Charge of Postage which you have or may lay out will be defray’d by the Trust.
The Trustees have agreed for one hundred German Servants to be delivered in the River Thames; There are some Saltzburghers to come down to Rotterdam; But the exact Number & time of their Coming, the Trustees do not yet know. So that they cannot at present Ingage to Charter a Ship to keep her on Charges to wait for them.
The Terms the Trustees have given for Servants is four pounds a head for Passage (allowing one Ton & 1/2 p head Tonnage by Shipping 100d. upon a 150 Tons Ship) and maintained as follows Vizt. 4 Beef Days 2 Pork Days & 1 Fish Day in every Week to be daily Served. Vizt.
On the 4 Beef Days 4 pounds of Beef for every Mess of five heads & 2 pounds & 1/2 of Flour & half a pound of Suet or Plumbs.
On the 2 Pork Days 5 pounds of Pork & 2 pints & 1/2 of Pease for every 5 heads.
And on the Fish Day 2 pounds & 1/2 of Fish & 1/2 a pound of Butter for every 5 heads.
The whole at 16 Ounces to the pound.
And allow each head 7 pounds of Bread of 14 Ounces to the pound by the week.
And 3 pints of beer & 2 Quarts of Water (whereof one of the Quarts for Drinking) each head by the day for the space of a month, and a Gallon of Water (whereof two Quarts for Drinking) each head by the day, after during their being on their Passage.
Each Person of twelve Years old & upwards is Accoted. a head.
Every Person of the Age of seven & under twelve is accompted two for a head.
Every Person of the Age of Two & under seven is accompted three for a head.
And every Person under the Age of Two is not Accoted. but is freight free & maintained out of the Parents Allowance.
Other Passengers is 5 [lb.] a head for Passage (allowing 2 Tons & head Tonnage by shipping 100d. upon a 200d. Tons Ship) and maintained as above.
But if you have a Correspondent at Rotterdam that can procure German Men Servants of the age of twenty years and upwards who will Ingage to serve five years, They shall have Twenty Acres of Land and be allowed to work one day in a week on their own Land.
None to be Ingaged under the age of fourteen & all such to serve till the age of twenty five who will have Land & at the age of twenty will be allowed to work one day in a week on their own Land.
And the Trustees desire you will Consider at what rate p. head you could Ingage to deliver a Number of them in Georgia, & if they like your Proposal will have Occasion to take of you One hundred or upwards to be paid for on their Delivery in Georgia by Bills of Exchange on London at thirty days sight.
Harman Verelst to James Abercromby,51 May 15, 1735, Westminister, C.O. 5/666, p. 96, concerning the right to clear ships from Georgia. By the James, Capt. Yoakley. By the Hawkins Brigantine, Capt. Wilson, from Bristol. Sent to Bristol May 29, 1735.
Mr. Oglethorpe laid before the Trustees Your Letter and Acquainted them of the great Zeal You had always Shewed for His Majestys Service by Encouraging the Colony of Georgia. The Trustees are very sensible of the kindness You have expressed to their People on all Occasions and have ordered me to Return you their Thanks and more especially upon this last Affair of Captain Yoakley’s Ship. They have pursuant to your Advice Applyed to Parliament and Obtained the Clause herein Inclosed, Whereby all Disputes for the future will be prevented.
The Trustees Officers in Georgia are not only Impowered to clear Ships Loaded with Rice for any Port in Europe, but also for any other Port, which as You see by the Preamble of the Clause is Granted for the Encouragement of Georgia, and which we hope to obtain next year for the Province of Carolina.
Your Opinion was very Consonant to that of such Lawyers here, as the Trustees have on this occasion consulted; and they will not be wanting in Representing your Behaviour in a right Light, in Case any Difficulty should arise at the Custom house thereupon. But they are far from apprehending that that will be the Case; Since the Injury was done by the Officer who Exceeded his Commission in Acting out of his Province.
The Trustees hope you will continue Your Assistance to their People, and they shall on all Occasions be ready to show the Regard they have to Your kind Services.
Harman Verelst to Thomas Causton, May 15, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 97-101, concerning reports Trustees want, cattle and beef for the Indians, Mary and John Musgrove, supplies sent for the colony, allowance for servants, leases not allowed in Georgia, Peter Gordon’s memorial, and Joseph Watson’s complaints. By the James, Capt. Yoakley. By the Hawkins Brigantine, Capt. Wilson from Bristol. Sent to Bristol May 29, 1735.
In a Letter dated 28 October last the following articles being not yet Complyed with are herein repeated.
The Trustees direct that Mr. [Noble] Jones the Surveyor do keep an Accot. of the Land he runs out and send it to them every Opportunity and send at the same time an Acct. of the Number of Acres cleared on each Lot, and with what the same is sowed and Planted and how Cultivated.
The Trustees also expect Mr. [Joseph] Fitzwalter’s and Mr. [John] Vanderplank’s Journals, to be writ constantly every fortnight.
And would likewise have from You an Accot. of the health of the people, and a List of those who are dead since the last Accot. and of what Distempers they dyed.
The following was in a Letter to you dated the 25th. of Janry. last & now Repeated.
You must take particular Care not to Suffer the Indian Traders to advise the Indians to remove from the Places and Lands, where they are already fixed; And you are to discourage the Removing them on all Occasions.
The following is a Copy of the Letter sent you by the way of Charles Town & was dated the 17th. of March last.52
Mr. Causton. Though you may buy of the Indians such live Cattle as may be necessary; you must take Care never to buy of them any Beef or Veal killed in the Woods; Because that may Encourage them to kill the Cattle which belongs to the People, and may have run into the Woods.
As Mrs. Musgrove has been of great Service to the Colony in Interpreting for the Indians, and by her good Usage to them on all Occasions greatly Contributed to the keeping of Peace with them; and as she has been a Sufferer by Watson’s Behaviour (one of the many unhappy Effects of Rum) The Trustees direct That Mrs. Musgrove should have Twenty Pounds Sterling paid to her as a Reward; and that at the same time she should be acquainted That the Trustees do not permit the use of Rum; and if she expects the further Countenance of the Trustees; She must Pay the same Obedience to the Act for Prohibiting Rum, as all the Inhabitants of the Colony are required to do.
I have Inclosed a Bill of Lading for the following Particulars which come Consigned to you for the use of the Colony Vizt. G X C No. 1 to 40. Ten tons of Strong Beer in hhds. to enable you to pay Workmen’s Wages & other Occasions to be paid for in beer.
No. 1 to 5. Ten hundred weight of Copper Farthings in Firkins containing 2 cwt. each Mrk’d Wrought Copper which you are to use in Payments for Provisions and other Occasions in the Colony; Charging yourself with the amount thereof by Tale as paid out in Sterling Money.
1 Barrel of Cannon Powder for Salutes containing 1 cwt. & 2 Barrels of Gun Powder double F. containing 2 cwt.
There is 1/2 a hhd. of Rape Eager53 & a small box of Medecines & a Box of Sage Mint & Baum Shippd for Use in the Voyage, and if any shall be left the Captain will deliver it you for the Store.
There are two Silver Watches sent by the Captain; which you are to deliver to Captain Mackpherson of the Rangers and Captain Ferguson of the Scout Boat, being a Present to each of them from the Trustees; they are in a small sliding Box directed to you. This Ship brings you a Tub containing fifty Caper Plants54 for the Management whereof in Georgia the following are the Instructions.
|1st.||Take the Tub to pieces, so that the Plants may remain in the Earth; because to open the top and draw them out singly might hurt the small fibres of the Roots.|
|2d.||Make ready against the opening of the tub as many holes in the Ground where they are design’d to be planted, as there are Plants; which should be 3 feet square & 2 1/2 feet deep and at a distance of 6 feet square from each other.|
|3d.||In Each hole put a large basket of Dung (It’s supposed rotted Dung) and then as much Earth as will fill the holes even with the Surface of the Ground.|
|4th.||Observe to cut off any part of the fibres on root that may be rotten, and lay them carefully at planting, then cover the Plant with the Mould or Earth in the form of a Hat to keep it warm.|
|5th.||It is Customary to digg round the Plant three times a Year in January March & May.|
|6th.||When the Fruit is gathered, the head of the Plant must be Covered, about the thickness of two fingers with Earth.|
This Plant does not require a great deal of Moisture, and yet too great a dryness or drought is very pernicious to it, as is also cold Weather, and the more you give it Warmth the better it will bear.
There is on board this Ship Mr. William Cookesey with Servants, he is recommended to your Care and is to have Credit on the Store for himself & Servants to the Value of Twenty pounds Sterling which will be made good to the Trustees in England.
There is one Stephen Marrauld on board, who is to be put under the Inspection of John Vanderplank; and if he is likely to do well he will have Incouragement from England Suitable to his behaviour.
The servants sent by the Trustees according to the List inclosed to the Magistrates are to be allowed from the Store each head for a year Vizt.
Two hundred pounds of Meat.
Three hundred forty two Pounds of Flour Rice Pease or Indian Corn.
And some contingent food, not exceeding in the whole Year’s allowance the Value of Three pounds Sterling.
Each Man & Boy able to use Working Tools are to be allowed so many for their Masters and own Use not exceeding the Value of Fifteen shillings Sterling Each.
And their Allowance for Cloathing is to Consist of Six Yards of Lindsey Wolseys for a Frock & Trowsers. Nine Yards of Osnabrigs55 for a Shirt, Frock & Trowsers, a Pair of Shoes from England, two pair of Country Shoes, and some Needles Thread &c. The Value of the whole Cloathing not to Exceed Twenty Shillings Sterling. For which together with the Sum of Four pounds Sterling each head for Freight, and Twenty five Shillings Sterling each head for Bedding & Charges till Shipp’d, Making together Ten pounds for each Servant. A Credit is given by the Trustees to the several Persons to whom by the List inclosed in the Letter to the Magistrates they are respectively appointed to be repaid in two Years or to Commence at Interest from thence at Eight p. Cent p Ann. to be paid in two Years after (Except for those who are appointed to Your Self, Mr. Henry Parker & Mr. [Thomas] Christie the Expence whereof the Trustees give). But the Credit for Tools and Cloathing is to be given to those only who desire ot have such Credit for their Servants Use.
The Persons to whom they are appointed to serve must respectively enter in a Recognizance of Five Pounds Sterling for the performing the Conditions of the respective Indentures which are particularly described in the Letter to the Magistrates with the Trustees Directions concerning the said Servants and their Indentures.
The Trustees direct you to pay Mr. Abercromby the Attorney General Forty pounds Currency as a Fee from the Trustees.
That the Common Council intending That every Person should reside in his own house and Cultivate his own Lot, have prohibited all Leases; and if any one leases his house or Lot or any part of it to another, it is a forfeiture of so much; and You are to acquaint them of the Consequences thereof.
But although all Leases for a Year or a Term of Years are void; Yet any Person may take any other for such Price as they can agree upon, as a Lodger or Lodgers into his house Provided such Person stays not in the same for any time less but not exceeding twelve months from the time of his Arrival in the Province, in which time he may have got his house built.
The Common Council find that these Rules have not been so well understood as they could have wished, and therefore will not take any Advantage of the Forfeitures which have hitherto been Incurred on this account, in the Respect to the Widows of the first Forty, But require You to acquaint the People of their Resolutions; That no Body may be ignorant thereof.
You will observe that all your Querys are Answered by the abovesaid Resolutions.
Mr. [Peter]Gordon is arrived in England and has presented a Memorial to the Trustees, in which he Complains of several of the Officers, and more particularly of Mr. [Noble] Jones Mr. [Thomas) Christie [John] Penrose and others; and also of some Actions of Yours; and has laid several Letters of Complaints before the Trustees, particularly one from Mr. [Joseph] Watson, and other Letters also have been laid before them, complaining both of you and of the Jury; with respect to the Determination of Watson’s Cause. You will follow the Instructions already Given You on that head. The Trustees will by the first Opportunity send you over the heads of the said Complaints, to which Your Answers will be required.
You will receive by this Ship56 two pieces of Cloth a Present to Tomo Chachi one red the other blew & containing 31 Yards Each.57 It is the same Cloth he saw making at Godalming when he was at Mr. Oglethorpe’s Country Seat. In a Box on board this Ship directed for Mr. John Musgrove is contained Scarlet Camlet,58 blew Silk, and Silver Trimming for a Suit of Cloaths for him; as also a Silver laced hat for him, which is a Present to him.
[P.S.] Captain Yoakley brings you back the Broad Axe 2 Adzes, 12 Chissels & Gouges 2 Augers 2 Planes & 2 hand saws which [Sam] Cunningham & Milky brought on board his ship at Savannah & which he took care of to bring back.
Harman Verelst to the Bailiffs and Recorder of Savannah, May 15, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 101-108, giving the Trustees’ views on public houses, Thomas Christie, desire to sell land in Georgia, idle settlers, church and defense building, land cultivation, loss of cattle, Indian traders, pay of officials, Joseph Watson’s trial, Robert Parker, the Salzburgers’ desire to move, Tybee lighthouse, German servants, rice export, James Burnside, and the courts. By the James, Capt. Yoakley. By the Hawkins, Capt. Wilson from Bristol.
The Trustees received a Letter sign’d by Mr. [Thomas] Christie dated Savanah Decr. 14th. 1734. They received at the same time the Journal of the Proceedings of the Court, a List of Warrants and their Returns, the Publick Orders issued out, the Copy of a Licence for a publick House, with the List of those who have taken most pains in cultivating their Lands.
The Trustees direct you to put the Laws against Tipling in Execution, and if the Masters of the Publick Houses encourage any of the People to spend their time in their Houses in an idle manner You must take away their Licences and must inform the Trustees who those People are, who are so idly addicted and mispend their time so much.
It is with great Concern that the Trustees have received Information that Mr. Christie the Recorder by himself or his Agent is a Dealer in Rum; and they are surpris’d, that a Magistrate, who must have perceived the many pernicious Effects of Rum should act so contrary to the known Sentiments of the Trustees, therefore they require that you Mr. Christie do give in an answer to the said Charge, till which time the Consideration of your Petition for a Lease of a Trust Lot is suspended.
The Trustees don’t understand what was meant by that Part of Mr. Christie’s Letter, where he says the People would sell their Lands, the Trustees having given no Licences for that Purpose; and any Sale without the Licence of the Trustees first obtained is invalid, and an actual forfeiture of their Grants. The Trustees would know who those People are who (as Mr. Christie alledges) think of selling their Lands & running away, for general Charges should never be thrown out without naming the particular People who are guilty.
The Trustees expect and require that the People will turn their heads on subsisting themselves by cultivating their Lands, which was the Intention of the Trustees in granting them; They understand that the People of Purisburgh have set a good Example this way, and are surprised to see by Mr. Christie’s Accounts that not above forty four Acres in the Town of Savanah are cultivated. The Buildings indeed at the first coming might in some manner account for it, but the Trustees are concern’d to find that there should be room to suggest that Drinking and Idleness are the chief Causes of it, as some Accots. from Savannah Intimates, for if this were so it would be a great Disappointment and Discouragemt. to them and all Well-wishers of the Settlement.
The Trustees have it at heart to provide a convenient Place for all the Inhabitants for Divine Worship, and will in due time send proper Directions for that Work, which they design should be very plain; But they hope that the People will not depend on living upon Church Work or any Publick Work as Mr. Christie’s Letter insinuates. The Trustees would have you send over the best Estimate You can make of the Charge of building a Brick or Timber Church 60 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 20 feet high within.
In relation to the Fortifications which You mention’d, The Trustees You may be sure will certainly take care in proper time to provide sufficiently for the Defence of the Colony. The People may depend on it, that no Care will be wanting for their Security and happiness, if they won’t be wanting to themselves in Sobriety and Industry in raising food upon their Lands.
The Trustees think there is an odd Paragraph in Mr. Christie’s Letter about sending over Embarkations of Money’d Men. The Industry of the People in cultivating their Lands is what they are to depend on for their Subsistance. The Trustees therefore expect that you will lose no Opportunities in encouraging the People to fence and cultivate their Lands, and that You will constantly recommend it to them, as the best & indeed the only Method to make them happy, and procure them whatsoever they may really want, or will be necessary for them; and they are very sorry to find there is Want of Boards, where there are so many Trees and so many Saws.
The Embarkations which are sent on the Trust Account are always sent directly for Savanah, and the greatest Encouragemt. for Ships going directly thither will be the People’s preparing by their Industry sufficient Ladings for Ships, so that they may not be long detain’d there.
The Trustees will in their future Grants have a regard to the making Settlements on Vernon River, and they believe that Mr. Christie’s Remark on that head is very right, but Noble Jones the Surveyor is not to run out any Lands on that River till he has Orders for so doing.
The Trustees expect that You will make use of the Communication settled between Georgia and Charles Town to send them Letters every fortnight, and the Journals which have been so often required.
The Trustees are sorry to hear the People have lost their Cattle, which were purchas’d at so great an Expence, and by that means may bring on further Expences, which already grow very heavy on the Trust. As you must be sensible of this, You must be so likewise of the great Necessity there is to observe the utmost frugality, even to enable the Trustees to make the common and necessary Provisions for the Support and Defence of the Colony.
Mr. Causton. You are by the Trustees Direction to licence the same Indian Traders for the same Towns under the same Regulations as they were last Year and when Mr. Oglethorpe was at Savannah being in 1733 and write that Licence in the form hereafter mentioned under their old printed Licences, varying only their coming to Savanah instead of Charles Town (except Joseph Watson whose Licence is recalled) but Mr. John Musgrove and his Wife are to have the sole Licence for Trade with the Indians of Yamacraw, and as far as the Uchee Indians, and You are to take no Licence Money or Fees for any of the said Licences.
Form of Licence under the old printed Licences. By Virtue of an Order from the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America I do Continue unto ______ and to his ______ Servants, the Leave and Licence above Granted for the Term of Twelve months from the date of these Presents; Upon the Conditions and under the Regulations, and pursuant to the Instructions herein mentioned and hereunto annexed, And you shall come down to Savannah to Return the same.
Savannah ______ the ______ 1735.
The Trustees very much approve of Brewhouses being set up and all Methods You can put in Practice for bringing the People off from distill’d Liquors and for their subsisting themselves.
Out of Regard to You the Magistrates for your Zeal in the publick Service, Your spending Your time in the doing of Justice and maintaining good Order in the Colony; and out of regard to the various fatigues, which the Constables and Tything Men have gone thro’ for the defending and preserving the Peace of the Colony. The Trustees hereby order that the three Bailiffs, the Recorder, the Constables and Tything Men and their Families, and the Widows and Families of those who have been in any of the said Offices, shall have another Year’s allowance of Provisions according to the Establishment settled by Mr. Oglethorpe.
Since my Writing the above, the Trustees have received Mr. Causton’s Letter dated March 10th. 1734 together with the Affidavits refer’d to therein, but not the Presentments mention’d to be inclosed. On Perusal of which Letter and the several Affidavits, they think it necessary to repeat their former Orders, relating to Mr. [Joseph] Watson which are inclosed to You, And they do further direct that on Receipt hereof he be put under close Confinement; And that no Person shall have Liberty to come to him for Conversation which may disturb his Senses, And that he shall continue so till such time as the special Commission comes over for his Tryal.
In relation to Robert Parker Junr. the Trustees direct that he be held to Bail till the special Commission comes over for the Tryal of Watson, which Commission will be directed to take Cognizance of the said Robert Parker’s Behaviour and other Matters.
The Trustees very much approve of the Directions which Mr. Causton gave to the Saltzburghers to work Jointly on such good Land as they might find in the Neighbourhood of Ebenezer; and they think the Answer was right which Mr. Causton, and Mr. [Noble] Jones the Surveyor made to Mr. [John] Vat on his Desire for the Saltzburghers removing from the Place where they were fixed at their own Desire Vizt. That they could not consent thereto till the Pleasure of the Trustees could be known; And You must tell Mr. Vat that the Trustees will consult such Measures, and appoint such Persons to take Care to settle them as will be most to their Advantage.
By Direction of the Trustees the Saltzburghers must have a second Year’s full Allowance from the Store, and Mr. Causton must pay Mr. [Joseph] Fitzwalter the Gardiner his Salary, as it was fix’d by Mr. Oglethorpe.
There has been Complaints against Mr. [Noble] Jones, Copys of which are herein Inclosed which You are to deliver to him and require his Answers in Writing which must be shown to the Persons complaining, And if they are desirous of making any Reply You must take it, and if on such Reply any Affidavits on either Side are necessary, You must take such Affidavits, & must transmit the whole Proceeding to the Trustees; But you must not Determine any thing on it Your selves.
The Trustees hope that all the Magistrates and Persons in any Authority do set a good Example to the rest of the People by a constant Attendance at Divine Worship, by regularly keeping the Sabbath, and by an Industrious and sober Behaviour.
The Trustees are very much pleased with the Behaviour of those who were instrumental in preventing the Insurrection,59 and they direct You always to send over the Names of those who act so well and do their Duty, as well as those who are negligent therein.
The Trustees direct You to send some Body every week, or at furthest once in fourteen Days to Tybee, to see how the People there go on, and to make a Report thereof to the Trustees, that, if [William] Blytheman the Head Workman does not do his Duty, the Trustees may consider what measures to take, And You must tell Mr. Blytheman that the Trustees do, order him to follow such Directions as Capt. Loyd may give him, whenever he visits Tybee.60
You must tell Mr. Paul Hamilton that the Trustees have ordered a Grant of 500 d. Acres of Land upon the Island late Captain Scott’s to be prepared for him upon the first Conditions.
The Trustees are glad to hear what Mr. Christie’s Letter says that Herbs Roots and other Garden Produce sells at a good Price, which must be a great Encouragement to the People to raise Provisions, when they are sure of so good a Market for them.
The Trustees are inform’d that the People by not raising Indian Corn for food for their Hogs and fowls have been oblig’d to kill them; The Trustees want to know whether the People have been so negligent, and would have You represent to the People the Inconveniences which they suffer by not being Industrious, and recommend it to them for the future to take more pains.
The Trustees have Granted Town Lots to Austen Weddell, William Cookesey, Mr. John Thompson, Mrs. [Margaret] Bovey, William Pitches and Stephen Marrauld who all come Passengers by this Ship; And You are to Direct and Require Mr. [Noble] Jones forthwith to set out their Town and Garden Lots, and when he can conveniently he is to set out their 45 Acres Lots.
That to Mrs. Bovey is the Lot late belonging to Thomas Pratt. William Cookesey brings a Swiss Servant with him named Christian Dasher, he is to have five of the twenty Acres as his Servant set out on his Arrival being allowed to work one day in a week thereon for himself, and the other fifteen Acres is to be set out as soon as conveniently may be afterwards.
Austen Weddell and his family and William Pitches are to be maintained for a Year; As also Joseph Smith, and Francis Piercy who arrived by the Prince of Wales.
The Indians must have Corn as usual when they come to the Town.
You must let William Bateman and his Wife now in Georgia have Maintenance for a Year and also Mr. James Haselfoot if he wants it; which the Trustees have agreed to Give them Credit for.
The Trustees have Given George Muir his Passage in this Ship, he goes to his Father.
They have also by this Ship sent over Ann Bliss. She is a Nurse and to assist the Sick under your Direction; and She is to have one Year’s Provision upon the Store.
The Trustees have been Informed That a hhd. of Rum has been Retail’d at Abercorn; which should not have been suffered.
The Trustees have Contracted for One hundred German Men Servants for four Years; Which are (God willing) to be Shipp’d from hence in August next, and whom they Intend to Place out to such Persons, as shall have behaved with most Zeal for the Welfare of the Colony, and shall thereby have deserved best from the Publick. The Trustees will give Credit for their Passage and give their Masters one Years food and Cloathing for them upon Credit; and by the Placing of them to such Persons as have so behaved; The Trustees hope to Encourage the Religious Industrious and Quiet minded People.
By this Ship several Servants are sent and you herewith receive a List of them, with the Terms they are Contracted for; and to whom the Trustees have appointed the Use of them, and on what Conditions; The Men are bound for five years who on their Arrival are to have five Acres each in part of their twenty Acres set out; It being agreed they shall be allowed one day in a week to work on their own Land; and the remaining fifteen Acres to each is to be set out as soon as conveniently may be afterwards. The Boys that come over are bound to the Age of Twenty four, and when they are nineteen their Lands are to be set out as above mentioned.
The Trustees having given Leave for Mr. [John] West to return to England which was mentioned in a Letter to Mr. Causton dated the 25th. of Janry. last. Such Leave is now Repeated.
Inclosed You receive Instructions relating to William Littel an Infant Intitled to his Father’s Estate.
The Parliament have this Session Renewed the Act for Exporting Rice from Carolina to any part of Europe South of Cape Finisterre; and for the Encouragement of Georgia have granted Leave That Rice may be Exported from the Province of Georgia to any Port South of Cape Finisterre to take place the First of September next; which will be a great Advantage to the Colony by having such Liberty.
If you think James Burnside at Fort Argyll is of a good Life and Morals, You may license him to keep a Writing School at Savannah till the Trustees further Order.
Michael Schwitzer who is appointed Servant to James Haselfoot for 5 Years from the 10th. of May 1735. being bound to the Trustees. You must take a Recognizance from Mr. Haselfoot of Five Pounds Sterling for the performing the Conditions of the Indenture between the said Michael Schwitzer of the one part and the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America of the other part and bearing date the tenth day of May 1735 wherein the said Trustees do Covenant Promise and agree That they or their Assigns at their own proper Costs and Charges during the Term of Five Years from the date of the said Indenture until the End thereof, shall and will provide for and allow the said Michael Schwitzer all necessary Cloaths Meat Drink Washing Lodging and all other necessarys fit and convenient for him according to the Custom of the Province of Georgia, and as other Servants in such Cases are usually provided for and allowed.
This Servant Mrs. Haselfoot paid the Passage for and Mr. Haselfoot is to maintain and provide for him; he was bound to the Trustees by reason Mr. Haselfoot was not in England to Execute his part of the Indenture which occasions his Entering into the abovementioned Recognizance.
All the other Persons who by the Inclosed List have Servants appointed must also respectively Enter into a Recognizance of Five Pounds Sterling for the performing the Conditions of the several Indentures particularly mentioned in the said List.
And the Trustees direct you to acquaint their Masters That they shall not only Exact the Penalty of the Recognizance in Case they neglect to perform the said Conditions to their Servants. But shall also give such Servants to other Persons for the remainder of their several times of Service.
And they further direct That no Man Servant be seperated from his Wife on any Account whatsoever.
The Trustees originally directed That the Court for determining Civil Causes should be held every Six Weeks and they Intended That no Court on such account should be held oftner.
Criminal Causes must be Proceeded in and Determined according to Law as Occasion shall require.
As no Fees are to be taken for the Issuing of Warrants The Trus tees suppose they are not issued but on good Cause according to Law.
Harman Verelst to Capt. James Mackpherson, May 15, 1735, Westminster C.O. 5/666, p. 109, rewarding him for his work with the Rangers. By the James, Capt. Yoakley. By the Hawkins Brigantine, Capt. Wilson from Bristol. Sent to Bristol May 29, 1735.
The Trustees being sensible of the Service You do the Colony of Georgia; by the carefull Watchfulness of the Rangers under your Command have Consigned to Mr. Causton a Silver Watch, which they desire your Acceptance of; and hope for the Continuance of the same Care and Zeal for the Protection of their People which they have so much experienced in your good Conduct and Assistance in every Occasion.
Harman Verelst to Capt. William Ferguson, May 15, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 109, rewarding him for his work with the Scout Boat. By the James, Capt. Yoakley. By the Hawkins Brigantine, Capt. Wilson from Bristol. Sent to Bristol May 29, 1735.
The great Readiness of Assistance with the Scout Boat on every Occasion requiring it; Which You have so fully shewn to the People in Georgia. The Trustees cannot but take Notice of, and return You their thanks. They have Consigned to Mr. Causton a Silver Watch which they desire your Acceptance of; and doubt not but you will con tinue your good Offices in assisting and Watchfulness for the Preservation of the People.
Harman Verelst to Thomas Penn, Proprietor of Pennsylvania, May 24, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 110-111, thanking him for his gift to Georgia. Sent one copy to Philadelphia and two by Capt. Yoakley, one to Samuel Eveleigh by the Rev. Mr. Leslie, p. Capt. Keate, and the other to Thomas Causton by the Hawkins, Capt. Wilson from Bristol. Sent to William Jefferies in Bristol with a copy of the letter to him of May 13, 1735.
The Trustees have had the Pleasure of your generous Benefaction to the Colony of Georgia, and have Ordered me to acquaint you how gratefully they, who are the Trustees of that People, received your kind Benefaction to the Poor under their Charge.
They in all your Actions on this occasion See and Revere the Noble Spirit of your good Father William Penn. The same affection to the unfortunate; The same desire of making them happy in the Peopling of new Countrys; Moves you that animated him.
They Stay’d before they return’d this Answer to you, that they might be the better able to acquaint you, how much good your kind Present had done. That at the time, when the Benefactions from England of a Year’s Provision expired, and the Europe People were obliged to live with much distaste upon Indian Corn only; Your Supply of Wheat Flour and other good things is seasonably came in, as to preserve their health, and give them Comfort and new Spirits.
Since that the Parliament of England hath Granted £26,000 towards assisting the Colony this Year; which the Trustees intend to Imploy in such a manner; as not only to Comfort those there, who have miss’d their Crops by unavoidable Accidents; but also to power a great Number of European People into Georgia; And to Post them so as to make that Colony capable of receiving and protecting much greater Numbers. And by that means to be Assistant to and Strengthen the general Interest of the English in America, by making their Southern Frontiers a Nursery of free White Men; and an Asylum to those Prostestants who are drove off the Continent of Europe for Disavowing the Roman Idolatry.
I am again Sir to repeat the Trustees thanks to you, and to acquaint you of the Regard they have to the People of Pennsylvania; who upon all Occasions have shew’d a true Christian Meekness and Brotherly Love; not only to the Europeans, but to the Indians also; and of which the distress’d Family whom the Trustees have sent to Georgia, have felt their Share of Advantage; and farther to assure You, that the Trustees would be Pleased with any Occasion of testifying their Personal Regard to You.
[P.S.] I have inclosed you the Copy of the Invoice, which the Trustees received from Mr. [Isaac] Chardon. And they having agreed with Mr. Peter Simond for Seven hundred Barrels of Flour from Philadelphia. They recommend Mr. Simond (who is an eminent Merchant here, and has on many occasions been of great Service to Georgia) to your Favour and Protection on that Occasion.
Benjamin Martyn to Samuel Eveleigh at Charles Town, May 1, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 112-118, giving the Trustees’ opinion on land for Eveleigh, German servants, opposition to slavery, manufacturing in Georgia, Negro slave and rum laws, Georgia-Pennsylvania trade, lumber, Indian trade, and gold and silver v. farming in Georgia.
The Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America have receiv’d a Letter from You directed to Mr. Oglethorpe dated Novr. 20th. 1734, and another to the same Gentleman dated Deer. 30th. 1734. I have likewise laid before them Yours of Janry. 17th. last with which You honour’d me, to which Letters they have order’d me to return You the following Answer.
They are very much delighted to see their Designs approved of by One of Your great Abilities and Experience, And Your Resolution to reside in Georgia adds greatly to their Expectations of the Colony’s Success.
The Trustees will always have the greatest Regard to any Request of Yours, But Your Desire to purchase of the Yamacraw Indians 20 Acres of Land by Musgrove’s must on second thoughts appear to You impossible to be granted, because it is contrary to Law for any Private Persons to purchase any Lands of the Indians; and indeed the Indians cannot alienate their Lands. But if You can make any Agreement with Watson for his 500 Acres, the Trustess will consent to his Alienation in Your favour; and they hope this will be more agreeable to You than the 250 Acres at Kinion’s Bluff which You desired; For as the Trustees, don’t know whereabouts this lies, till it is settled by a Chart, they can give no Answer about the Disposal of it. They are also confin’d by their Charter from giving more than 500 Acres to Any One Person Whatsoever.
The Trustees Sr. recommend it to You to think rather of getting German Servants (Who can with ease be procured by several People here in London) than English Men; and if You consider it well, you will find it much to Your Advantage to have German Servants rather than Negro Slaves. The Germans are a sober, strong, laborious People; and since at the Expiration of their Service they will be fit to become Tenants, they will make Your Lands of much more Value. A new Arrived Negro is more ignorant than a new arrived white Man, therefore for the first Year the ignorance of the One may be set against the Danger of the Sickness of the Other.
The worst Negro labouring Man is worth at least £20 Sterl. and £ 5 pays the Passage of a White Man; Therefore if private Men have wherewithal to buy Negroes, they have wherewithal to pay the passage of White Men. Suppose therefore a Capital of £1000 Sterling. £500 of that employ’d in paying the Passage of white Servants brought from Foreign Countries will acquire 100 Servants; The other £ 500 the Man will have in his own hands for their Support. The same Sum of £ 1000 laid out in Negroes will purchase only 50, and Nothing for their Support and assistance. The 100 White Men therefore can certainly cut more Lumber than 50 Negroes, and consequently can load more Ships. You’ll therefore find Sir that Laying out Money in White Servants and in Saw Mills will much better answer than in purchasing Negroes.
It may be perhaps observed, that the Right of Inheritance to have a Man and his whole Posterity for ever to be Slaves may induce People to pay £ 20 for such Man and his Posterity.
But You, Who know Carolina, must be sensible, that the Purchaser of a Negro Man will have no Inheritance for the Offspring belongs to the Woman. And in case the Planter buys a Woman, a Woman Slave cannot do so much Work as a Man; Besides Which he pays for every Child she breeds, before the said Child is of Age to labour more than if he brought them from the Coast of Africa. And to make this Account you must consider the Quantity of Labour he loses whilst She is with Child, for he must be a very cruel as well as a very imprudent Master, who will force a Woman that is pregnant to work equal to another Slave. Besides this must be consider’d the accident of that Child’s Death, the loss of the Mother’s Labour in attending the Child, and the food of it till it is of age to work. It may perhaps be said, that this food costs nothing, but the Labour of the Parents; But as the Labour of the Parents belongs to the Master, he pays for the food of that Child.
The Trustees have other Considerations to influence their Conduct in this Point, for as they were incorporated with a Design to relieve the Necessities of our poor People, and Protestants Who are persecuted in other Countries, they had rather lay out their Money in sending over and subsisting poor white Men than in buying of Slaves.
These Reasons have induc’d them to prepare a Law against the Importation of Negroes, Which has had the Royal Assent, and the Approbation of Every One here, Who knows the State of our Colonies abroad, and is sensible how much some of them have suffer’d by the great Increase of Negroes, and Diminution of White Inhabitants.
Sir, The very end for which the Trustees were incorporated was to procure that Blessing of a well constituted Government, Which is so little known in some Part of America; This engages their whole thoughts, they hope every Step which they have taken appears to have a tendency this Way, as far it can appear in a small beginning; And they very much depend on that Publick Spirit which you express, that You will contribute Your Part towards it whenever You come to settle in Georgia.
The Trustees are very much obliged to You for turning Your thoughts on Anything for the Good of the Colony; But they cannot approve of the setting up any Manufactury, that will interfere with those of Great Britain. However, as Coopers (whom You mention) may be necessary there, and no ways prejudicial to us at home, the Trustees would be glad to have due Encouragement given them.
The Trustees cannot allow of the Use of Rum in Georgia, as it is found to be destructive to the Lives and Morals of the People; They have therefore made a Law against the Use of it, which has likewise had the Royal Assent. The Brewhouse, which you propose to be set up, will be very proper, as it may tend towards the Discouragement of Rum and other distill’d Liquors.
The Trustees highly approve of what You propose about a Sloop from Pensilvania with Flower, and are much oblig’d to You for thinking of and opening a Trade between Georgia and Pensilvania.
They desire to know what Method You have thought of for the improvement of the Lumber Trade, Which is a thing much to be wish’d for. If you have form’d any Scheme for that purpose, the Trustees beg You will favour them with it.
Mr. [Thomas] Causton is order’d by the Trustees to continue the Licenses to the present Traders for one Year forward under the usual Limitations and Restrictions.
The Trustees do not intend to lay any Duty upon the Exportation of Skins, nor increase the Charge of the Licenses, and they will always make their Port Charges as easy as possible.
As You have been pleased to direct Your thoughts so much towards the improvement of the Colony of Georgia, the Trustees hope You will continue to favour them with Your Sentiments. These will always have the greatest Weight with them, and be highly usefull to the Trust in which they are engaged.
Since my writing this Letter, the Trustees have receiv’d Advice that [Joseph] Watson is become a Lunatick, and consequently cannot be treated with at present for his Land: If therefore You approve of the Gentleman’s Lot, adjoining to Mr. Musgrove’s, that is bounded on the River Savanah on One Side, and Musgroves on the Other, the Trustees will readily grant it.
Since this Letter was writ, I have likewise receiv’d Yours of Febry. 8th. 1734, and laid it before the Board, as Mr. Oglethorpe has all the Letters which he has receiv’d from You.
The Trustees come entirely into Your Sentiments about Sumptuary Laws; and as they are well aware of the pernicious Consequences of Luxury, You may depend on their being watchfull of every appearance of it, and on their Resolution to destroy it in its infancy.
The Trustees think Your Judgement is very right, that the Province of Georgia lies convenient for a Trade to the Havanah and St. Augustine, and they doubt not but it will shortly appear so to the great Advantage not only of that Province, but of Great Britain.
The Trustees cannot think that the Discovery of any Gold or Silver Mines would be an Advantage to the Province, but on the Contrary would be a very great Prejudice. They are of Opinion, and believe that on further Reflection You will be so too, that the greatest Riches of Georgia will arise from the Industry of its Inhabitants in cultivating the Surface of the Earth, rather than searching into the Bowels of it. That Labour of the first kind produces Riches more certain, and at the same time promotes the health of the People, whilst the fruits of the last are not only more precarious, but the Lives of the People are made so too. And here Sir I’ll give You the Sentiments of a very eminent and truly worthy Bishop, My Lord of Worcester, to the same Purpose in a Letter of his to the Trustees. “Let the Spaniards dig, and destroy themselves under ground, and in the unwholesome Methods of refining their Oar; Whilst our People take pains to the Advantage of their Health, and by and usefull Manufacture draw their Money from them without the dangerous Ways of getting it at first hand.”
Benjamin Martyn to Joseph Fitzwalter, May 15, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 118, concerning his report on the garden, hunting, and Paul Amatis and the Trustees Garden.
Your Letter dated Janry. 16th. and March 10, 1734/5 directed to Mr. Oglethorpe have been laid before the Trustees, who are pleas’d to find that every thing thrives so well in the Garden. Your Account of the Country and the Soil is likewise very agreeable to them, but at the same time they observe by your own Relation, that a great deal of time has been spent in Shooting, which they are sorry for, and therefore they recommend it to You to employ it for the future in a manner that will be more usefull both to Your self and the Colony.
The Trustees do direct that whilst Mr. Paul Amatis is in Georgia he shall have the chief Direction of the Garden, and that You do obey such Orders as You shall receive from him, and if he comes to England the Trustees appoint You to take care of it under the Direction of the Magistrates during his absence, and whenever he is out of the Colony.
The Trustees have order’d Mr. Causton to pay You the Salary which is due to you.
Benjamin Martyn to Paul Amatis, May 15, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 119-120, concerning silk production, management of the Trustees Garden, and management of servants. By the James, Capt. Yoakley, and by the Hawkins May 29, 1735.
The Trustees have receiv’d your Letter dated Janry 12th. 1734/5; and those of the 17th.61 and 21st. of the same Month directed to Mr. Oglethorpe have been likewise laid before the Trust with Your Accounts, which are refer’d to the Consideration of a Committee.
The Trustees have also receiv’d the Box of Silk which You sent by the James Capt. Yoakley, Sr. Thomas Lombe has begun to organizine it, and has had a Specimen of it from his Works in Derbyshire, which proves entirely to his Satisfaction.
The Trustees approve of Your Care and Conduct in carrying the Silk to be wound at Savanah for the instruction and encouragement of the People, for their hearts are set upon every thing that will contribute to the raising of Silk in Georgia, and the Prosperity of those whom they send there. They think You was very much in the right likewise to get Camuse and his Family up to Savanah.
The Trustees will not oppose You coming back, if you think it consistent with the perfecting Your Design of raising Silk in the Colony, for which You was sent. But whether You stay or come, the Trustees will equally use their Endeavours to procure You all the proper Encouragements which Your Services may intitle You to.
While You are in the Province of Georgia, the Trustees direct that You should have the chief Management of the Garden, and whenever You are out of the Colony, They have order’d that Mr. [Joseph] Fitzwalter shall have the care of it under the Direction of the Magistrates, and have wrote to Mr. Fitzwalter accordingly. The Servants necessary to work in the Garden are to be under Your Direction, and are to be employ’d there and no where else. None of the Produce must be sold, but it must all be delivered to the Storekeeper, except such Part as You and Your Family shall want to use.
The Plants must be deliver’d to such Persons as the Storekeeper shall direct who have prepared their Land ready to receive them; But it will be right for you to take Receipts of the said Persons for such Plants as You deliver from time to time.
The Magistrates are appointed by the Trustees to punish the Servants in the Garden, as well as any others, if they are guilty of any Crime, but in case they are idle, and neglect doing their Duty, You may give them such Correction as shall be necessary for that Purpose.
The Trustees have receiv’d a Complaint, that, upon the Magistrates sending to Mr. Fitzwalter to send up to them Francis Henly One of the Trust’s Servants in order to examine him upon information of Mr. [Roger] Lacy of Thunderbolt of his Servants being in a Conspiracy against the Colony, You thought proper to oppose his going, and behav’d in a very extraordinary manner. If the Complaint is true, the Trustees are very sorry to hear it, and expect that You will send Your Answer to it in writing to them. The Trustees expect all due Obedience to be paid to the Magistrates by Your self as well as Others, and that You never do interpose to obstruct the doing of Justice, but give an Example of ready Obedience to the Goverment settled there.
The Trustees have receiv’d the following Complaints against You. Vizt.
Your not sending over the Plan, and keeping a Journal of the Lands which You run out.
That little Land has been run out since Mr. Oglethorpe’s Departure till very lately.
That the People have greatly complain’d of late for want of knowing the Bounds of their Lots, for want of which they have neglected fencing, so that most of the Crop, that was sowed last Summer has been eaten up by the Cows and Horses.
That Mrs. [Elizabeth] Sale order’d Mr. Jones (the publick Surveyor appointed by Mr. Oglethorpe) to run out her Land in August last, which he often promised, and as often falsified his Word.
If these Complaints are true, the Trustees think You have been guilty of unaccountable Negligence, which has been already, and may for the future be attended with very bad Consequences: They require You therefore to give in Your answer to the said Complaints, which must be shown to the Persons complaining, and if on their Reply any Affidavits from You may be necessary, You must give in such Affidavits, that the whole Proceedings may be transmitted to the Trustees.
I have inclos’d in this by Direction of the Trustees a Copy of Your appointments with which they expect a regular Compliance.
Benjamin Martyn to Elisha Dobree, May 15, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 122-124, concerning actions of the Savannah court, relations with the Georgia government, leasing of land, and no slaves in Georgia. By the James, Capt. Yoakley. By the Hawkins May 29, 1735.
The Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia have receiv’d several Letters from You, wherein You complain of the Proceedings which were taken by the Town Court in Savanah relating to Your Creditors, and the Advertisement which was publish’d in the Carolina Gazette about You.
The Trustees entirely approve of the said Proceedings, and not only the Trustees, but some of the most eminient Persons in our Courts of Justice think, that they were strictly consistent with Equity both to Your Creditors and Your self, and tenderness to You in regard to Your Liberty, and therefore the Trustees expect to hear no more Complaints from You relating thereto.
What Mr. Causton has done in stopping the Provisions to Your Servants was by the Authority of the Trustees, who do not see any Reason to recall or blame what he has done.
You desire the Trustees to bestow some Place in the Government upon You. The Trustees order me to tell You, that the best Plea for their favour will be a ready Obedience to the Government settled there; But if they hear of Your opposing the Magistrates, or disturbing them in the Execution of their respective Offices, the Trustees will certainly resent it, and will take proper measures to punish all such as shall give an Example of Disobedience.
As the Trustees are pleas’d with the Spirit which You show towards Planting and Agriculture, and Your Zeal for the increase of the Colony, they have order’d some Madder, and Clover and Lucern Seed to be sent to You, and will send Your Wife and Family the first Opportunity; as soon as conveniently they can they’ll send a sufficient Number of Vines, and every thing else which the Industrious may want; You may depend on it, that if the People will not be wanting to themselves in care and Industry in cultivating their Lands, the Trustees will spare no Pains for their Happiness and Prosperity.
The Trustees do not approve of that Monopolizing Spirit which appears in You by Your hiring so many Lots. Because it destroys poor Men, unites Lots, and drives away Inhabitants, and very little agrees with Your general Professions for the Success of the Colony, and the good of the People. The Trustees will therefore confirm no Lease but that of the Widows Lot, and they expect that You will turn Your Industry towards the Improvement of Your own five and forty five acre Lots, which belong’d to [John] Sams, and which You purchas’d upon his Death.
You mention Your having purchas’d [John] Wright’s Lot, the Trustees will not suffer this by any means, because there is Land between Wright’s Lot and the River Savanah which belongs to the Trustees. Indeed as I said before, the Trustees will confirm no other Lease but of the Lot belonging to the late Mr. [Joseph] Hughes.
You desire the Trustees will encourage People’s building of Ships in Georgia, they direct me to tell you, that they shall be always ready to encourage the People’s building them on their own Lands, but not on any Land belonging to Others.
The Trustees are very well pleas’d that You did not draw up a Petition to them for Negroes; They are taking proper Measures to provide White Servants for the Magistrates, and those People who take most pains to deserve them by their Industry; But for many Reasons they are determin’d never to tolerate Negroes in Georgia. In the first Place, it would be more expensive to procure and carry them into the Colony than White servants, who will yet be always more usefull than Slaves. Besides, as the Trustees were incorporated with a design to relieve the Necessities of our poor People, and Protestants who are persecuted in Foreign Countries, they think it more proper to lay out their Money in sending over and subsisting poor white Men, than in buying of Negroes. And indeed the Remembrance which the People must have of their own wants before they were reliev’d by being sent into the Colony, should turn their thoughts off entirely from Slaves, and make them wish to see more of their own Country, and their own Religion made happy the same way.
The Trustees besides are from too many Instances sensible how much some of our Other Colonies have suffer’d by the great Increase of Negroes, and Diminution of White Inhabitants, and have therefore made a Law against the Importation of Negroes into Georgia, Which has had the Royal Assent, and the Approbation of Every One who knows the State of our Other Colonies.
Harman Verelst to Thomas Causton, July 5, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 125, regarding money from George Morley, Provost Marshal of South Carolina. Inclosed in Morley’s letter to Messrs Jenys and Baker, to be forwarded by them from Charles Town.
George Morley Esqr. having desired that Messieurs Jenys and Baker should Pay to you, for the use of the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America; such Money as is now in their hands & from time to time shall come into their hands for his Use as Provost Martial of South Carolina.
The Common Council of the Trustees took the same into Consideration the 2d. instant, and have directed that the same may be so received; and that you draw on the Trustees at their Office in Westminster at thirty days sight, for such Sums You shall so receive from time to time as you receive the same, & make your Draughts payable to George Morley Esqr. or Order for value received of Messrs. Jenys & Baker; and be careful to send a Letter of Advice with each Bill, That the Trustees may be satisfied of your having received the value of each Bill; to be applied by You for their Use as their Occasions shall require.
Mr. Morley has sent Messrs. Jenys & Baker an authentick Copy of the Minute.
Harman Verelst to Lt. Hugh Mackay at Inverness, July 12, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 126, authorizing bills of credit for Mackay.
Inclosed you have a Letter of Credit to Messrs. Hossack & Compa: at Inverness from Mr. Joseph Feckney their Correspondent in London to the amount of £50 Sterling which Mr. Oglethorpe directed me to get for you.
You are to draw a Bill on the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America at their Office near the House of Lords Westmr. to pay to Messrs. Hossack & Compa: or their Order £ 50 Sterling for Value received of them for the use of the said Trustees by you and please to make the Draught payable so many Days after sight as is usual between Inverness & London. Let the Trustees have a Letter of advice of such Draught when made & correspond by Letters to them by every Opportunity as you proceed in their Business.
Sent form of Indenture for Servts. for not less than five Years.
Harman Verelst to Philip George Frederick Von Reck at Ratisbonne [Regensburg], July 15, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 126-127, concerning transit of colonists through Holland. Enclosed under Cover to Monsr. De Reck, Counciller to His Britannic Majesty and His Envoy to the Diet of the Empire at Ratisbonne.
The Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America having desired Messrs. [Peter & J.C.] Simond to send you a Letter of Credit for £100— Sterl. for the Expence of the Transport you are now to conduct from Ratisbonne and that you should be supplied in Holland with what further Sum you shall have occasion to draw for, to enable you to bring the said Transport to the River of Thames, where a Ship will be provided to receive them & their Baggage to be transhipped for Georgia in the said River.
Mr. Simond incloses you the said Letter of Credit. The Trustees desire you will send a List as soon as you can of the whole Transport, describing each Person & Family, their Occupations, Sexes & Ages; & will let them know at what time you think to reach Holland. They have taken care to notify to the States Genl. your Transports coming to Holland & to intercede that they may be admitted Toll free & not unnecessarily detained.
You must apply to Messrs. Courtonne & Son & de Normandie at Rotterdam for what Money you shall want there: for they will have Instructions to supply you & for which you are to draw on Messrs. Simond & Co. in London.
Harman Verelst to Capt. Patrick Mackay, July 18, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 127, concerning Indian present distribution and Indian affairs. Enclosed to Thomas Causton.
The Trustees have received your Letters & Journal, & find by them that you have interfered in the Distribution of the Presents which were given by the King to Tomochachi; which the Trustees are of Opinion that upon reconsidering you will acknowledge you have not acted with the Prudence that might have been expected from you; now with that Deference you ought to have paid to the Orders of the Trustees signified to you by Mr. Causton of the 10th. of Janry. 1734 in forbidding Sinteechi to invite those Indians down; whom Tomochachi Mico sent him for & taking upon you to name others.
You are required in all things whatsoever to assist & support the Interest of Tomochachi; & You are not to take any of the Presents, now to recommend any one to receive any, nor to concern yourself with them in any manner whatsoever; as you shall answer it at your Peril.
Mr. Oglethorpe will be soon over, & have full Orders concerning this & the other Indian Affairs; with which he will acquaint you.
Therefore if you are at the Town of Savannah you must stay there till his arrival; and if this meets you in the Nation, you must come down with all expedition to meet him at Savannah.
Harman Verelst to Thomas Causton, July 18, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 128-130, concerning credit at Trustees store, farming and raising provisions, workmen at Robert Parker’s mill, Indian presents, Tomochichi’s influence with Indians, official’s pay, and new settlers. Enclosed to Samuel Eveleigh at Charles Town, by Capt. Shewbrick.
On Wednesday last the Trustees received your Letter dated the 2d. of April 1735; and they Daily hope for Capt. Thompson’s arrival with the Accounts you mention.
The keeping Provisions in the Store to supply the People for Money, Labour or Credit, till their Harvest is certainly very right. But you must not give greater Credit to any than is absolutely necessary for their Subsistance.
The Trustees are very much pleased to find the People begin to be sensible of their own Interest & turn their minds to planting & raising Provisions for themselves & Neighbours.
You acted very right in giving the People Corn, Pease and Potatoes for Seed & you are to continue to take in the Provisions raised in Georgia as you did last year until farther Orders.
As the Trustees are very desireous to encourage Industry, the advantage of which will be to the People themselves. They will consider of the most effectual means to exite [excite] both the Clearing & planting the Land belonging to the Town of Savannah, & that by way of Bounty to the Industrious; which when determined will be fully directed.
The preventing Alehouses giving Credit is very right, & useful both for Buyer & Seller, but the lowering the price of Beer must come from the plenty of it; which the present dearness of it, will soon bring to bear.
The Trustees very much approve of your Advice & Conduct with regard to the Saltzburghers.
As to the Workmen employed in Mr. [Robert] Parker’s Mill; there was Money lent to Mr. Parker upon his own desire to enable him to go forward with a Scheme proposed by himself for his own advantage. And as he imploy’d such Workmen, the Trust will have nothing further to do it, than what is mentioned in the Orders sent you by Mr. Oglethorpe.
Your first Letter to Capt. [Patrick] Mackay by Sinteeche was perfectly agreeable to your Instructions and it is to be wished you had persisted in that behaviour.
The Trustees were ordered by his Majesty to give part of the Presents to Tomochachi Mico for his own use & to enable him to oblige his People of Yammacraw with such part thereof as he thought proper, and that part of the said Presents were packed & marked TC and TC & the other part of the Presents were also by the Kings Order delivered to Tomochachi; That he might dispose of them to such persons of the Creek Nation & in such Quantitys as he thought fitting; and both Parcels intirely subjected to his Disposal without any other Person whatsoever having any Power to interfere. And these latter were marked TC Nation.
In your second Letter in answer to Capt. Mackay’s you say “The Presents sent by the Trustees of which I advertized You in my last I have Orders to dispose of to the Creek Nation as Tomochachi shall advise, Nevertheless I understand it as you do, I mean to such as have the most Interest; and since you have the Opportunity to advise in this Affair, it would certainly be very proper to advise Sinteechi who is the Messenger from Tomochachi, to invite those down here, whom you discover to have that Interest.”
The Trustees are surprized how you dare to put Constructions on their Orders; & would have you know, you are to execute & not to put strained Constructions that alter the Sense of their Directions.
You are to know farther that Tomochachi Mico is the Person whom the King, and by his Orders the Trustees, intend to employ to all the Indian Nations; & for this purpose it is necessary to give him as much weight as may be amongst his Country Men; and these proceedings of Yours & Capt. Mackay’s tend as much as in your power lye to weaken his Interest; & thereby overturn the whole Design of extending his Majestys Influence & the Christian Religion to all the Nation. Therefore you see the Inconveniencys of such a step; And you are positively commanded to deliver every Parcel whatsoever of the said Presents to Tomochaci for they belong to him: and this you are to do without Interpretations, as you shall answer the contrary at your Peril; And neither to suffer Capt. Mackay or any one else to interfere in the disposal of them.
The Trustees are very sensible of the great fatigue you have had in the administration of Justice; & they hoped that by Mr. [Peter] Gordon’s return to Georgia it would have eased you in some degree of the burthen; but in that have found themselves dissapointed by his not having assisted you in inforcing the Trustees Orders & quitting their Service without Licence. Mr. Oglethorpe will be soon in Georgia.
The Common Council of the Trustees have ordered you Forty Pounds Sterling being a Reward for your Service as Storekeeper since Mr. Oglethorpe left Georgia and Ten Pounds Sterling more for your Service as second Bailiff.
They direct you to pay to Henry Parker the third Bailiff for his Service the Sum of Ten Pounds Sterling; To Thomas Christie the Recorder for his Service the Sum of Ten Pounds Sterling; To Jno. Vanderplank for his Service as Constable the Sum of Ten Pounds Sterling & to Noble Jones for his Service as Constable the Sum of Ten Pounds Sterling; making together the Sum of Ninety Pounds Sterling for which you are to draw a Bill on the Trustees; sending a Letter of Advice therewith & mentioning it drawn pursuant to direction of this Date.
In 14 Days time Capt. Daubuz will sail with Servants &c. Passengers for Georgia which Servants are for the Accot. of the Trust; to be employed for them to raise Provisions for the Store.
Harman Verelst to George Lewis Wentz, July 18, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 130, concerning servants for Georgia. Sent to Mr. Simond’s correspondent at Rotterdam to be forwarded.
The Trustees were in Expectation of hearing from You before now; and have directed me to acquaint You that if You have not Compleated your Order for 100d. Men Servants You are to lessen the same to seventy Men Servants & that the Women and Children to them are to be in Proportion as 20 to 100d. men.
Harman Verelst to Lt. Hugh Mackay at Dorneck by Edinburgh Bay, July 19, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/6G6, p. 131, concerning recruiting of servants.
I wrote to you the 12th. Instant to Inverness & sent You a form of an Indenture for Servants all of the Age of Nineteen Years and upwards are to be bound for five Years and all under the Age of nineteen are to be bound till the Age of twenty four.
Inclosed You receive Your Instructions under the Seal and Sign’d by the Secretary By Order of the Common Council of the Georgia Trust.
Captain Dunbar underwrites that he undertakes for 40 men of the 110 with the Proportions to that Number; therefore your Number is the remaining 70 Men with the like Proportions as it stood on Your Agreement with him the 10th. instant.
Inclosed you Receive a Grant for 500 d. Acres of Lands for which I pay on your Accot. £1. l.— the Consideration Money & Ten Shillings & six pence for Registering a Memorial of it with the Auditor of the Plantations; which I will take Care to do & send it You with the Counterpart of Your Grant to be Executed by You in Georgia, when you arrive there. I have made you Debtor in Accot. with the Trustees for the said £1.11. 6.
Harman Verelst to Thomas Causton, Aug. 7, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 132-134, concerning supplies sent to Georgia, new settlers and servants. By the Georgia Pink, Capt. Daubuz.
Inclosed you have a Bill of Lading consigned to you for the use of Mr. Oglethorpe; The Ten Tons of Beer in forty Hogsheads, the four half Barrels of Powder & the Hundred & half of Deals must remain in the Stores untouched till Mr. Oglethorpe’s arrival. But the Firkin of wrought Copper which contains 2 cwt. of half Pence you may use in payments of Labour or Provisions; charging yourself with the amount by Tale. The two Bundles of wrought Iron contains as follows (Vizt.) No. 1.
1-6 ft. W.S. Steel cross cut Saw, whet & Set.
1-7 ft. . . . do. Peg Tooth . . . do.
2-7 ft. . . . do. Whip Saws
2-7 ft. Whites. . . . do.
2 W.S. Lock Tillers.
2 Whites . . . do.
1 Doz. Whip Saw Files of one sort:
1 doz. . . . . . do. of another sort
6 cross cut Saw Files.
6 . . . . . . do. larger.
2 long Saw Setts.
And in No. 2 a Dozen pitching Axes which were Shipped in order to be used by a number of Grizons62 to be sent Servants to the Trust, whereof only Two Familys go; which with one Daniel Fayssoux are Servants to the Trust; therefore what are wanting for such Servants must be so used & the other put in the Store, for the use of the Freeholders by this Ship, or other occasions for them.
There are two Boxes also in the said Bill of Lading which please to deliver to Fras. Piercy & Mrs. [Elizabeth] Fallowfield as directed.
And you are hereby authorized to discharge the Bill of Lading on Receipt of the Contents for the uses they are consigned.
The Passengers on the Trust Account who are to be put on the Store & have Fifty Acres Lotts are as follows.
Mrs. Mary Pember (who has a particular Letter to you) the Grant of the Fifty Acres to her will come over with Mr. Oglethorpe but the Land must be set out now. She is to hold it for Life & after her Death it goes to Edward Seymour, her Couzen & the Heirs Male of his Body: he also comes with her by this Ship & Elizabeth Nichols her Maid Servant, making three heads on the Store, at the Allowance Mr. Oglethorpe settled when at Savannah.
Peter Joubert & Mary his Wife: Two more on the Store. Mr. Joubert is to have 50 Acres set out and will be included in a new Trust Grant which will come over with Mr. Oglethorpe And the said 50 Acres must be adjoining to Mrs. Pember’s; And both to be Town Lotts at Savannah.
John Smith & Mary his Wife, William his Son aged 6 & Mary his Daugher aged 6 Months, making Two heads & one third more on the Store: The said John Smith is to have a Town Lott also, & will be included in the said Trust Grant. And
Henry Meyer, Katherine his Wife, his 3 Sons Daniel aged 14, Peter aged 12 & John aged 5 And his three Daughters, Ann aged Seventeen, Margaret aged 8 & Katherine aged 2. Making 6 heads & one Sixth more on the Store. The said Henry Meyer is to have 50 Acres; but it cannot be laid out till Mr. Oglethorpe’s arrival. And till then he may be employed for the benefit of the Trust in Consideration of his Maintenance.
The Servts. bound by Indentures to the Trustees are to have a house to live in & to be set to sawing.
Their Names & the Conditions of their Indentures are as follows. Vizt.
Daniel Fayssoux bound the 31st. of July 1735 to serve 5 Years from the date And during the Term & untill the end thereof, is to be provided with & allowed all necessary Cloaths, Meat, Drink, Washing Lodging and all other Necessarys fit and convenient for him, according to the Custom of Georgia & as other Servants in such Cases are usually provided & allowed.
Anthony Salice & Katherine his Wife, bound by Indre [indenture] of same date, to serve the same time & both to be provided with & allowed as above & further That his Son Anthony aged 3 & his Daughter Maria Katherina aged 4 shall be with him & maintained during the said Term.
John Giovanoli & Maria his Wife bound by Indre of same date to serve the same time and both to be provided with & allowed as above and further that his Sons John aged 3 and Scher aged 2 shall be with him & maintained during the said Term and I the end thereof untill their respective ages of Ten Years, when they are severally bound to serve in Georgia until their respective Ages of 24 which said Servants are to be provided each year by the head as follows (Vizt.) 200 Pounds of Meat and 342 pounds of Rice, Pease or Indian Corn, to be delivered in such proportions as may best answer the said whole Years maintenance therewith. And their Cloathing is to be to each 6 yards of Lindsey Woolsey, 9 Yards of Ozembrigs, a pair of Shoes from England & 2 pair of Country Shoes together with 2 s. Value in Needles, Thread, &c. each Year.
There is another Servant bound to the Trust as an Appentice by Indre of the same date: his Name is Thomas Oakes, aged 15 Years & bound for 6 Years & the Trustees have appointed the use of him to Thomas Young. The Conditions of his Indre, is the same as Daniel Fayssoux, only being 6 Years instead of 5. And you must take a Recognizance from Thomas Young of 5 £ Sterling for performing the Conditions of the said Indre between the said Thomas Oakes of the one part & the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America of the other part and bearing date the 31st. of July 1735.
Daniel Fayssoux, Anthony Salice & John Giovanoli are on their arrival to have 5 Acres each, in part of their 20 Acres set out; it being agreed they should be allowed one day in a Week to work on their own Land; And the remaining 15 Acres to each, is to be set out as soon as conveniently may be afterwards & before the expiration of the 5 Years And it is further agreed that they should be allowed Tools to work on their own Lands not exceeding 15 s. Sterl. to each.
There is on board this Ship Mr. Nathaniel Polhill who has a Grant of 150 Acres of Land & was to carry 3 Servants with him. He could get but one to go over now with him; therefore let him have 50 Acres of Land set out in part with a reserve for 100 Acres more adjacent. In case 2 other Servants shall be sent him within the limited time of his Grant; which by Indorsement has been extended by the Common Council of the Trust. He goes at his own Expence & maintains himself & Family.
There is another Passenger on board at his own Expence who has a Grant of 50 Acres, his Name is William Woodroolfe (he has a particular Letter to you). He has the care of the Medecines, to be used by Mr. John Smith & half Hhd of Vinegar on board with a Brush to use it; for use in the Voyage, & for which the Capt. has given a Store Rect. which Mr. Woodroolfe has. What is not used in the Voyage Mr. Woodroolfe will deliver to you.
The following Letters are inclosed wch. please to deliver, or send as directed
2 to Capt. [Patrick] Mackay
1 to Ann Bliss.
2 to Fras. Piercy.
1 to Wm. Brownjohn.
1 to Jno. Marshall.
1 to James Burnsides
1 to Jno. Thompson.
1 to Lewis Bowen.
1 to Hugh Frazier
& 1 to Mr. [Arthur] Edgcombe.
Harman Verelst to Thomas Causton, Aug. 9, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 135, concerning Anthony Salice, Henry Meyer, and provisions of Capt. Daubuz. By the Georgia Pink, Capt. Daubuz. Sent one copy to Gravesend and another to Deal.
Since my last of the 7th. instant, I have received Directions to desire you would keep a watchfull Eye over the behaviour of Anthony Salice (who comes by this Ship) one of the Servants bound to the Trust, and in particular to Observe if any Inclination should arise in him for corresponding with either the French or Spaniards.
Henry Meyer whom I mentioned might be Imployed ‘till Mr. Oglethorpe’s Arrival for the Benefit of the Trust in consideration of his maintenance; being a Freeman, must not be Imployed to labour for the Trust, but be maintained as, other Freemen are, for he is to Joyn the People Mr. Oglethorpe brings, to be Settled in a new Town.
What Provisions Captain Daubuz don’t Use in the Voyage You are impowered to take from him, giving him a Receipt for the different Species and several Quantitys of each. And the Trust will settle the Price with Mr. Simond here.
Harman Verelst to Philip George Fredrick Von Reck, Aug. 12, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 136, giving instructions for new settlers. In care of Monsr. de Reck at Ratisbonne.
I received your Letter dated the 8th. instant N.S. which I expected would have given Advice of your Setting forward by that time, agreable to what Mr. [James] Vernon has wrote to You on that head. The Trustees therefore desire you will on receipt hereof set forward with those that are ready and not stay for Numbers, by reason that they must be in England some time in September if they Go this Year and those that cannot be in England by that time must remain in Germany till next August. As to the Wives and Children of the Carinthiens,63 If the Men will go before them and leave one or two of their Number to Conduct them, they may follow when they obtain Liberty to do so; and the Men that go before them will be preparing Conveniences for their reception in Georgia.
These Instructions You are desired particularly to Comply with; and not to think of coming this Year without You come directly.
Harman Verelst to Jacob L’Aulhie at Cork, Ireland, Aug. 14, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 136-137, ordering beef and butter for Georgia.
The Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America having occasion to supply that Colony with Beef and Butter; think it prudent to make Tryal of the Goodness and Cheapness of those Provisions from Cork, for which purpose Mr. [John] Laroche (one of the said Trustees) has recommended You to supply Messrs. Peter and J. C. Simond who send a Ship to Cork for the Trustees to take in such Provisions. The Order is for 600 or 650 satutable Barrels of good Beef; the first that shall be killed; & to be Salted & Cutt up clear of bloody Pieces, and each Barrel to contain 224 pounds wt. in five pounds & ten pounds Pieces as near as may be marking each Barrel with the Number of each sort of Pieces in it and with the Mark of G x C Beef No. 1 to 600 or 650. And is also for 200 Firkins of Butter the best sort Mark’d G x C Butter No. 1 to 200. The Ship will be at Cork by the 7th. of September and must be dispatched in three days after. You are to draw on Messrs. Peter & J. C. Simond in Nicholas lane Lombard street for the value including your Commission and all Charges; sending to them an Invoyce and Bill of Lading consign’d to James Oglethorpe Esqr. in Georgia.
You are to get the best of the new Beef and Butter, and to have them well cured, and at as reasonable a Price as You can. Mr. Laroche has wrote to You and I don’t doubt but You will Exert Your self on this Occasion.
Harman Verelst to John Hossack at Inverness, Aug. 22, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 137-138, asking him to check passengers on ship to Georgia.
Captain Dunbar the Bearer hereof waits upon You to desire the favour of your going on board his Ship to see all his Passengers brought before You, and be called over by a List which he will prepare containing their Names, Ages, Business, and where born. Which List when Examin’d by You; pursuant to his Instructions which he will show you. The Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America hope You will oblige them, on sending such List true; to sign the same & the date such Examination was taken before you on board.
The Reason of this trouble is; That the Trust may be Satisfied what Number of Passengers are on board, which they are to pay Freight for and the Ages of each; Their Agreement with the Owner being to Pay Freight for every Person of the Age of Twelve Years & upwards and for every Person of the Age of Seven Years & under twelve, half Freight; and for every Person of the Age of Two Years & under seven one third Freight; and no Freight for every Person under the Age of Two.
Harman Verelst to Nicholas Spencer, Secretary to the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge in the Highlands of Scotland, Aug. 23, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 138-139, asking him to recommend a minister to go to Georgia. By Capt. Dunbar.
Your Letter to Mr. Adam Anderson dated the 11th. Instant has been laid before the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America and has given them great Satisfaction; for they cannot but feel themselves greatly concern’d for the Welfare of the People who Go to Georgia, & think it would be a deplorable Condition for such a Number of poor people to be without any Spiritual Help, they not speaking the English Language.
And as the Trustees are wholly unacquainted with the Lives Characters and Conversations of any Ministers who speak the Irish Language, If the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge in the Highlands of Scotland (whose Zeal & Charity has exerted itself so conspicuously) would recommend a Godly Minister of the Gospel of an exemplary Life, and one as may be acceptable to the People of the Imbarkation for Georgia; that by their mutual affection he may be the better Enabled to Edify them; and that he may also be one fitt for such an Important Charge; whose necessary Qualifications is needless to set forth to a Society so good Judges of the Virtues requisite for a Minister of the Gospel; and more especially for one who is to go into a Country where his Example may be usefull to the Heathern. The Trustees will thereupon Issue a License to such Minister for to Officiate in Religious Matters for the said Imbarkation to and in Georgia; in the same manner as they do to all other Ministers sent to Georgia. And will also grant to him Three Hundred Acres of Land.
Captain Dunbar having received Instructions in case he should not meet Captain Gascoigne at Sea; (who is to cruize off the River Savannah for that purpose with His Majesty’s Man of War the Hawk, in case Mr. Oglethorpe shall arrive before Captain Dunbar). That then he should send You this, to assist him in getting Pettiauguas64 and other Craft to Carry up the Passengers and Goods on board him to Barnwell’s Bluff upon the Alatamaha. Lieutenant Hugh Mackay who is on board is to receive all the Goods Shipp’d, and to Certify to You that he has received them at the said Bluff agreable to the Bill of Lading which he will do upon the Captains Copy, and by which Certificate You are hereby Impowered to Discharge the Captain from the Inclosed Bill of Lading consigned to You for the use of James Oglethorpe Esqr.
If the Captain brings You Lieutenant Mackay’s Certificate for four pieces of Cannon delivered to him and for any Quantitys and different Species of Provisions taken from the Captain on discharging the ship, You are to take such Certificates and send Your Receipt for them as delivered to Lieutenant Mackay by the Captain according to his Certificate in your Custody.
The Captain has Leave that the Passengers may use 25 pounds of Gun Powder on board. And if any Canvas & Blanketting is not delivered by him for the use of the Passengers he is to deliver the Residue to You in the absence of Mr. Oglethorpe; as also any Residue of 2 half hhds of Rape Eager,65 2 Stone Bottles of Theracke66 & the Box of Medecines shippd for use in the Voyage together with the Brush to sprinkle the Rape Eager with which were put on board as Store.
The Provisions the Scotch are to have are 12 Bushels of Indian Corn at 56 pounds for each Bushel, 100 d. pounds of Meat, 30 pounds of Butter, 1/4 cwt. of Cheese & a Bushel of Salt a Year to each head.
The Ton of Gritts on board is appointed to be used instead of so much Indian Corn, and the Ship Beef that may be left & delivered by Captain Dunbar must be applied as part of their meat; the whole Quantity of Cheese for 130 heads is onboard being 32 1/2 cwt.
You must strive to obtain the Indians Consent for the Scotch settling at Barnwell’s Bluff & for that purpose you are to make them such Presents as shall be necessary and to get some of them to Go and hunt for them & show them the Country & be sure to satisfy the Indians upon this Occasion.
If any Persons should busy themselves in spreading any scandalous Reports & Rumours to hinder the settling the Highlanders You are to Commit them, for the same until such time as Tryal can be had and prosecute them to the utmost severity of the Law & thereby prevent them from having any Access to the new People and from doing any further Mischief.
[P.S.] The 4 Waggon Wheels 2 pair of Shafts & 4 Axel trees is to be kept in the Store at Savannah till Mr. Oglethorpe arrives.
Harman Verelst to Lt. Hugh Mackay, Aug. 23, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 141-142, concerning Scottish servants for Georgia. To be left at the Post house at Inverness.
Your sealed Instructions were sent to Dorneck the 19th. of the last month pursuant to Your Directions.
The Grant of 500 d. Acres to You was sent to the same place 26th. of the same month, since which I suppose You have not been that way. I hope they will have come safe to hand before the Receipt of this.
Captain Dunbar sails for Scotland this day; I am sorry You found such Deadness in raising the Men, as not to be able to get more than forty, but hope Capt. Dunbar will Compleat the Number; for the Trustees since Your Letter to Mr. Oglethorpe have taken all necessary Measures to facilitate Captain Dunbars getting them.
You are still desired to continue Your Diligence in Your parts of the Country; And on Captain Dunbar’s arrival to see him as soon as You can to Consert further Measures for the Publick Service.
It was very right in You not to meddle with the £50 Credit till you knew the Ship would come; But as that is certain You may Receive it; as also a further Credit of Nine Pounds & Ten shillings Sterling which I have Inclosed to You. If You receive the two Sums together one Bill on the Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America at their Office near the house of Lords Westminster may be drawn by you for the said £59.10.— for Targetts,67 Mills & Charges on the Trust Accot. in Scotland.
The Targetts and Mills were Computed at about £19.10.— which deducted out of the £59.10.— the Credit to You at Inverness will make £40. for your other Charges.
But as You will state the real Expence of the Targets and Mills the said£59.10.— is only Estimated at present until You settle with Mr. Oglethorpe in Georgia.
Harman Verelst to Thomas Causton, Aug. 23, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 142, concerning navigation of the Altamaha River. Sent to the Downs on board the Georgia Pink, Capt. Daubuz.
You are desired to send down the Pylot Sloop to see if an Entry can be found for the Carrying up a Ship in Safety within the River Alatamaha; which will be of great use against the next Ship’s Arrival; when You will be sent to from off the Island of Tybee to know.
Harman Verelst to Lt. Hugh McKay, Aug. 30, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 143, concerning drafts for expenses. To be left at the Post house at Inverness.
By Order of Mr. Oglethorpe I have inclosed You a Letter of Credit for Sixty Pounds; Which You are to be Answerable for to the Georgia Trust, as well as those Persons You assist therewith.
Your Draught of £50.— is come to hand and accepted. But You should have sent a Letter of Advice thereof to the Trust. When You draw for the £60. — Draw the Bill as before on the Trustees and send a Letter of Advice.
Harman Verelst to Capt. George Dunbar, Aug. 30, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 143-144, concerning land grants. To be left at the Post house at Inverness.
I rec’d Yours from Gravesend and have Orders for the following Grants to Pass the Seal on Wednesday next. The expences of them I will make You Debtor for which are £1. 1.— for each 500 d. Acres the Consideration Money & 10s. 6d. for the Auditor for Registering each Grant; which I will get done and send by Mr. Oglethorpe. 500 d. Acres to Patrick Mackay and the Heirs Male of his Body and in failure to Catherine his Daughter and the Heirs Male of her Body.
|500d.||Acres to John Cuthbert and the Heirs Male of his Body and in failure to James Cuthbert and the Heirs Male of his Body.|
|500d.||Acres to John Mackay and the Heirs Male of his Body.|
And 500d. Acres to Yourself and the Heirs Male of Your Body & in failure to William your Brother & the Heirs Male of his Body. All of the yearly Rent of Ten Shillings for every 100d. Acres. As to the Power of Alienation of 20 Acres each for the Town, That will be by a Licence, and with Respect to the Judicature That is a separate Power, which Mr. Oglethorpe will move for on Wednesday.
There is another Grant to Pass the Seal on your Recommendation for 500d. Acres to Thomas Baillie and the Heirs Male of his Body & in failure to his Brother Alexander and the Heirs Male of his Body, and in failure to his Brother Robert and the Heirs Male of his Body under the yearly Rent of 20s. for every 100d. Acres, which is the present Reserved Rent. But none of the Rents Commence till Ten Years from the 9th. of June 1732, and for which I shall make You Debtor £1.11. 6.
And the Grant that was made out for 50 Acres to Archibald Mac-Gillivray will also pass the Seal the same Day; But no Expence attends that.
Harman Verelst to Samuel Eveleigh at Savannah, Aug. 30, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 144-145, concerning Georgia lumber and Indian trade and relations. Inclosed to Paul Jenys at Charles Town.
Mr. Oglethorpe having laid Your Letters before the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America and acquainted them of your great Zeal for the Welfare of Georgia; They are very sensible of your Publick Spirit, and gratefully acknowledge your punctual and constant Correspondence. They are very desirous to Give all Encouragement in their Power to the Lumbar Trade, and in Consideration that you have been so zealous in endeavouring to forward the same; they have commanded me to pay the Freight of the 4 pieces of Timber You sent consigned to Mr. Simond, which I will do.
All Timber sent from Georgia must be Cutt by white Men; for the King in Council has confirmed an act prohibiting the Use of Negroes in Georgia. And He has also confirmed another Act prohibiting the Use of Rum in Georgia, and both under large Penaltys. His Majesty in Council has also confirmed an Act for maintaining the Peace with the Indians, which regulates the Trade with them. All which Acts Mr. Oglethorpe will bring with him. He will soon sail from England, and will have due Regard to so deserving an Inhabitant of Georgia as Mr. Eveleigh is.
One part of the Business of the Indians who came over with Mr. Oglethorpe was to secure the Lands to the Trustees who had the King’s Authority to acquire it; for none can purchase Land of the Indians in Georgia without the King’s Authority, and that Royal Authority is Granted only to the Trustees for all the Land in the Province of Georgia. I mention this to You Sir as a prudent Caution to prevent any useless or unlawful Endeavours by the Imposition of ill Advisers who know nothing of the Land Possessed by the Indians and the Property of acquiring a Title to it.
Harman Verelst to Paul Amatis at Savannah, Sept. 6, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 145, concerning bills of exchange drawn by Amatis. Inclosed to Paul Jenys at Charles Town.
The Trustees recd. a Bill drawn by You for 14£ Sterling which they would not accept, by reason you never had any Directions or Leave for Drawing Bills on them. But Mr. Oglethorpe was so kind to You, as to take it upon himself to Pay; for the Trustees can permit no Person to draw on them for Money but such only as are duly authorized. Since wch. the Trustees have reed, your Accot. and Advice thereby of several other Bills drawn on the Trust, two of which are come to hand one of 30 £ & the other 24£ Sterling & both are returned, for the Trustees wilI not pay them.
Mr. Oglethorpe will soon be in Georgia and is Impowered to settle all your Accots. and till then every thing remains unsettled relating to You.
Benjamin Martyn to the Rev. Samuel Quincy at Savannah, Oct. 10, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 146, revoking his authority to be clergyman in Savannah and conferring it on John Wesley.
The Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America have order’d me to acquaint You, that for good and sufficient Reasons they have thought proper to revoke the authority granted by them to you for performing the Duty of a Clergyman in the Town of Savannah, and that they have granted a License to the Revd. Mr. John Wesley for the said Purpose. You are therefore hereby required not to give any Interruption to the said Revd. Mr. John Wesley, or any Clergyman assiting him in the Performance of his Duty.
Benjamin Martyn to Lt. Gov. Thomas Broughton of South Carolina, Oct. 10, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, pp. 146-147, concerning Georgia-South Carolina arguments over Indian trade.
The Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America have receiv’d Copies of Your Several Letters to Capt. Patrick Mackay, and to the Magistrates of Savannah, relating to the Indian Trade, And they agree with You that such Disputes are not to be settled between You and the Magistrates of Savannah, and do therefore refer You to the Act lately ratified by his Majesty in Council Intitled, an Act for maintaining the Peace with the Indians in the Province of Georgia, which the Trustees herewith transmit to You, and which they do not doubt will give You entire Satisfaction, and prevent any future Misunderstanding on that head.
Benjamin Martyn to Francis Harbin, Oct. 29, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 147, directing him to stop procuring servants in Holland. One copy sent to Rotterdam and one to Amsterdam in the care of Peter Simond’s correspondents by post Oct. 31, 1735. Repeated again to Amsterdam Nov. 7, 1735, after receipt of Harbin’s letter dated Oct. 31, 1735.
Your Letter dated the 21st. Instant was this day read to the Trustees. They observe thereupon the many Difficultys you have laboured under in getting proper People, by Roman Catholicks and Persons in Debt offering. And as the Season of the Year is far advanced, and several Servants are gone in the Ships with Mr. Oglethorpe, The Trustees direct You to proceed no further; But return to England on Receipt hereof.
Harman Verelst to Jacob Laulhe, at Cork, Ireland, Nov. 1, 1735, Westminster, C.O. 5/666, p. 148, concerning beef shipped to Georgia.
The Trustees for Establishing the Colony of Georgia in America having received Mr. [Peter and J. C.] Simond’s Accompt of the 640 Barrels of Beef & 200 Firkins of Butter you shipp’d on board the Peter and James for Georgia.
They desire you will by the Return of the Post, let them know the Weight of the Beef in the said Barrels; either how much each Barrel contains, or how much weight the Beef in all the Barrels together amounts to.
The several Bills you have Drawn on the Trust having been paid except those dated 25. June 1735 for £ 318. 7. 8 1/2 & 26 June 1735 for £ 300 and the Reasons thereof are herein sent You.
A Committee of the Common Council of the Georgia Trust was Impowered to Adjust and Determine your several accompts; who in pursuance thereto have Examined the same and come to the following Determinations thereof; and Directed me to Acquaint. You as follows. Vizt.
That the Trustees received Your Letter dated 2d. August 1734 with Advice of your having drawn on them several Bills to the amount of £1485 Sterling, and of that Amount ordered £ 500 at that time to be paid on a Presumption that there might have been then so much expended. They not having Your Accompts to explain the Reasons for your drawing on them so large Sums & the Want thereof occasioned the Payment of the Residue to be Stopped until they had received such Accots.
The Trustees observe That several of the said Bills came to hand without any advice before they received your said Letter, which Included so great a List. You are very sensible the regular method of drawing Bills is always to have Letters of Advice attending them; which should be to one or more Bills drawn at the same time, and in Order That the Reasons for drawing them should appear; Accompts of the Application should also be sent with them.
Your Instructions from Mr. Oglethorpe dated 25 April 1734 The Trustees are of Opinion enabled You fully to be Master of the Reasons for every Draught Mr. [Thomas] Causton could draw on You; and believe that Your Experience in Business could not but direct you to have such Accompts from time to time; or how could You pursue Your Instructions for paying his Draughts; unless attended with the necessary Explanations of the Heads of Service and Limits of his Drawing which confined him to draw and You to Pay.
As You accepted of Instructions to Govern You, was Mr. Causton deficient, It was necessary You should have called on him for his Accompts from time to time to Transmit to England and thereby justify Your Payments of his Draughts, and the Trustees Payments of Yours; and have acquainted him that without such Explanations & Accots. sent You by every Opportunity You could not Pay his Draughts.
The Trustees reed, your Letter dated 24 October 1734 with Your Accot. by Captain MacNutt which came to their hands the 18th. of November last wherein You say in respect to the sending the Accompts or Services for what Sums You drew “That some times Mr. Causton would send you down a List or Memorandum not of Particulars but only specifying that he had drawn upon You several Draughts amounting to large Sums, which You have often received a long while before the Draughts themselves came; And that You was obliged to make Provision to answer his Draughts by Drawing upon the Trust.”
They observe thereon from Your own Letter mentioning Mr. Causton’s Draughts having been in the Colony three months together before they came to your hands. That if those Draughts of Mr. Caustons were drawn on you payable 14 days after sight, as they believe they were; They don’t apprehend any Necessity of making Provision to answer them before they came to hand; having the 14 days time to do it in; and then each Draught of Yours might be accompted for what drawn, and contain all the Draughts on You which came to hand in 14 days from the presenting of one Draught to the Payment thereof; And Your Accot. therewith by particularly specifying the Services mentioned in each Draught on You would fully answer the Reasons of Your Drawing.
With respect to Your Accompts I have inclosed the Observations arising on the Examining them, and now State You the respective Determinations on each Accot. in their Order.
The Charge in Your first Accot. ending the 23d. of April 1734 is Entered £30,817.16. 21/2 Currency which should be only £30,817.12.4 and Your Discharge thereto (without Commission) is Entered £29,350. 6. 2 1/2 which by wrong Entrys Miscastings and a Disallowance of £ 617.10. 0 for the Reason assigned in the Accot. Current inclosed reduces it to £ 25,733.10. 0. The Balance then is £2084. 2. 4 whereout the Discharge consisting of £ 144.12. 6 the Value of Goods bought for the separate Accot. of James Oglethorpe Esqr. £ 50.10. 4 Money paid for him £9,156.17. 6 the Value of Goods bought for the Trust (the Particulars of which 3 Articles are Inclosed) and £19,381. 9. 8 the Residue being the Amount of Paymts. made for the Trust. The following allowances are made You for Commission towards Discharge of the said Balance.
But before I state them It is necessary to Set forth the Reasons thereof and first You Charge Commission at 5 £ p. Cent on all your Payments which the Trustees cannot agree to; they have agreed to allow you that Commission on the buying Goods for them. But for Payments of Draught on You for their Use out of Money in your hands for Bills on them; As They are Transactions of Receiving and Paying Money only and not between Carolina and England, but in Carolina itself. And which in London Merchants Transact large Sums for 1/3d. p. Cent which is 1/6. for Receiving and 1/6 for Paying. The Trustees in Consideration thereof and your keeping the Accompts have determined to Allow You 1 £ p Cent for the Sums so paid to this time. Which Allowances out of the said Balance are as follow, vizt. For
The Charge in Your next Accot. ending the 3d. of May 1734 amounts to £2800, and Your Discharge in the said Accot. (without Commission) amounts to £ 4400. 6. 6. The Balance then due to You thereupon was £ 1600. 6. 6 But You reed, the next day Bills of Exchange on London for 300 £ Sterling which is £2100 Currency at 7 for 1 and paid thereout by way of Change to John Brownfield the 6th. of the said month £289.13. 9 which added to the above Balance makes £ 1,890. 0. 3 and then the Balance on the said £ 2100 (without Commission) amounts to £209.19. 9 towards the Discharge whereof the following allowances are made You for Commission. Vizt.
The Charge in your next Accot. beginning 7th. May 1734 and ending the 24th. of September following is Enter’d £18,670.18.0 as 600 £ p Cent Advance on £ 2649.19.10 1/2 Sterlg. which is at that rate over Enter’d 1 l/2d and the Charge so computed will be only £18,670.17.10 1/2. But as this Exchange on Sterling is Stated at 600 £ p Cent Advance only, at a time when the same was 625 £ p Ct. Advance on Sterling (as by Mr. Eveleigh’s Accot. with the Trust for a Bill drawn the 7th. of May 1734 It appears to be). The Trustees have reserved a future Consideration to Surcharge You for the Difference of Exchanges between Charles Town and England for your Bills on them from 7th. May 1734 when at more than 7 for 1. It never having been under since that day.
I therefore proceed to the Discharge in your said Accot. which (without Commission) amounts to £17,781.16.3 whereof the following Sums amounting to £ 2,215.11; 3 paid Paul Amatis is part vizt. £678. 9. 9. The Balance of his Accot. delivered Mr. Oglethorpe the 1st. March 1733 £401.14. 3 the Balance of his Accot. to 1st June 1734 and £1135. 7. 3. The Balance of his Accot. to 1st. Septr. 1734 which Accompts the Trustees are well assured You had no Authority to settle, But on the contrary, to keep open The very first of them; for Mr. Oglethorpe instead of Setting that Accot. thought it most adviseable and with your Privity to Advance Mr. Amatis 500 £ Currency on his Bond, which stands out against him. But as you have sent over Paul Amatis’s said Accots. The Trustees have Examined them; and Inclosed You receive their Objections thereto, which are referr’d to Mr. Oglethope to settle with him and thereby You see how wrong it was in You to meddle with them. But the Trustees have Given You Credit for them and made Mr. Amatis lyable to such Disallowances as shall be made on the settling them with Mr. Oglethorpe.
The Trustees further observe on Your said Discharge that you take Credit for £1069. Currency paid Col. [Alexander?] Parris for the Balance of his Accot. of Pettiaugua hire, which the Colonel might have wrote to the Trust himself about; and sent his Accot. for Examination, without Giving You the Trouble of Concerning your Self therein; and on his Application to You for that Purpose It would have been a sufficient Answer to him, To have said You had no Order for Adjusting his Accot. or Paying the Balance which was the real Case. However they have let the same pass to your Credit with the Observation on it to be a Caution to You for the future.
The Balance then of the said Accot. is £ 889. 1. 7 1/2 towards the Discharge whereof the following allowances are made You for Commission. vizt.
Since which Your Accot. beginning the 4th. of October 1734 and ending the 11th. of Janry. following came to hand. The Charge whereof in Sterling is £ 406.16. 9 & stated at 600£ p Cent Advance only without the true Exchange being duly Certified which at that rate amounts to £ 2847.17. 3 and in your Accot. is Enter’d only £2847.17. 0 And the Discharge thereto (without Commission) amounts to £2716. 1. 0. The Balance then is £131.16. 3 & towards the Discharge thereof the following Allowances are made You for Commission, vizt.
Your Accot. from 11th. Janry. 1734 to Lady Day 1735 was recd. The Charge whereof in Sterling being £1030.7.2 and stated at 600 £ p Cent Advance only without the true Exchange being duly Certified amots. to £ 7212.10. 2. Currency which is Enter’d only £ 7212.10. 0 and the Discharge thereto (without Commission) amounts to £6,869. 1. 0 whereof £683. 8. 6 is Entered paid Paul Amatis his Accot. for 1/2 a Year to 1. March 1734/5 which Accot. being sent over the Trustees have Examined it; and Inclosed You receive their Objections thereto which are referred to Mr. Oglethorpe to settle with him whereby You see how wrong it was in You to meddle with it.
The Balance then of the said Accot. is £343. 9. 2 and towards the Discharge whereof the following Allowances are made You for Commission. vizt.
Your Accot. to 25. June 1735 is received. The Charge in Sterling being £1068. 7. 8 1/2 and stated at 600 £ p Cent Advance only without the true Exchange being duly Certified amots. to £ 7478.13.11 1/2 Currency which is Entered £7478.14. 0 & thereby over Entered £0. 0. 0 1/2 and the Discharge thereto (without Commission) amounts to £ 7122.11. 6 whereof £399. 8. 0 is Entered Paid Paul Amatis his Quarterly Allowance to the first of June 1735 which Accot. being sent over the Trustees have Examined it and Inclosed You receive their Objections thereto which are referred to Mr. Oglethorpe to settle with him, whereby You see how wrong it was in You to meddle with it.
The Balance then of the said Accot. is £356. 2. 5 1/2 and towards the Discharge whereof the following Allowances are made You for Commission vizt.
All which several Disallowances of £1424.14. 5 1/2, £140.11. 6 1/2, £ 591.12. 5 1/2. £28. 1. 1 1/2. £245. 4.11 1/2. £ 244.16. 1 3/4 make together £ 2675. 0. 8 1/4. So. Carolina Curcy & in Sterling at 7 for 1 £382. 2.11 1/4 which occasioned Your Bill of £318. 7. 8 1/2 Sterling dated 25. June 1735 not to be paid.