Letters and Documents
“John & Esther Cuthbert discharge to their Daughter Sarah Threadcraft before her Marriage 31 December 1755. No. 2”1
We Promise both & either of us for ourselves our Heirs &ca. never to make any Charge, or come upon Lachlan Mackintosh his Heirs Exors or Admors upon the Account of our Daughter Sarah Threadcraft for her Board, Clothing, Lodging, Washing, Schooling or any thing else whatsoever from her birth to this day as Witness our Hands in Williamsburgh So. Carolina this 31st. day of Decemr. 1755.
[Signed] John Cuthbert
After the above promise was obtained Lachlan Mackintosh and Sarah Threadcraft were Married the next day, first day of January 1756.
“Extract of Letter Mercurious” 3
Extract from a Letter &ca from a Gentn. in Carolina
What good will not some People oppose, or what absurditys & Errors wickedness & injustice have not found Advocates, even to the very Denying of our Senses & justifying the most horrid Crueltys & persecutions of our own Species. this has not only been done by Laymen but also by those whose Sacred function bound them to inculcate the Law of peace meekness Charity & truth by their Doctrin & Example such is the Weakness of Humanity when under the influence of a sordid Intent & depending on a Corrupt Court. I was insensibly Led into these reflections on pursuing as far as my Patience would allow some pieces lately published in your Georgia Gazette attempting to Justifie some late Acts of the Brittish Legislature & tho’ under different Signatures appear to be the work of the same worthy persons seemingly the joint Effort of a warmplace Man a Sophistical Dabler in Law & a vain pedagogue, the latter of whom will probably be rewarded with permission to father the glorious production.
Were the Brittish parliament to impose the Laws & Religion of Turkey on all America as they have done that of Paris in great part of it those wretched Advocates would find pretexts to Justifie it. perhaps our kind parent not caring to trust the Government of her children in their own Hands as they are not come to the perfect use of their Senses or feeling yet, would find it Necessary for a Season kindly to learn them entire Submission & obedience, or it might be called a Mild Chastisement for some Undu[ti]full Conduct or Crime trumpt up against us to bring us to reason. Ye Gods! can you Suffer your best your Noble & disting[uish]ing Gift reason to be thus perverted by Man!
In the Darien Committee Thursday 12th. January 1775.4
When the most Valuable Privileges of a People are Invaded not only by op[en] Violence, but by every kind of Fraud Sophistry & Cunning, it behooves every Individual [to] be upon his Guard, and every part of the Society like Beacons in a Country Sur[round]ed by Enemies to give the Alarm, not only when their Libertys in General are attacked but Separately, least a precedent in one may affect the whole, and to enable the Collective Wisdom of such People to Judge of its Consequence, and how far their respective Grievances concerns all, or shou’d be opposed to preserve their necessary & willin[g Union?] Every Laudable attempt of this kind by the good People of this Colony in a Constitutionall manner hath been hitherto frustrated by the Influence & Authority of Men in Office & their Numerous Dependants, and in every other Natural & Just way by the Various Arts they have put in practice. We therefore, the Representatives of the Extensive District of Darien in the Colony of Georgia, being now Assembled in Congress by the Authority and free Choice of the Inhabitants of the said District now freed from their fetters do RESOLVE
1st. That the unparaleled Moderation the decent but firm & Manly Conduct of the Loyal and Brave People of Boston & Massachuetts Bay to preserve their Liberty deserves not only the applaus & thanks of all America, But also the admiration (Imitation)* of all [the] world (Mankind), But to avoid needless repetitions we acquiece & Join in all the Resolutions passed by the Grand American Congress in Philadelphia last October, we thank them for their Sage Counsel & advice, and most Heartily & Chearfully Accede to the Association entered into by them as the Wisest & most Moderate Measure that could be adopted in our present Circumstances to Reconcile & firmly Unite Great Brittain & the Colonys so indispensably necessary to each other, by the Surest & best Basi[s,] Mutual Interest. But as the Wisest Councils upon Earth are Lyable to the [Errours] of Humanity, & notwithstanding our Reverence & partiality for that August As[sembly] we begg Leave to differ in opinion from them, in charging the unjust Mea[sures] of the Present & preceeding Ministry to a person quallifyed rather for a Private than a Public Station, & as the Resentment of his Country Men on a former occas[ion] was raised by the illiberal & unjust abuse of them indiscriminately for the Fau[lts] of that Man, we humbly Presume the Renewing (Remembrance) it at this Time on so little foundation at Least Impolitick being confident that every Member of that late wise Patriotick, & truly Honourable Congress from a Principle of Can[dour] & Justice will rather commend than blame our honest & well Meant freedom.
2d. That the Shutting up the Land Offices the Scheme (intention) of raising our quit Rents, & Setting up our Lands to (at) Publick Sale, Degrading the Representatives of our Sovereign (the Crown to Action) into Paltry Auctioneers— quere if any quit Rents are Just or Legal—have not been duly considered (& attended to) in all its consequences to this Vast Continent. that [it] is a principle part of the unjust System of Politicks adopted by the present Ministry to subject & Enslave us, & evidently proceeds from an ungene[rous] Jelousy of the Colonys to prevent as much as possible the population of America & the Relief of the poor and Distressed in Brittain & elsewhere for whom a kind Providence has opened (disclosed) a New World from their Merciless Oppressor when the old is overrun with them (such Monsters). That Monopolising (& shou’d be free to all) our Lands into few Hands is forming & encouraging Petty Tyrrants to Lord it over us, or Reside in any other part of the World in Extravagance Luxury & Folly by the fruit of our Labour & Industry. Such oppressions neither we nor our Fathers were not able to bear & drove us to this Wilderness and that all encouragement shou’d be given to the poor of every Nation by every generous American.
[3d.] That M[inisteri]al Mandates commonly called (under the name of) Instructions preventing the Legal Representatives of the People to make (Enact—Frame) Laws Suiting their own Respective Situations & Circumstances are a general Grievance, Repugnant to the priviledges of free Brittish Subjects & the Natural Rights of all Mankind* & more especially in this Youn[g] Colony where our Internal Pollice [Policy] is not yet well Settled (Fixed), & as a Proof of (or, to demonstrate) the Intention of these restrictions when Time & opportunity offers, we point out (Instance) particularly amongst many others of the Like Nature the not Suffering us to Limit the Term (Continuance) of our Assemblys, or passing a Quit Rent Law to ascertain & fix the most valuable part of our Property.
4thly. That an over proportion of Officers for the Number of Inhabitants, and paying their Salerys from Brittain, so much cast up to us by Court Parasites, & for which we are so often charged (told) with Ingratitude, are in truth real & great Grievances rendering them Insolent & regardless of their Conduct, being Independent of the People who shou’d Support them according to their Usefullness & behaviour, and also for whose Benefit (advantage) & conveniency alone they were originaly intended, that besides these exhorbitant Salerys which enables them all to Act by Deputies whilst they wallow in Luxury themselves, their Combining to rais[e] their Exhorbitant illegal Fees & Perquisites by various arts upon the Subject to an alarming hight, as if formed with Long Claws like Eagles are more dangerous to our Liberties than a Regular Army having the Means of Corruption so much in their power, the danger of which is iminently Exemplifyed in the Present unhappy State of our Bretheren & fellow Subjects in Brittain and even in the Late Conduct of this Colony. To remedy (prevent) therefore as much as in us Lyes these direfull Effects, We do Resolve never to Choose any Officer (Person in public Office) his Deputy, Deputies Deputy their Tools or any Expectant to Represent us in Assembly or any other Publick place in our Election—hoping the Example will be followed throughout this Colony & all America.
[5th.] To shew the World that we are not influenced by any Contracted or Intended Views (motives), but a general Philanthropy for all Mankind of whatever Climate Language or Complection, We hereby declare our disaprobation and abhorrence of the Unnatural Practice of Slavery in America, (however the Uncultivated State of our Country or other Specious arguments may be plead for it) A Practice founded in Injustice and Cruelty, and highly dangerous to our Libertys (as well as Lives) debasing part of our own Species (fellow Creatures) below Men, & Corrupting the Virtue & Morals of the rest, & is Laying the Basis of that Liberty we Contend for (& which we pray the Almighty to preserve for Ages (Continue to the latest posterity) upon a quite (very) wrong Foundation. We therefore Resolve at all Times to use our Utmost endeavours for the Manumission of our Slaves in this Colony upon the most Safe and equitable footing for the Masters and themselves.
[6th.] That we do hereby Choose Messrs. [blank] to Represent us [for this] District in the Provincial Congress at Savannah the 18th. Instant or at any other Time & place appointed hereafter for the Space of one year (Six months) from this Day and that a Copy of these our Resolutions be given them as expressing the Sense of this District of public Grievances, which will Serve for their direction and Instructions, and it is further our desire that our said Deputys shall Use their Endeavours to Send two Delegates from this Colony to the general Continental Congress to be held at Philadelphia next May.
McIntosh to George Houstoun.
Darien 26th [?] July 1775
Inclosed I send you a Letter I received Yesterday from John Simpson & Co. of Charlestown acquainting me that my two Negro Fellows Ben & Glascow are in the Work House there, and I shall depend upon you to get these Gentn. Jacob Valk, or any other Person in Charlesto. who you think will do me Justice to Sell them to the best advantage & as soon as possible to save any further Expence or risque. I mentioned to you on a former occasion that I was determined to dispose of them, as they got acquainted with that Villain the Indian Doctor who conveyed them to the Nation & Lives in our Neighborhood altho they are the most Valuable Slaves I own, being both good Sawyers Squarers Boatmen & Shingle makers as well as Field Slaves, & no runaways untill they were decoyed away this Time which can be no disadvantage where they are at [a] Distance from the Indian Doctor, as neither of them are Woodsmen. Ben is also my Cooper, he is a Stout strong well made Fellow about 40 years of age & speaks a Little French which he Learned as well as English in his own Country Glascow a Slim neat made Fellow about 25 Year old & I think something taller than Ben, both of the Corrsmann or Congo Country. You know best how to Serve me in this matter to the best advantage, & begg you will not Neglect it & you will oblige Dr. Sir
Yr. most obt. Servt.
[Signed] Lachn. McIntosh
Pray send my Cask of Rum as soon as Possible as I am much in need of it. I hear it is very Cheap now. please to forward the inclosed by the Post.
Endorsed: Mr. George Houstoun5
Mercht. in Savannah
“Act of Council of Safety at Savannah 1 March 1776. relative to Shipping & exportation Recd. 4 March—”6
In the Council of Safety, Savannah, March 1st. 1776.
Whereas the Resolution of the honorable the Continental Congress, restraining the exportation of Rice from the united Colonies for a time, having expired this day, without any further, or additional Restraint, as we know of; it now lies with the Council of Safety for this Province, either further to restrain the exportation, or to permit it: And whereas a formidable force, both by Sea and Land, having invaded this Province for several Weeks past, & it appearing, by the arrival of such force, that the Cause of the said Continental Restriction is not yet removed:
Resolved, therefore, that no Ships loaded with Rice, or any other Article of Produce, in this Province shall be permitted to sail, without leave of the Council of Safety, or next Congress, except such Vessels, as are or shall be permitted to sail for the purpose of procuring the necessary means of defence.
Resolved, that, in case any loss shall be sustained by such detention, the Delegates for this Province shall be instructed to apply to the Continental Congress to make the reimbursement for such loss a general Charge.
Ordered, that the Rudders be unshipped & the Rigging & Sails taken away & secured, from the several Vessels now riding in the port of Savannah.
Orders to Colonel Lachlan McIntosh.
You will enforce & have executed the aforementioned Resolutions & Order; the Resolution heretofore delivered to you, as of the Council of Safety, being erroneous, and any permit you may have given in consequence, you will please to recall.
By Order of the Council of Safety
Wm. Ewen, Prest.
A true Copy from the Minutes
Edwd Langworthy, Secy.
“To General [Charles Lee] 26th Augt. 1776.”7
May it please your Excellency
I beg Leave in the name of the officers of the Georgia Battalion to offer some reasons for excepting the pre[cedency] of the South Carolina Regiments. Our’s and three Battalions for that [Colony upon] Continental Establishment, [were ordered on one and the same day by the General Congress. Thus far we were upon a footing, unless being farther removed from the seat of Government and consequently more exposed to the] Enemy we might not be thought [worthy of] the post of Honor; for we apprehend the late Resolve of the General Congress, setting the rank of the South Carolina Regiments the 4th November last, tho’ very favorable (all things considered) to them, does not exclude our having rank the same day. We desire not, Sir, to depreciate, or take from, the merit of our Brethren of South Carolina—they have gloriously repulsed a formidable British Fleet and Army, to their immortal Renown. We humbly presume we shewed the laudable Example, to that wealthy Colony in repelling [a force] equally formidable, in comparison of our weak and defenceless Situation, with these essential differences in our Circumstances, that most of our fellow Citizens and by far the most weighty, were either Neutral or joined our Enemy that a single R[egiment did not come to] the assistance of 4 or 500 dis[orderly and Raw Militia in the day of our distress. And more than all that we had] not the Military [reputation of a General Lee to] inspire us or intimidate [our] Enemies. [But decency requires, Sir] that we [say little on this head as] the generous and the brave, we are sure, will ever do us ample Justice, when they know the difficulties we surmounted. If we compare the Merits of the two Provinces, in another point of View, we flatter ourselves it will not prove less favorable to us. The Resolve of the Supreme and Venerable Senate was no [sooner known] than we instantly and implicitely obeyed, and acquiesced in every tittle of it whilst our Sister Colony (without entering into her motives) only apply’d for rank, and the pay allow’d her three Battalions, in aid of her own Expences; raised two new Regiments, and con[tinued] their old upon the Continental Establishment, and altogether under [their own direction and] provincial Commissions [which we dare venture to assert your Excellency must have often found] detrimental to the [general cause] and the Service at large—the Commissions so much insisted upon, by these Gentlemen, were sent to us, blank, and might have been dated the 4th. November, which doubtless was intended by the General Congress as the Pay was so small, to enable the Officers to furnish themselves with Arms, Uniforms &ca. but from a principle of generosity which would not permit them to receive any Pay untill they entered upon ser[vice] they were dated so late as the 29th. of January last; which we humbly conceive should rather be rewarded with Honor than otherwise. I am so little tenacious of my own Rank, that I will cheerfully give it up to men of such Merits as the Colonels Gadsden and [Moultrie] upon condition my Regiment has [the precedence] I think so justly due to it.
[I hope] Your Excellency will [take these]reasons into further consideration and [have the]
Honor to be Your Excellency’s
Most obedient and most humble Servant
[Signed] Lachn. McIntosh, Colo.
Savannah in Georgia
26 August 1776
House of Assembly 28 Augt. 17778
On the Petition of Lachlan McIntosh & John Wereat Esqrs.
Ordered That it be taken into Consideration next Tuesday Morning & that they be heard by their Council, & that there be a Call of the House on that Day.
Abstract from the Minutes
[Signed] H. Cuyler, C[lerk]
“Colo. Baker 29th. Augt. 1777”9
Midway August 29th. 1777
Yours per Capt. Salter I have received and observe the Contents. You inform me you have many Complaints with respect to the Regiment of Horse, and it would become neglect of your duty to Over look them.
Sir, I would by no means have you to over look a[ny] complaints respecting the Regiment of Horse or Offi[cers] comanding the same. If I have acted or done any[thing] to the Disadvantage of the State I am always ready [to] answer for the same.
It is true your orderd me to the Westward for the Troops, I accordingly proceeded up and gave orders to the officers of each respective Troop, to meet me in a reasonable time at Augusta in order to March from thence, with me to the Southward, but behol[d] instead of their marching their men agreable to [orders] they came themselves and told me, their men would [not] come unless they were immediately paid, now these [officers are not ?] fit to hold Commissions, yet seems to be Countinan[ced].
On my way from the Westward, I call’d and acquainted [you] with these particulars yet I seems to be reflected on f[or] coming down without a man. no person of any reason could have expected that I would have attended a parcell of footmen from Augusta. (as I had inform’d you the most of them had lost their horses.) and the weather so prodigious hot and my Self very unwell at the time.
I thought I had done my duty when I had given my Orders to the officers of each Troop, and if they had a mind to come down themselves, they Certainly if they had any Spirit would have oblig’d their men to obey Orders, but if officers are unwilling to obey orders, we need not wonder at the mens Disobeying orders.
I am afraid we have not got many officers that has the Good of the State at heart.
The reason of my not acquainting you of the Slaughter near fort Howe was I heard that Coll. Screven, Major McIntosh & Major Baker was up there after the Skirmish, and made no doubt, but one or the o[ther] of them had acquainted you with the particulars, indeed at that time it was out of my power to acquaint you being sick aBed.
If you recollect I mention’d to you some time agoe that Doctr. Callender neglected the Sick and that I should be under the necessity of looking out for another Surgeon. I have repeatedly spoke to the Doctr. but all to no purpose.
As for the officers, being detained in Savannah for the want of their Accounts being properly Certify’d must be their own seeking, they must know that I do not reside in Town, and I never refus’d Certifying any Accounts that I thought was Just and I had a right to Certify. In Short I find there is no given Satisfaction. therefore Sir, I do now acquain[t] you that in future if you should send orders not to direct them to me as Coll. of the Regiment of [Horse] as I am Determin’d not to act in that Capaci[ty] any longer.
I am Sir
Your most obt. & very Hble [Servt.]
[Signed] John Baker
P.S. there is at my fort 20 men arrived from the Westward & three of them deserted last night. I have sent after them— is all that is come down as [yet]
To the Honble Brigadier General McIntosh
favour’d Capt. Salter
[The following list of officers in McIntosh’s hand is on the back of Col. Baker’s letter: ]
|Capt. Habersham||Lieut. Milton|
The United States of America To Lachn. McIntosh Dr10 1777
Copy of Accot. the 16th May 1777
“Killed & wounded & prisoners of the British—Since the Commencemt. of the Warr to the latter end of 1777.”11
In March 1776 the Parliment of Great Brittain granted Supplies for the Support of 42,390 Brittish and forreign Troops to serve in America Exclusive of 8000 Marines for that Campaign, which Military Stores was Shipped for and actually did land on the Continent before the 1st. Septr. following amounting to 50,390 land and Sea Forces, which was reduced by the Armys of the United States as follows. Vizt.
Lachlan McIntosh, Jr. to Colonel [Joseph Habersham]13
My Duty requires that I shoud give you some accot. of my Journey & proceedings. I Accompanyed my Father through So. & No. Carolina & part of Virginia, where he left me to be Inoculated for the Small pox. & came up with him again in Camp at the Valley Forge Pensylvania the 13th Feby. after I recovered where I now am. I have Since traveled almost through the whole State of Jersey & great part of this for the sole purpose of Recruiting, without Engaging a Single man nor [did] I get any one of Reputation to accept of the Commission you was pleased to give me, & in short you may assure yourself the Recruiting Service in the old way is over which Congress are Sensible of, & will advance no more Mo[ney] & you need not send any more Officers upon that business here after for this there are many reasons. the Jealousy & Interested Policy of No. Carolina & Virginia produced a Law prohibiting any other State from Recruiting in either of theirs. my Father applyed to the Assembly of No. Caro. for a Repeal of the Law, or at least a Clause in favour of Georgia, & particularly the first Regiment without Effect. which discouraged him from attempting it in Virginia. the Substitute Law again recommended by Congress & adopted by all the States, was a great error, as many Men Offer 4 or 500 Dollars for a Man to excuse them from Military Duty. this State gives (offers) 100. Dollars besides the Continental bounty to every Man who will Inlist for three Years or during the Warr, & the New England States twice (double) that Sum to no purpose; & now they are all Resolved to fill their Several quotas of Troops by Draughts from their Militia. they have accomplished it already in New England, and they are now (at this time) marching to Camp. they are following their Example in Virginia & it is expected they will in all the other States by which it is to be hoped we shall have a fine Army by the time the Campaign opens. by this Sir, you must see how Needless my attempt was, however diligent I might be, & how disagreeable my disapointment is as well as my Situation otherwise, without Money, either for Recruits, if they could be had, or the Enormous Expences of Travelling at this time & without a Friend of our 1st. Regimt. in Congress to asist me. but as I can do nothing else to Serve my Country & the Corps I belong to, I will take the Liberty Genl. Howe & yourself were kind inough to give me of Staying some time in Camp to gain [some] knowledge & Experience in the Profession I have chose, wherein I flatter myself I will be indulged especially as you have Officers enough for the Men we have & hope you will Signify your approbation by applying to Genl. Howe & honoring me with a few Lines as soon as possible. & I can assure you Sir that I woud require some time to Save, as a twelve Months pay will not carry me back to Georgia in the frugalist manner.
The Season afords nothing New to inform you except little Skirmishing between foraging partys of no Consequence. Howe & his Army keep close in Philadelphia, the [illegible] Brittish parliament I suppose you have heard have voted 2,000 more Troops to his Asistance but where they are to be had, the Lord knows, unless it is the Russians14 whom they have so Long tryed to Scare us with, though that Number if they could get them will hardly make up for their losses last Campaign. there are Some on both Sides appointed to meet at German town & Settle an Exchange of prisoners which tho Humanity Gratitude & Justice requires it of us, I think will be to our disadvantage at this time as it will be giving our Enemys so many Men, while the time of ours are all Expired & they will return home.
My Father tells me he wrote you by Capt. Jo. Lane abot. two Months ago & Says he will not write to you again until he receives a Letter from you, he joins me in Compliments to you Mrs. H and your Brothers. I begg you will deliver the Inclosed to my Mother & am Dr. Colonel
Yr. most obt. Hble Servt.
Camp Valley Forge Pensylvania
April the 2 1778 general Mcintosh Dr.15
“Accot. my Expences Travelling round Hospitals 1778” Left Camp Saturday Evening
[Parenthetical note: Barber from 20 Dec. to 20 Apr. 4 Mos.]
Memmorandums 15th. May 177816
Barbers Accot.—Washer Wms. accot.
ditto. Colo. Patton. Capt. B. Williams
Berrien qd.:—Cheesborough for Ration.—Dr. Bond. 106
Colo. Gibson 80—Laurens 1500.
Settle Expences from Georgia for Thomson, Lack & Self-
Get Horses, Waggon, Tent.—Shoes, Blankets, Linnen &ca.
pay & Rations for Lack & Self. Settle Correspondence.
Capt. Rices Accot. for Clot[hes ?]
Major Murphree for snuff [?]
My Expences to Fort pit.—
Genl. Orders from Varin [?]
Mr. Boyd 31 Dollars-
Barber 8. Dollars. Sutler £621.
Lottery Tickets York.—Blankets
[The following notes in McIntosh’s hand are on this manuscript] :
Acct. of Rations 17th. Decr. a 17 May 1778.
|Wm. Low Fisher||1|
|5 Mos. is||150|
“Colo. Brodhead 24 June 78—with answer”18
Lancaster June 24th. 1778.
I have been at great pains to get my Regt. properly equipped for the Western Expedition, but as almost every part of the Cloathing in the Cloathier General’s Possession was assined before my arrival, I am under the disagreeable necessity of waiting several Days longer for cloathing.
The Armourers also notwithstanding the greatest exertions of my officers go on slowly in repairing the Arms.
I was very desirous to have the Rifles with Bayonets, which I had seen at Mr. Henry’s Store; but they are sent to Northumberland & Bedford Counties, to arm the Fractious Inhabitants.
The Quarter Master [General and his] assistants, have been very oblidging & have exerted themselves to have me equipped, & I have drawn from them several necessary Articles, which I feared had escaped your attention.
I am exceeding anxious to be with you, & am much distressed for the unhappy fate of my fellow Citizens, on the frontiers; but should I March without being equipped with Cloathing, & proper Arms, I could not promise myself to do that Service, which otherwise might be expected from me.
Please to inform me whether it be your pleasure, that our Men should have Carriages to transport their Packs, as that would greatly facilitate the March.
Only fifty Blankets can be furnisht my Regt., & these arrived yesterday. I have employed the Taylors & Woolman [?] of my Regt., in making over all the shi[rts ?], of which not more than half the number wanted are Compleat.
I this Moment was favoured with yours of this date, and will immediately see your orders strictly complied with.
You may depend on my Marching for York, the Moment my Regt. is supplied with the necessary Cloathing.
I have the honour to be Dr. General
Your most obedt. Servt.
[Signed] Daniel Brodhead
Endorsed: (On Public Service)
Honble. Brigadier Genl. McIntosh
Daniel Brodhead of the P[ennsylvania] R[egiment]
[McIntosh’s reply, written on the same letter.]
25th. June 1778. York19
I received yours of yesterday. I have to inform you that our expedition required we should be all ready, to sett of[f] from Fort Pitt, the 1st. September otherwise it must fail & untill that time it was intended the Troops should be stationed on the frontier to relieve the distresses of the Inhabitants from the cruel depredations of the savage daily committed on them, therefore you must see the necessity of your setting of [f] with your Regiment as soon as possible & to be expeditious. I am really ashamed to be seen in this Town so long, now near a month when our time is so short. If Waggons can be procured I would have them to carry the necessary articles up as far as Ft. Pitt, or wherever the troops are to be Stationed untill they march on the expedition. The Congress, board of War &c go from this next Saturday.
I am yours &ca.
Valley Forge 7 [?] Augt. [?] 17720
Nath. Ewing Commissary Genl. of Hides, informs me that it is the Custom, to weigh Hides just [?] as they were taken off the Beef witht. Horns, & Scull the Skin & the small [?] hoofs of the feet & sold to the Tanners from 2d to 4d per pound but is risen now to 2/. or 2/6 per lb Calf Skins sold formerly from 2/. to 2/6 per pound & now perhaps 8/ or [several words illegible]
He Exchanges premium Hides for [remainder of page illegible] upon an Average of 1-1/2 pounds Say 1 lb upper and 1 lb Soal leather will make one pair—wch. is got for 13 lb raw Leather as above Raw Hides weigh from 30. to 100 lb wt. or 50 or 60 wt upon an Average
Mr. Ewing proposes: that in future the Issuing Commisarys of the respective Brigades send the Hides of the Cattle Slaughtered by them to the Commissary Genl. of Issue, & there, deliver them to the Commissary Genl. of Hides his Deputys or Assistants taking their Receipt for the Same—that the Brigadiers who can effect Exchanges for Stores, Draw upon the Commissary of Hides who will be bound to deliver such Hides to any Amot. of such Exchange [remainder of page illegible]
Memorandums 13th. Aug. 7821
Get Provisions as soon as possible down to F. Pitt, especially Flour. As many Boats as possible made & mended imediately. Court of inquiry on all the Meat before it is removed.
Write to Gov. Henry immediately by Colo. Gibson or Campbell for 50. or 60. Horse Men, & 1200. Foot without Delay.—from the nearest Counties to make up 1500. men as we have not above 300. Contl. Troops
Write to Lockart to send the articles mentioned in a List to up [us?] immediately Gn. or Caml. [Gibson or Campbell ?]
Get from Col. Steel what he has procured, & what he has here or can get Soon, as Lockharts Must be regulated by that.
And also to hurry Morgans[?] flour & Liquor here, & see it done
Move the Men from Vanmitters to the Fort at buck Bottom Write to Colo. Gaddis [at] Monongahela.
Encourage Volunteers from every quarter.—procktors [?] Regmt.
Inform the Lts. of Countys the posts will be abandoned the 1st. [of] Septr. next unless they keep them up at their own, or State Expence.
qd: Forts Randolph & Henry.
Man Fort Pitt by Heths Comy. & Militia from Capt. Roliter. 8 Miles of [f]
from Fort Pitt along the Road
|To Mo. of little Plumb Creek.||7 Miles|
|To Mo. of bigg plumb Creek.||5|
|To Mo. of Pockety Creek.||8|
|To Kiskaminatis Creek||12|
also To relieve Fort Henry 28th. Augt. wth. amunition, Instructions about Boats flats &ca.—to Scout & report to me daily—one to Command the whole—or great part &ca. &ca
Remmember Lead & powder above all.
Employ all the Armourers to get all the Guns &ca. in order.
Enquire what Number of Cattle & Horses are got.
Fort, & Stores Beaver Cr: 25. Miles for 400. Men.
ditto, do. at Beaver Town Muskingum 70. or 80. M.—500. Men
ditto, do. at Mohickons To. between 40. & 50. Miles—[blank] Men
ditto, do. at Sandusky, between 40. and 50. Miles—[blank] Men with Cannon if possible.
Qd: if it would not be better to errect Stockades, in a direct Line at 25 miles distance from each other, all the way, from Mo. of Beaver Cr; to Sandusky, which is 150. Miles No. 65. W. & would make 6 Forts—besides Beaver.
Accot. of the Provisions Sent forward With the Army Under the Command of the Honourable General McIntosh, on the 4th of Novembr. 1778.22
|340 keggs flour Estimated at 85 lb. each is||28,900 lb|
|332 Baggs ditto do at 140 each is||46,480|
|692 head of Cattle Estimated at 300 lb each is||207,600 lb|
|42 keggs Salt Estimated at 3/4 of a Bushel each is||31-1/2 Bushl|
Fort McIntosh Novr. 8th 1778
I have had the honour of seeing your letter of the 7th Inst. to Col. Campbell, which has induced me to furnish you with this Return of the provisions sent forward with the Army, by which you will find that the qu[antity] exceeds one hundred Weight to each horse. As you have [words torn out] and I can assure you that both the keggs [words torn out] above [words torn out] estimated Somewhat [words torn out] than their re[gular] Contents. I am very happy to find tha[t they] are able to furnish you with another Supply at any moment you may require, as will Appear to you in my letter of Yesterdays date by Col. Boyer. 132,000 lb of Flour is Certainly on this side of the Mountain, Ninty thousand of which now lys at this place, & our Consumption will not exceed 4 & 500 lb per day as the Pack horse men &ca are dispersing fast. I have furnished two horse loads of Turnips & Potatoes—which I hope will arrive safe with you. When you stand in need of Candles, please to Call upon Mr. Johnston the Commissary, Whom I have furnished with a Box full for the use of the General & field officers. I wish you every happiness that the Nature of your Situation will admitt of and has the honour to [be] with every mark of respect
Sir Your most Obed. Sert.
[Signed] John Irwin
Endorsed: To the Honorable General McIntosh
A Return of the strength of the different Garrisons & Posts west of the Allegany Mountains under the Command of the Honorable Brigadier General Mckintosh 1st of January 1779.23
“Expences Travelling to Fort Pit 1778—Account of Expences to Camp”
The United States
To Lachlan McIntosh—B.G.
|1st.||To Board & Lodging at Geo.||Dols.|
|Stakes in Yorktown from the 30th. May to this Day while attending on Congress & the Board of Warr his Rect.||720.|
|To Cash paid in York for Maps, pasting & Cases for them per Rt.||21.|
|13th||To Cash paid James Pollock at Carlisle for Board & Lodging while we stayed there getting necessarys ready for the Western Department & waiting Colo. Brodheads Regt. for Lancaster||94.54|
McIntosh to John Twiggs
Camp at the Brick Kills, Friday Morning
17th Septr. 25
General Lincoln has ordered a Cessation of Arms between our Troops & the Enemy untill further orders.—therefore you are to be very carefull that none of your Men will fire a Gun upon them or go near the Enemys Lines untill you have Leave unless you should be attacked by any of their parties first.
At the same time you are to observe the Directions I gave you Yesterday, to Scout well from McGillivray’s House upon Savannah River, to Old Oat’s plantation upon Deveaus Swamp near our Camp, to Cut off every Communication with the Town which is your Station till further orders. I am Sir
[Signed] Lachn. McIntosh, B. G.
“Printed Parole agreeable to Capitulation”26
I do hereby acknowledge myself to be a Prisoner of War upon my Parole, to his Excellency Sir Henry Clinton, and that I am thereby engaged until I shall be exchanged, or otherwise released therefrom, to remain within the bounds of Colleton County So. Carolina agreeable to the fourth Article of the Capitulation which secures my Property from being Molested by any of the British Troops as Long as I observe this Parole and that I shall not in the mean Time do, or cause any Thing to be done, prejudicial to the Success of his Majesty’s Arms, or have any Criminal Intercourse or hold Correspondence with his Enemies; and that upon a Summons from his Excelleney, or other Person having Au thority thereto, that I will surrender myself to him or them at such Time and Plaee as I shall hereafter be required. [Copy on the back in McIntosh’s hand] :
“I do hereby acknowledge myself to be a Prisoner of War upon My Parole, to his Excellency Sr. Henry Clinton, and that I am thereby engaged until I shall be exchanged or otherwise Released therefrom, to remain within the bounds of Colleton where my Plantation Lyes, agreeable to the Articles of Capitulation which Secures my Property from being Molested by any British Troops while I observe this Parole. And that I shall not in the Mean time do, or cause anything to be done, prejudicial to the Success of his Majesty’s Arms, or hold any criminal Intercourse or Correspondence with his Enemys.”
Declaration of Officers of the Georgia Line Respecting General McIntosh.27
Whereas it appears that Congress have received a Letter said to be from Wm. Glascock Esqr. Speaker of the House of Assembly of the State of Georgia, Containing the following paragraph, “It is to be wished that we could advise Congress that the return of Brigadier General McIntosh gave satisfaction to either the Militia or Confederates, but the Common disatisfaction is such, & that founded on weighty reasons, it is highly necessary that Congress would whilst that Officer is in the Service of the United States direct some distant field for the exercise of his Abilitys.” And also another Letter said to be from Governor Walton Containing the following paragraph “I am also ordered to apologise to Congress for the trouble given them respecting General McIntosh & to assure them that a General & setled aversion has & does prevail, I do not mean to suspect the Integrity of this Officer (for personally I am very much his friend) when I say it is the practice of Nations not to continue any Officer longer than he preserves the Confidence of the people.”
We the Subscribers, Officers of the Georgia Continental Brigade think ourselves in honor bound to declare, that the said paragraphs, are in our opinions unjust, ungenerous, & malicious attacks upon the Character of General McIntosh who we think every way undeserving of such Aspersions, as from experience we have found him to be the brave, the humane, and the Circumspect Officer & the tenacious Citizen nor do we wish to be Commanded by any Officer in the Contl. Line in preference to him, And we further declare that no opinions or assertions of ours could ever give sanction to the above paragraphs, for had our Ideas of General McIntoshs Conduct been consulted & followed they would have conveyed to Congress that Officers Character, in diametrically oposite Colours to what it has been by the said paragraphs.
Given under our Hands at Augusta, the 17th. Day of May 1780.
|[Signed]||Jno. McIntosh Lieut Col. 3d Geoa. Regt.|
|John Lucas Captain 4th. Georgia Contl. Regt.|
|Geo. Handley Captain 1st. Geoa. Contl. Battn.|
|Nathal. Pearre Lt 3 B.|
|Elisha Miller Capt. 2nd. Georgia Continl. Battn.|
|Patrick Walsh Capt. Georgia Cont. Dragoons|
|Fras. Tennill Lt. 2d Contl. Battn.|
|Patk. Fitzpatrick Capt. 4th. G. B.|
|Arthur Hays Lieutnt. 4th C. Battn.|
|Christopher Hillary Lieut. 4th. Geo. Battn.|
|Henry Allison Lieut. 2d C. Geoa. B.|
|George Melven Captain 4th Georgia Battn.|
|John Frazer Lt. 3 G B|
|Laban Johnson Lieut of the Artillery|
|John Peter Wagnon Lieut. 3rd. Geo. Regt.|
|Thos. Glascock Lieut. 1st. Geoa. Battn.|
|Jesse Walton Lieut. 1st. G. Battalion|
|Wm. McDaniel Lt. G. Continental Lt. Dragoons|
|John Meanley Lt 3 G C Bt|
|Cornelius Collins Lieut. 2nd. Geo. Cont. Battn.|
|Wm. McIntosh Captn. 1st Geoa. regiment|
|Wm. Jordan Lt. 4th G. B.|
|Brossard Captain in georgia line|
|David Rees, Depy. Judge Advocate|
|Wm. Matthews Comy of Musters|
“Capt. Rob. Cooke 19th. June 1780”28
I send you three Days provisions for five hundred and twenty five men to be delivered your Quarter masters at the landing for which hope youl order them to send me a recpt. If any mistakes should happen beg youl Inform me and belive me shall take pleasure in seting them right any aplications from your side the river must come thrue you in writing and the Genl. will give you an answer
I am Sir your most obedient Huble Servant
[Signed] Robt. Cooke
As Comy [Assistant Commissary ?] Prisoners
Charlestown 19th. June 1780
Endorsed: Genl. McIntosh
Petition of Inhabitants of Augusta.29
To his Excellency, Sir James Wright, Baronett, Captain General, Governor, & Commander in Chief, in, and over his Majesty’s Province of Georgia, & Vice Admiral of the Same.
The Humble petition of the Inhabitants of Augusta, and Parish of Saint Paul in said Province and others now Residing there. SHEWETH,
That your petitioners have for some time past Laboured under great Anxiety of mind, and considered themselves and their property much exposed to depredations, in consequence of the unsettled situation of Affairs in the back parts of this Province, and finding, that notwithstanding the arivall of a Detachment of his Majesty’s Troops in Augusta under the Command of Lt. Colonel Brown, who they expected might have been Vested with sufficient powers to restore to your petitioners the long wished for Blessings of Peace and Security, will remain in the most disagreeable State of uncertainty & Suspence.
Your Petitioners therefore, exceedingly desirous to be restored effectually to his Majestys peace and protection, Humbly pray your Excellency would be pleased as speedily as possible to receive and restore to his Majestys peace and Protection the Inhabitants of the said Parish in general, by such ways and Means as shall appear unto your Excellency best calculated for the reEstablishment of lasting peace to this long distracted Country, & true happiness and prosperity to the distressed Citizens thereof. and your Petitioners as in duty bound will ever pray. dated at Augusta 25th. June 1780.
Signed by 49. persons.—that are found already.
“Copy of Letter to [Mrs. Sarah McIntosh] per Flagg per Capt. Nash”
Barr[acks] Had[drell]s Pt. So. Car.
7th Augt. ‘80
I have not much satisfaction in sending an open letter yet I cannot avoid informing you by the return of a Flagg to Newbern No. Carolina that I have kept my health pretty well since I have been a Prisoner, the Limit of the Genl. Officers is the Little Parish of Xt. Church opposite to Charlestown which we cannot complain of, & we must confess that we have hitherto had a Sufficient allowance of good Salt Provision, but cannot boast of any Luxury unless it is a Little Fish we catch at times ourselves, which Serves also for amusement & a necessary Exercise.
I was very Uneasy that I could obtain no certain account for a Long time of the rout you had taken, all I could Learn was that you Left Cambden, which I was sorry to hear, as you could not be much more injured than you have been already. Travelling near three hundred Miles from home with so large a Family, & Little or no Conveniency I thought sufficiently distressing without attempting to fly further. I am however so far happy now as to hear that your self & all the Children are well in health & fixed at Salsbury in No. Carolina, where if you can make it out tollerably I could wish you to remain untill we see what time brings forth. Tell Lackie I charge him to Stay with you & give every asistance in his power to the Family an Indulgence which I think cannot be refused by any Officer who Commands the Southern Army. You & he may always inform me of your Situation by way of the Army Leaving your Letters open, & I am displeased that he has not done it before.
They have reestablished an Assembly & compleat Legislature in Georgia & among other Acts have passed one to disqualify & render incapable the persons therein mentioned from holding &ca.&ca. &ca.—with many other circumstances that I forget.—& promised to enclose List of the Names Mentioned in the Act30 which was also forgot.
Endorsed: To Mrs. Sarah McIntosh
at Salsbury No. Caro:
per Capt. Clemt. Nash
A list of the Continental Officers, Prisoners of War in South Carolina in the order they are to be exchanged. 31 [See page 43-44.]
Continental Officers to McIntosh.33
January 7th. 1781.
The Officers of the Battallion late Colonel Parkers with Such of Blands as are present, do declare, that they Served the most of the Campaign of 79 under the command of Brigadier General McIntosh; that they neither publickly, privately, Generally or individually, ever Manifested or express’d to the executive Council of Georgia or any other publick body’s or Individuals, the most distant dislike to General McIntosh as a gentleman or disapprobation to his Comand as an Officer, but had every reason to be highly Satisfied with both.
that they had during their Service in Georgia been Acquainted with its most respectable Citizens, who together with the people in General made frequent & publick avowals of their Good opinion of the General; and appeared by their alertness to take the field when-ever the General directed, to place in him the Greatest Confidence as an Officer.
In justice to themselves they are obliged to declare, that so much of the letters addressed to Congress from Mr. Walton, Govr. & Mr. Glascock Speaker, of Georgia as mentions or comprehends the Continental Troops “Generally having a Setled aversion to General McIntosh” are with respect to themselves utterly false & are convinced were dictated from principles that have produced the Highest Injustice to the General
|Mo. obt. Hble. Servants|
|[Signed]||Sa[muel] Hopkins Lt. Colo.|
|Ben Taliaferro Capt.|
|Tarlton Payne Capt|
|Beverly Stubblefield Lt|
|Thomas Parker Lt & Adjt|
|Baylor Hill Capt. Dragoons|
|David Meriwether Lt.|
|Sam Hogg Lt.|
|Richard C. Anderson Major 1st Virginia Regiment|
“War Office 18th July 1781”34
War Office July 18th. 1781
The Board request you will favour them with a List of the different Continental Officers specifying their ranks, who have [been] sent from Charles Town to Philadelphia [under] the several flags of Truce in consequ[ence] of the late Cartel settled between General [torn off] and Lord Cornwallis; also an Account of [the amount] of Money which they have respect[ively paid] for their passages, or for which they stand engaged.
|I am Sir|
|Yr. most obed Hble Servant|
|By order of the Board|
Brigr. General McIntosh
Endorsed: (Public Service)
Brigadier General McIntosh
“Letter intended for Congress from the Genls. Moultrie & McIntosh on the promotion of Knox & Duportail” [February 1782]35
By the promotions of the Honourable the Congress were pleased to make lately of three Junior Brigadiers over our Heads—We cannot conceive they meant to injure the Usefullness, the Reputation, or the feelings of other faithful and old Servants of the Public after all their Toils, Efforts and Sufferings from the beginning of this War to the happy & pleasing period we have now a prospect of and much less can we bring ourselves to think they mean any injury, slight or Reflection upon those States who unsolicited by us honored us with their Choice, & of which we are Citizens—who have sacrificed & Suffered more in the glorious Contest than all the other States put together, & will be the Boast of their posterity for ages—Yet as some, or all of these inferences may possibly be surmised, we hope that Congress will take our Claims into further Consideration, & begg Leave to mention the Reasons upon which they are founded and wherein we conceive ourselves to be Materially injured.
Altho the Congress undoubtedly have a right to reward extraordinary and Conspicuous Merit, we apprehend & find they have done (exercised that right) it rarely heretofore, that on the contrary they found it necessary to Cultivate & Cherish that Spirit of emulation for Rank & Honors Natural to Military Characters—and that the too frequent Convulsions in their Army upon this Account, induced Congress to Establish a standing & fixed Rule of Promotion by the Resolution of the 22d. February 177736 which was ever afterwards looked upon and held by Officers as their right while their Conduct was unexceptionable. By this Rule Rank was universally settled throughout the whole Army in the Winter of that Year & Commissions found to be obtained through Influence & Management to the prejudice of others were vacated. & A Board of all the General Officers in the Main Army the ensuing March 1778 met by the Authority of the Commander in Chief, & in Virtue of this Act, took upon them to Reverse the order of Appointments made in the most deliberate & formal manner by Congress themselves on the said 22. Feby. 1777, of the four Brigadiers of the Virginia Line, which was approved of, and confirmed by Congress in their Resolutions of the 19th. of the Same Month of March & all their former Commissions ordered to be Canceled, nor would Congress alter (receed from) this Act of Justice & Consistency afterwards, upon the application of Brigr. Weedon on the 18th. August 1778. This Rule therefore became so much a principle of Promotion in the Army that Congress found it necessary & thought proper to make it a perpetual & a Standing Rule thereafter, whether Officers were prisoners of war or not, by the Resolution of the 24th. Novr. the same Year. and consequently if an Officer at any time suffered another to be Advanced over him, (by whatsoever Interest or Authority), he became immediately Contemptible and of no further Use in the Army.
This is exactly (precisely) the predicament we are now thrown in. We are not Conscious of any Censure either of us have deserved in the Line of our Duty. We have on the contrary received the Approbation of the Officers, whom we had the Honor of Serving under, & of Congress. Yet while we suffered a painful Imprisonment Brigadier Smallwood whose Commission was Younger than either was promoted over (above) us. Brigadier Duportail tho still Younger was first Exchanged in preference of and afterwards promoted over us—and now when we have at Length been Exchanged, and had the pleasing prospect once more of being active in the Service of our Country, & the Honor to assist in finishing that War we have been Instrumental in bringing to this happy period, Brigadier Knox is appointed a Major General over our Heads also. whatever the Merit of these Gentlemen may be (for we cannot (are loth) suppose any partiality or favor in the Case) we begg Leave to ask, what opinion the Army, or indeed the World must have of us? after these implyed (we had almost said Direct) & repeated Reflections or rather Attacks upon our Reputations & Honor? we think it cannot be otherwise than appear as intended to render us Useless & Contemptible in the Army & to throw us out of it altogether, for, if we attempt to take any Command under this our present predicament we must be despised by the very Army who used to Respect us. Upon every Principle therefore of equity & utility; by the practice of other Nations, the Laws Established, & so often Confirmed (ratifyed) for the Regulation of our own army we conceive that we have a Claim from (upon) the Justice of Congress, and a Right to be restored to that Rank & Honor we have been deprived of. Altho Brigr. Genl. J. Clinton can not join us in the application we do not mean to preclude him & would not wish to hurt the feelings of any Officer where they are most Susceptible, that is His Honor by being promoted over him.
We have the Honor to be Respectfully
Your Excellys. most obt. Hble Servts.
W. M. Brigr. Genl. [William Moultrie]
L. M. Brigr. Gen. [Lachlan McIntosh]
The President of Congress
Menzies Baillie to Robert Baillie.37
Londo. 30th Apl 1782
I wrote a few lines last Packet acknowledging receipt of yours of 10 Jany last which gave me great pleasure being the only one I had received from you since 11th Octr. 1780 which gave me much uneasiness because I considered nothing cou’d prevent your letters coming to hand but the ships being taken, but now it is certain they have been otherwise Secreted, I wrote almost every opportunity. latterly my letters were very short, because I was assured that very few letters that were addressed to friends of Government were delivered, which sufficiently accots. for your not hearing from me. I was prevented writing you by Mr Mclver from Portsmouth, the Grand Fleet were under sailing orders & I had a large sum to pay of Prize money which required constant Work, if they had not been paid before the fleet sailed there woud have been a Mutiny, & before I had finished paying Mr Mclver sailed. In the present situation of Publick affairs I hope my letters will be more likely to find their way, but ‘till I am certain of that I shall not write you so fully as I woud otherwise do for it Vexes me exceedingly to write so many very long and Circumstantial letters on different matters all to no manner of purpose. I Inclose a Copy of Your Case in the loss of the goods & the Hero with the Attorney Genls opinion it does not appear you have received any of those sent out formerly. Mr Jno Tunno gave you the best advice how to have acted in those goods you shoud have let the Capt put them on Shore & taken them under protest; that held the underwriters bond. Your taking them from on board constitutes the delivery & exonerates the underwriters owners &ca Simpson has been too officious & pressed the Capt to do what he has done. I think you have recourse both on him & Count d’Estaing, but am afraid youll make little of them. As to appointments in the Civil line there can be none ‘till matters are settled. A Series of misfortunes since the Commencement of the American war seems to depress your spirits. I do not wonder at it, but now it is over matters will soon come round, & I hope you’ll soon get to your own Plantation & enjoy it more than ever. give yourself no uneasiness about your debts here, you shall never be called upon either for principal or Interest, there is no Sale for lands either in America or the West Indies, nor even for Estates in Scotland or England at 16 years purchase. I wrote to Sandie about 10 mos. ago I have had none from him these three years. I observe George is gone to an Attorney in Savannah which I hope will answer, his & the education of the others must suffer much it is a loss no time to be delayed in redeeming. I have frequently wrote to know if you designed any of them for the mercantile line, & if it suited any of their dispositions, it is unlucky when boys are put to a business their genius is not adapted to. John you say Inclines the army, that I think nothing of, it is the business lads first Chuse & first tire of, & the poorest business I know, however if he is of a Volatile lively disposition & has that strongly in his head he will settle to no other, if otherwise I’ll take him or any of the others you think most adapted for the Merchantile line, & do them all the Service in my Power, but unless the lad has abilities, steady, of a solid settled disposition good tempered & can give unwearied application & can bear confinement he’ll tire of it in a few years & think it a Task in place of a pleasure. You are the best judge which [of] them it will suit. I do think parents shoud always Chuse for their children unless the boy shows a strong genius and desire for some particular art. I shall expect to hear from you as soon after you receive this as opportunity offers & that you’ll send John, or the one you think most calculated for a Merchant first Vessel or Packet. Brother James writes “desire Robt. to give out any small sum that he judges proper to that Vagabond Gillies provided he has taken up himself & can be of any Service to his Children, & to take his receipt, that he has recd. the money from Mr Alex Gillies writer in Edin[burg]h by Robts Hands & send over that rect. to you & I will get the money from his Brother here, but desire him not to let Gillies know that his Brother has ordered him to do any thing of that kind but that Robt has done it out of sympathy to him & is to make tryal to see if his Brother will advance any little thing to him when in distress” You’ll make such use of that information as you do Judge expedient. I shall write you next Packet but shall not trouble you with long letters ‘till I am certain of their arriving Enclosed are 2 letters I received soon after last Packet sailed. I heard two days ago from Scotland they are all well My kind Compts & best wishes attend you all I am with great Esteem & regard Dr Brother
[Signed] Your affect. Bro Menz[ie]s Baillie
[Footnote on Copy 2]:
Londo. 30 June 1782
Above is a Copy of my last I was prevented writing you last Packet by the Influenza which disorder has been very General all over Europe I have Just received yours of 18 Feby last am very glad you have got better but you are greatly to blame in giving way to that dispondency which your misfortunes has drawn on you are not singular it is a general distress & not owing to your or their misconduct give yourself no concern for what you owe here, if your confessing Judgment to me will secure your property for you ‘till Matters are settled so as you can make an arrangement of [incomplete]
“Collo. Bedfords Letter with Answer—1782”38
Your Letter much su [most of line missing] rite me [most of line mutilated and illegible] my Negro Before me, it is true we intended to Carry a gerle but she would not have ben in the inside of yr. Waggon as I no of, I had Provided a Horse & Sadie for Her to ride, and Perhapes if you are acqunted with me a Twelve Months you wonte Catche me in a Lie. If I understand your Letter you Perpose to send your Waggon for Corn,—you no that I told you that I sold my Corn & Bacon and Every other thing that I culd well spare to the French,—but on Condition you would oblige me in your Wagon I would Spare you Six Barrils & more if it pd. Seasonable. I have Considered that I am not under any Obligation to spare you any Corn tho I have ordered for you to have it made into good Flower. If I shuld Find [remainder of letter torn off or illegible]
[First words torn off] of two Hours only—you told me your Brandy was better than 3 year old & I afterwards made you confess it was but 1-1/2 year.
You promised me in your Room by ourselves, Six barrels Com immediately, with 300 lb flour—and if the wa[ter] did not fail your Mill, that you had a prospect of Supplying me all the Season, for which you would take Grain in Return when I got my Crop in, as I told you I had no Cash to pay you. & you Said, on consideration of my being a Stranger here—and all this, while I positively told you I could not Spare my Carravan, & before you expected to get it—but afterwards at parting, so much seeming Generosity induced me notwithstanding the Inconveniency to tell you, that “I believe you must have the Stage Waggon, if you would put it in Compleat order at Petersburg”—All which if Compared with your Letter will be found to be—Another great Lye.
State of Georgia39
We whose names are hereunto subscribed & seals affixed Commissioners appointed in & by an Act of the legislature of the State of Georgia passed at Augusta on the 4th day of May last past, for attainting th[ose] Persons & Confiscating the Estates real & personal of certain persons in the said Act named, Do acknowledge to have received from James Habersham of Savannah in the State of Georgia aforesaid his Bond bearing date the [2d] day of July last payable to his Honor John Mar[tin] Governor & Commander in Chief of the State of Georgia & to his successors in Office with condition there under written for the payment of the sum of thirteen hundred & Eighty seven pounds ten Shillings in Specie on or before the 2nd day of July [next in] the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty nine [several words illegible] Bond with sufficient security thereto bearing date on the said second day of July last past payable as aforesaid with condition there under written for the payment of Interest [at] the rate of seven pounds per Centum per Annum Yearly every year on the said sum of thirteen hundred & Eighty seven pounds ten Shillings until the said 2nd day of July which will be in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty nine which said Bonds we acknowledge to be as a Security & in full satisfaction for the consideration [of] purchase money of the several plantations & or Tracts herein after mentioned, that is to say, all that & those [Tra]ct or Tracts of Land whereon is two Settlements on the R[iver S]avannah late the property of Thos. Flaming [Flyming] whereon the [said] Flaming resided, containg. 1500 acres sold to the said [Hab]ersham at public vendue, with every thing there on an[d] to the same appertaining, also all that & those the Tract [of] Land chiefly pine land on Savannah River at or near T[ucke]seking containing one thousand acres late the property of Jno. Gr[aham ?]; also all that & those the Tract of Land late the property of James Herriott [or Harriott] containing two hundred & fifty acres all & every [part] of which Tracts of Land are situated in Effingham County [in] the State aforesaid. and we do hereby for Ourselves [and] the Survivors of us Commissioners as aforesaid Covenant and [ag]ree to and with the said James Habersham his Heirs & assigns [th]at we will on a reasonable demand to us made by him [illegible] as soon as circumstances or the event of War will [per]mit, make & deliver to the said James Habersham his Heirs & assigns a good & sufficient Title by conveyance in fee simple of all & singular the said lands & appertenances, he [or] them paying for the drawing & procureing to be maid or drawn such sufficient [illegible] conveyances, & we do [one line illegible] survey of the said three Tracts of Land [consis]ting of the supposed quantity be found that it shall & may be lawful for the said James Habersham to claim & demand a deduction from the said principle sum of thirteen hundred and eighty seven pounds ten Shillings at the following rates, (Viz) fourteen shillings [words missing] pence per acre for any deficiency in the Tract of 1500 [acres la]te the property of Thos. Flaming, eight shilling per acre for any deficiency in the Tract late Gr[aham] [line and a half illegible] being the prices at which said land [word illegible]
[Given under] our hands and seals at Savannah this the [illegible] 1782
Signed by Seven Commissioners [not listed]
Signed [?] & delivered
in presence of [blank]
“Extract of the General Assembly in favour of Genl. McIntosh 19th. July ‘83”40
House of Assembly July 19th. 1783.
The Committee to whom was Recommitted the Memorial of General McIntosh, Reported, and after some Amendments made thereto, was Agreed to by the House, and is as follows.
That as it appears to them, the General has lost most of his Vouchers by the Incidents of the late War, in Confidence of his veracity, such Charges in the Account Annexed to his Memorial as relate to Monies Advanced and Debts Contracted for and on Account of the State or Continent; together with his Amount of Pay and Rations and Forrage, be allowed, the same being first duly Attested, and that the Auditor be directed to Audit and Pass the same, Seperating and distinguishing, Such State and Continental Charges agreeable to his Instructions and that on Certificate thereof by the Auditor Should the General require it, the Amount be deducted from any Purchase he or his Son Capt. William McIntosh has made, in Consideration of Considerable Sums in Money, many years since by him Advanced for the Service of the State, the other Charges being Losses of the General although the Committee are well convinced they are very great and have proceeded Chiefly from the early Active and decided Part he took in favour of his Country, yet as they make Part of a General Question, Your Committee think Cannot at this time be taken into Consideration.
Extract from the Minutes
[Signed] John Wilkinson C. G. A.
We the Subscribers wishing to do Justice to our Country as Freemen do declare George Walton (a person lately appointed in a Seat of Justice) to be a Coward and a Villain, and are determined that if he (George Walton) attempts to take his Seat as chief Judge, that We the Subscribers will assist in pulling him of[f] of a Bench which ought to be filled with an Unblemished Character.
[Signed] Wm. McIntosh Jnr.41
“Defence of Capt. William McIntosh—before a General Court Martial—1783”
Mr. President—and Gentlemen of the Court-
Few men attempt the Road to Glory and Fame without meeting with rubs & interruption from Seoundrels in their way.—altho I am a very Young Man yet, and may not be possessed of the prudence, or timmid Caution of more experienced, or Artful Men, I have been in the Military Service of my Country since the beggining of the War, and the first attempt to bring any charge against my Honor (which I defy the World to Sully) lies now before this respectable Court—a Court that know, that feels the Value of it & therefore I trust the sacred deposit [of it] in their hands with confidence—and it must appear the more extraordinary to you Gentlemen, as it is a Charge of interrupting that very police in my Native State, which I have been supporting, and Contending (risquing my life) to Establish for near Eight Years past, a consideration alone, that I am confident (flatter myself) you will think sufficient to shew the futility of it.—but I do not rest the Justification of my Honor upon this foundation alone (only)—my malicious prosecutor, and the principle evidence against me, Doctor Brownson, who Officiously interferred in this Affair, which he was in no way concerned in,—and is only the mean Instrument, or Tool of G. Walton— strains hard in his Evidence to prove the ar[t]ful Charge made out between them against me, of interrupting the Civil Police, & ungentleman[l]y behaviour—yet upon closer Examination, and cross questioning of him, he discovers the Cloven foot, and cannot help acknowledging the business of the Court, or Civil Police (according to his own Phrase) was over, & done before this happened—that the Chief Justice was then, only plain G. Walton, walking the Street, with half a dozen of his friends, like any other Man, when he was Corrected suitable to his Demerit, and is evident & known proven to the whole Town that he expected it, as I was under Solemn promise to give it to him before he was put into any Office, the first opportunity I had, & Conscious himself how much he deserved it.—Mr. Brownson, further confesses, that altho curiosity led some Young Gentlemen to see at a distance what was going on, that no other person but myself meddled with G. Walton.—that I made use of no other Instrument but the Horse Whip, which I must confess was well Laid on—without interruption from himself, or any other person untill he run into (quite through) the Gate—and that I had no other Weapon, but what I usually wear, & belongs to my Profession which I was determined not to disgrace by using it on such an Occasion—and yet this very formal Doctor Mr. Brownson, who deserves a Little of the same discipline with the Advice of his Prompter, to deprive me of Evidence, Artfully contrived to involve, two young Gentlemen, who do honor to their Age & Rank in the Army in the same Charges with me, altho he well knew, if they had no other intention more than mere Curiosity, it could be only to quell any qd [questions?] to prevent such Meddling busy Bodys as himself from interfering, in so Necessary a Chastisement (or giving any unfair play.)— and afterwards with the same Art had one of them released from his Arrest.—this may suffice, without taking up the Time of the Court, with any remarks upon other Evidences which nearly all amount to the same thing—I presume & flatter myself upon the whole it will appear Clear to you Gentlemen, that the Charges against me, are altogether false, groundless and absurd—that it was not the Chief Justice Officially, but simply the person of G. Walton, covered with infamy, instead of the Glory that should surround the office, that was so deservedly Corrected, after refusing to give Gentlemanly Satisfaetion for the most infamous behaviour that no part of the Civil Police, or business of (the Court) his Office, was in the least interrupted by it, and that no Gentleman would deserve that Name who could Act otherwise, after his refusing to give the Satisfaction usually required (expected) from persons who assume that Character, before he Tryed in Vain [to] Skreen himself under the Sanction of Office, for the most infamous of Crimes—-which are so notorious & generally known that I need not repeat them.
But Supposing Gentlemen this Ideal Phantastical Charge a charge so laughable that none but a Pettifoging Lawyer could invent of interrupting the Civil Police, could be proved against an Officer in the Army: what does it amount to?— or how far does should it extend?—the Civil Police includes (comprehends) all the Civil Officers &ca. in a State, from the Governor downwards—common or ordinary, as well as Chief Justices, with all their Subordinates also to the Lowest Constable and surely all and each of these cannot have a Sanction to insult or injure their fellow Citizens who are not in Civil office like themselves, with impunity—or if it is only the Gentlemen of the Army who Ventured their Lives so often & Sacrificed their whole time for the freedom of our Country happily obtained, that must bear, & put up with ill treatment from any of them for fear of being brought to a Court Martial for some such new invented offence as interrupting the Civil Police, we must become the most despicable in the whole Community, for our Service & Lyable to continual Insults—for my own part I candidly confess & I think I speak the Language of every Member of this Court when I say that I cannot, nor will not put up with such, from any person living—my Commission or my Life are not equal to my Honor—nor does Congress require such Humiliating Conditions from us—a Cringing fawning Officer who ought to have Spirit is the most insignificant & despicable of all Characters (Creatures).
The only Law Books I am versed in Gentlemen are our Articles of Warr by them alone I am now to be tryed.—& I find no such Crime in them all, as Interrupting the Civil Police. The 1st. Art. of the 2d. Secto. which I suppose my accusers had in View to dragg in upon this Occasion, punishes traiterous or Disrespectful words against the AUTHORITY of Congress, or Legislature of any of the United States— which is exceeding proper, & was, when these Articles passed, the best Criterion & description of the Friends to the old Government, and those who differed with us altogether in essentials & Principles—as they struck at the root at once of our Independence, or our Authority as the Article emphatically expresses it & therefore unsafe to retain them, such men, in the Army.
But all the affected sophistry of Dr. Sangrado42 with the Chicanery of his Counsellor cannot Strain this Article or any other to reach any difference that may happen between Individuals tho’ often tryed—attempted to depress the Spirit of the Army.—and if this Shift fails them, as I am Confident it must, the second part of the Charge founded upon it, will fall of Course.
The Law of the State gives the proper redress for all Offences of this kind & that are not purely Military, but they would not Venture it in Savannah, where the general Voice approved of the Correction as richly deserved & the next Grand Jury whch. sat there had G. Walton suspended from his Office as unworthy of it and I look upon (cannot help thinking) it an Insult to the Honor and Judgment of my Brother Officers, that they should expect a better fate to their farcical Tryal from a respectable & Solemn Court Martial, &c which besides the obligations binding on all other Courts have their honor to Consider &c
Vizt.—Can you say upon your Oath—or do you realy think, the Chastisement you say you Saw me give G Walton, was given him as Chief Justice,—or for his own infamous and personal behaviour to my Father? I could wish a direct Answer.—
The Answer—comes here—
Did you ever hear or know, that I was under promise before G. Walton was Chief Justice to Horse Whip him the first time I saw him out of his House—that I always carryed a Whip for that purpose,—and that he kept close in his House for that reason, untill he went then to the Court House for the first time?
Did I interrupt Mr. Walton in the Duty of his Office.— or, was it before, or after the Business of the Court was over, and finished, that this affair happened,—was it in a House or open Street?
Can you recollect the Names of the persons walking with G Walton in the Street at that time?
The Answer—Dr. Brownson, Mr. W Maxwell Mr. B. Lloyd, Seaborn Jones &ca.
Did G Walton or any of the Gentlemen with him make any opposition?—or how did they behave?
Did Lieutt. Ducoin,—Lieut. Stewart of the Horse or any other person offer to Join or asist me?
Had I any other Weapons at the time, than the whip, & the Sword I always wore,—or did you see me attempt to make use of anything but the Whip?
Had Lt. Ducoin, or Lt. Stewart any other arms, than the side arms they generally wore?
Did I come upon G. Walton privately, or in a public open Manner, & before his Face?
‘‘Board of Claims Letter to the House. 1784.”43
The Board of Claims in compliance with (at) the desire of the Honl. the House of Assembly have laid their proceedings before the House, which they have hitherto kept to themselves, for reasons which must appear obvious to every person, as the Various Interests of Individuals will interfere with every general principle the Board have adopted & Laid down for the good of the whole, & will of course meet with opposition. I am directed Sir to inform the House that as so much Confidence has been placed in the Board, (at their first institution) who cannot have any separate views of their own independent of the Country they have endeavoured to the Utmost of their Judgments to discharge their Duty to their Country hitherto, and that if they are permitted to proceed in their own way without restraint or interferrence, they have in view, & flatter themselves they will (may) be able not only to Save the State from bankruptcy, and pay its Just Debts with honor, but also to make any Taxes hung upon the Citizens unnecessary which they apprehend is to be considered beyond the Interest of any individual.
I have the Honor to be Sir
Yr. most obt. Hble Sert.
[Signed] L. McIntosh P.B.
30th Jany. 1784
Speaker of the Hle. the Ho. of Ass.
The Board to shew the necessity of Secrecy on some Occasions will take the Liberty to remind the Honl. House of the Celebrated Story of the Athenian Aristocles, who said in an Assembly of the people, that he had a plan in View of the utmost consequence to them, but in order to execute it, must be kept Secret from them, the people having great confidence in his ability, but afraid at the same time of his firery ambitious designs, left it to the opinion of his Rival Aristides surnamed the Just, who (altho the Secret is not [illegible word]) after it was disclosed to him, declared it was of the greatest benefit to the State but unjust for which reason to the eternal honor of that republic it was rejected.
With every mark of respect I have the Honor &c
Auditor’s Office 20th: April 178444
In the Settlement of Capt: William McIntosh’s Account on the 31st: day of October last, he the said Capt: McIntosh gave Credit for the sum of two hundred and eighty three pounds for two Negroes purchased by him and for which sum the Continent is debited in my Books.
That in the settlement of his Brother Lachlan McIntosh’s Accot. a Credit was entered for an old Negroe fellow, a Wench and Child, bought by the said Lachlan McIntosh for £141—but no sum extended; as the said Lachlan McIntosh had two valuable Negro Fellows taken and disposed of by the late Governor Martin at Augusta in the Year 1782, and for which he never received any payment or satisfaction.
[Signed] John Wereat Auditor
“Brother Jno. McIntosh 30th. August 1784, Recd. 15th. Octob. ‘84”45
St. Thos. in the East the 30th Augt. 1784.
My Dear Brother
The 30th of last month, the Almighty visited the windward part of this Island with the most dreadfull huricane ever known by the oldest liver in short thiers scearcely a house standing, or any kind of Buildings in this & the next parish, & a number of lives lost with the Wrecks of Buildings as well as upon the Coast. Yet dreadfull as our Sufferings are upon the South Side, they felt very little of it upon the North Side as its force came from the No. East, my house being open to that Exposure was in a few minutes Blown down & every other Building & Tree in that direction Tore up by the Roots or Snapt off, in short my self & number of my Slaves was Buried in the Ruins of a Large Mass of Buildings I am now at a friends house Confined to bed ever since owing to the Bruises & Cold I got that dreadfull night their was little hopes of my Recovery untill 3 days agone, that it pleased God to Relieve me of part of my affliction, & altho’ I have Reason to be thankfull that I was not Crush’d in the Buildings, Yet I find that I have lost my all even to my Wearing apperal & papers Excepting the lives of my few negroes & without a Speedy Supply of Provisions from the States of America they must die of famine; Yet what distresses me most at this Juncture is a letter of Credit your son John obtain’d from me, when he came from Georgia he came in a hurry to see me & told me he was to Return immediately that a Large Vessell with Lumber was stranded at Tiby & that his friends had purchased the Cargo for him & that the house of McLeans here had taken a Concern with him & had Charter’d a Ship to carry the lumber to this market where it was then much wanted, he said it was necessary for him to carry at least a Thousand pounds worth of negroes to pay for his part of the Cargo &c. I thought this Reasonable, & as he was immediately to Return with Such a Cargo cou’d Run no Risk. I gave him a letter to John McLean mentioning, as a Connection in Trade had taken place Between him & my Nephew I wou’d Join Either of them in Bond to a Ginuea house for a Thousand pounds worth of negroes for my Nephews Venture, in a Week after Giving this letter, I learn’d from him that the vessell they had in view was Charter’d by others & that McLean was wholly off & that he & Mr. Morison had Chartered a Schooner & begged I wou’d Come down & procure him some negroes as he was sure they wou’d chart 50 per Ct. upon them & be Back in 3 months at farthest I then went to Town & in his presence apply’d to the Guinea houses But they wou’d not go out of their old Tract & their money must be paid before any Remittance Cou’d be made from america Jack was so sensible of this that he gave up the thoughts of a venture in negroes & wrote me that he had more freight Engaged than the vessell Cou’d carry. it seems he fell in with a Mr. Gibbie who he knew was Consider’d here Lacking the solidity necessary to Carry men through life, this man proposed to him to carry my letter to friends of his & he wou’d procure him negroes as many as he wanted he immediately took £1086 worth of negroes from the house of Allans & Campbell & Bound me without my knowledge or Consent to pay for them in 6 & 10 months the day he saild he acquainted me with what he had done. Those Gentlemen through the interest of my friends have forbore to distress me untill now But finding that I have lost so Considerably in the Huricane they now say that they Cannot wait any longer But must have their money
What I have to Request of You is to make use of the authority nature has given You over him, take the negroes out of his hands & sell them without loss of time & Remitt the amount to the house of Allans & Campbell in Kingston. a letter from You letting them know what prospect they may Expect of payment may probably satisfy them for John has already deceived them & they will not Regard his letters. how soon I am able to get out of Bed will send You a power of attorney, Tho’ I hope he’ll be Ruled by You without. Gibbie pester’d me to give him & Doctr. Irvine a power against him & gave me Broad hints that Remittance woud not be made without I took such a step. I Rest wholly upon Your friendship to settle this Business with all speed. I am now so Weary & faint that I Can add no more save my most affectionate love to Your Wife & family & to all friends there & I am ever Your affectionate Brother
[Signed] Jno. Mackintosh
Brig. General Lachlan McIntosh
at Savannah in the State of Georgia
“Henry Emanuel Lutterloh 30th Dec. 1784 wth. Printed Advertisement.”
Charles Town South Carolina.46
Dec 30th 1784.
The Honour I had to be acquainted with you, when we Lay at Valley forge where I acted as first deputy Quarter Master Genl. makes me take the Liberty to write to you, on a Plan which I have made in the Northern States to recover the unpaid claims against the Crown of Grt Britain and Persons acting under the Crown. The Northern States have given Us great Sums! and I thought it best to sent Major Fuhrer on to North Car. & this State, but finding at my arrival here; That he has not been nor wrote to your State (where great Claims must be left unpaid); I thought it best to communicate the Plan to you, and to beg your advise & protection in the Establishing proper agents who would work under my Direction and collect the Claims upon the same Terms as others do with Us in Concern. The recovery of the Negrow’s and devestation made on privat property is a great object, and can only [be] recovered by a Company of Men who will make it their business to Sue the right persons. We talked often together (if you recollect,) about procuring Settlers for your large Tracts of Lands, and No State can florish without great Numbers of Inhabitants and Trade & Taxes must be Supported by its Numbers. My being a Native of Germany and resolved to fixe in America, could give Me the best ways & means to bring over any Number of Settlers, if a State wants Some, and I should like to take a agency for that business at the same time I never was in Georgia & therefore cannot judge how Such a Plan would be Supported by the Assembly. Should be very glad to have your opinion on this Subject, having the Honour to be with great Respect
Your Most obed hble Sr.
[Signed] H. E. Lutterloh
at Mr Hane
Endorsed: To the Honorable
Major Genl. McIntosh
Honord by Doct. George Tredway Junr.
The Public to Lachn. Macintosh Dr.  for Articles which the Auditor left unsettled in his former Account.
“Bror. Jno. McIntosh Letter of 30th Novr. 1785 per Greivis received 6th. Feby. 1786.”47
Kingston the 30th Novembr. 1785
My Dear Brother
Being in this Town when Captn. Greevis [Grieve] arrived from Savannah I call’d upon him Expecting letters from You, & others of my friends there, the Captain to my great surprise told me he saw You a little before he Saild, but that You gave him no letters for me this astonish’d me, as I so often wrote to You of the Situation Your son John has reduced me to, desiring You wou’d use Your authority over him to do me an act of Justice. I wrote to You & himself by Mrs. Nathl. Hall who saild for Georgia some days ago setting forth that all my negroes, save 5 are in the Marshalls Custody for the debt he owes to the House of Allans & Campbell, of this Town Merchants, & are actually to be sold at Marshalls Sale the 1st. of March next for what Ready money can be Rais’d upon them without a Sufficient Remittance is made to discharge that debt before then, So, that I again urge, & Request You’ll oblige him Either to dispose of the negroes he Carry’d over, or Return them with out money, or Produce can be Transmitted here for their amount without Loss of time, to save my negroes which are three times their value, But if sold at Marshall sale will not pay the debt which is £800 Currency. Messr. Allans & Campbell has deliver’d up Johns Bonds to me, upon my delivering up my Slaves, taking my note of hand to make Good any difficiency that might happen upon the sale of 47 fine Slaves, with their maintainance Goal fees &c. he is owing a Mr. Welch here about £1700, But as that was a Transaction of Trade between them apprehends, my Engagement from a motive of serving him only ought to be first attended to. he Wrote to the house of Allans & Campbell to Insure upon a Vessel that he never sent here for which they paid a premium of £70, which I cannot Recover from the Insurors, without he Sends a Certificate to satisfy them that, that vesseli never saild for this Island John has put it out of my power to go to England last Spring to Recover my Eye sight. as the famous Barren Danzell was then in London, the first Oculist in Europe, & I had an introduction to him from a very near Relation of his who assured me that the operation would not Cost me a farthing, & that he wou’d pledge himself he wou’d Restore my Sight as perfect as ever it was in 14 days time, the hopes of so near a prospect of such a Blessing, made me happier than all the Wealth in the world wou’d have made me; but alas I have now only left the melancholly prospect of Spending the Remainder of life in the greatest indigence & Darkness without Your Exertions will oblige Your son to act uprightly by me for I am Sorry to Say, that I have very little hopes from his feelings without I hear from You in a Reasonable time, I’ll be under the disagreeable necessity of sending powers of attorney over, or go myself for after the Sale of my Slaves I can have nothing to do in this Island.
I hope Yourself Wife & family with the Rest of my friends there are well: which will ever give me the greatest pleasure to hear. I beg I may be Remembered in the kindest & most affectionate manner to them. Doctr. McIntosh is well But his Brother. a Youth is dieng. a Lieut Wm. Fraser of the 42nd Regiment who is our uncle son by the Mother48 is arrived here & desired his kind Complts. to You & I am
my dear Brothr.
Your most affectionate Brother
[Signed] Jno. Mackintosh
“My Accot. against the Public for Indian Treaty”49
The Public To Lachlan McIntosh Dr.
|1785.—for eleven Days attendance on the Governor & the Creek Indians at a Conference held with them in Savannah, with a Servant & Horses, at 4 dollars per day,||£10. 5.4|
|for my own, & Servant & Horses time from the 20th. October when I left home to the 8. November when I left Galphington attending a Treaty there with the Creek Indians as a Commissioner from Georgia is 20 days at 4 dollars per day||18.13.4|
This Indenture Tripartite made the first day of January in the Year of our Lord One thousand Seven hundred and Eighty Eight and twelf Year of American Independence. Between Lachlan Mckintosh Esquire late Major General in the American Army now of the County of Chatham and State aforesaid of the one (first) part, George Threadcraft Esquire50 now of the same County and State aforesaid of the other (second) part, and William Mackintosh Junior Esquire son of the said Lachlan & late a Major in the Line of the American Army, now of the said County & State, of the third part. WHEREAS the said Lachlan Mackintosh is minded to settle certain Estates of Land herein after Mentioned upon his said Son William, for his better advancement in the World, and for the better Support of his Family should he think proper to Marry and should he have Children,51 THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH, therefore that the said Lachlan McIntosh for & in Consideration of the Natural Love and Affection which he hath and bears to his said Son William Mackintosh and for the farther Consideration of the sum of Five pounds Sterling to him in hand paid by the said George Threadcraft, the receipt whereof the said Lachlan McIntosh doth hereby Acknowledge and doth release, acquit and discharge the said George Threadcraft his Heirs Exors & Admors by these Presents HAVE granted, bargained, sold, aliened, remised, released and confirmed, and by these Presents DO grant, bargain, sell, alien, remise, Release and Confirm unto the said George Threadcraft and his Heirs (in his actual possession now being by Virtue of a bargain and Sale to him thereof made by an Indenture of Lease for one whole Year, bearing date the next before the day of the date of these presents, and by force of the Statute for transferring Uses into possession) ALL that improved Plantation Parcel or Tract of Land Originally granted to John Holmes for four hundred Acres, but contains only three hundred and fifty Acres, and was conveyed by the said Holmes to the said Lachlan McIntosh, situate lying & being in the Parish of Saint Andrew now in Liberty County in the State of Georgia aforesaid, and butting and bounding on the North West by Land originally granted to John Munroe, on the North East by Vacant Lands, on the South East by Land of the said Lachlan McIntosh, & Lands still Vacant, & on the South West by Cathead Creek AND ALSO another Plantation Parcel or Tract of Land fronting the former Tract on the South West, and upon the opposite side of the said Cat Head Creek, to be laid out by a Line which is to run fifty degrees West of the South point, from the South West Hickory Corner Tree of the said Tract of three hundred & fifty Acres, upon, or near a high bluff of the said Cathead Creek, from thence in the same Course or direction over & across the said Creek, and afterwards continued in the same direction untill it comes to the Main branch of Shingle Creek, from thence down along the Stream or the ebb tide of the said Shingle Creek to the Mouth thereof & into the North branch of the Alatamaha or Darien River and down along the Stream or ebb tide of the said Darien River to the Mouth of Cat Head Creek aforesaid, and from thence up the said Cat Head Creek as the flood tide runs to the place opposite the said Hickory Corner the place of beginning, whatever the quantity of Acres of Land more or less which these bounds (Limits) may contain, it being the South East part of a larger Tract of Land originally granted to the said Lachlan McIntosh commonly called the point Tract situate lying & being in the said County of Liberty & State aforesaid & is a Neck of Land between the said Cathead Creek & branches of the said River Alatamaha, & bounded on the No. West by Lands granted to Mary McCulloch & Children As by a Plat of these Tracts of Land hereunto annexed as also to the original Grants may more clearly fully & at large appear.
AND ALSO a Town Lot No. 5. East Division, Ninety by one hundred & thirty feet, in the Town of Darien upon the River Alatamaha. Also a Lot sixty by Ninety feet in the Town of [blank]52 upon said River when laid out known in the plan thereof by the Number 74. Also a Lot one hundred by one hundred feet in the Town of [blank] on Doboy Island No. 1. East Division and ALSO the Lots No. 1 and 2 of 100 by 200 feet each Lot in the Town of Oglethorpe upon Saint Simons Island.
TOGETHER with all Houses, Outh Houses, buildings, Improvements, Trees, Woods, Underwoods, Ways Paths Passages, privileges, advantages, emoluments, Heriditaments, & appurtenances whatsoever to the said Tracts and Lots of Land belonging, or Accepted known, held, or enjoyed as part parcel or Member thereof: and the Reversion and Reversions, Remainder and Remainders, Rents, Issues & profits thereof, together with all Deeds, Escripts, Minuments and Writings relating to the aforesaid Tracts & Lots of Land, Hereditaments & Premisses, hereby bargained & sold, or intended so to be TO HAVE AND TO HOLD the said Tracts & Lots of Land, Tenements hereditaments and appurtenances, and all & singular the premisses herein before Mentioned, and every part hereof unto him the said G. Threadcraft his Heirs and Assigns, upon such trusts, and to such Uses as are herein after expressed and declared, and to no other Use, intent, or purpose whatsoever, That is to say, in Trust to suffer and permit the said William Mackintosh Junior son of the said Lachlan & his heirs, or any of them whom he may appoint by his last Will if he shd. die to have, receive and take the Rents, issues and profits thereof, and to possess and Occupy the same for and during the term, or time of Twenty one Years, AND at and after the expiration of that Estate To the said G. Threadcraft his Heirs & Assigns in trust & Confidence that he or they will well and sufficiently Convey the said Tracts & Lots of Lands with all and singular the premisses and appurtenances, unto him the said William Mackintosh Junior his Heirs and assigns forever in fee simple if he shall be then Living or if he should die before the expiration of the said term of twenty one Years, then, & in that case unto the lawful Heir or Heirs of the said William Mackintosh Junior or any one or more of them whom the said William may direct, in his last Will and Testament duely executed and Attested if he leaves any (provided this Estate is not made Lyable for any debts contracted prior to the expiration of the aforesaid term of twenty one Years, or Alienated for any transactions before the end of that term as I conceive by that time the Possessors will begin to know the Value of it).
[What appears to be a second draft of the last part of this indenture is written on the back]:
To have and to hold the said Tracts & Lots of Land &ca.—unto him the said G Threadcraft and his Heirs and Assigns (qd: forever) to such Uses, upon such trusts, provisions and Conditions nevertheless as are herein after Limitted, and appointed, of & concerning the same and to no other purpose whatsoever, that is to say, To the said G. Threadcraft and his Heirs, in Trust, To the Use of the said William Mackintosh Junior son of the said Lachlan, for, and during the term of his the said William’s Natural Life, without Impeachment of, or for, any Manner of Waste &ca.—and from & after the decease of the said William To the said G Threadcraft his Heirs & Assigns in trust & Confidence that he or they will well and sufficiently Convey the said Tracts of Land with all & singular the premisses & appurtenances, unto the Lawful Heir or Heirs of the said William Mackintosh Junior or any one or more of them whom the said William may direct in his last Will & Testament duely executed & attested if he leaves any.
(this Estate not to be made Lyable for any Debts contracted by him in his Life.)
If he refuses to accept of or to pay Taxes for any of the said Tracts or Lots of Land upon these Conditions, such Tract or Lot shall go to any of his Brothers who will take them on the said terms giving a preference to the oldest
The Critical Situation of the Southern States, which, for a considerable length of time have been exposed to the ravages of war, and are become the object of reduction with the Court of London; pressed on congress to take measures heretofore, for baffling the Designs of the Enemy. It was hoped that the Events which followed the late Storm would have produced the means of an effectual cooperation of the force of our ally but your last letter stating Some difficulties beyond those which formerly appeared—we cannot, consistent, with a proper Sense of what we owe to our almost ruined country, omit, representing the necessity of having the enemy, immediately and effectually opposed in the pursuit of a Design, to accomplish which the greatest part of the british force has been employed in the course of the last two years.
When the natural Weakness of the Southern parts is considered, arising from thinness of population, and the destruction of the troops which formed the different Lines belonging to them, there cannot be a doubt of your using the desired measures to engage the force of our allies—the recovery of the Southern States, and the capture of the british would in our opinion contribute to a Speedy termination of the war, and indeed, it is to be presumed, that their Successes in Georgia & South Carolina could alone have furnished the british Court with a pretence of calling on parliament for the means of Supporting a War in America this year.
“My Letter to Mr. F. Courvoisie 23d. May ‘91 with an order on Capt. John Howell at Augusta”
Savannah 23d. May 1791
Inclosed I give an order in your favor on Captain John Howell of Augusta, for One hundred pounds in Specific Certificates, which I doubt not he will pay you when you inform him how much I am distressed at this particular time and that I have no other means of paying you my last Year’s Tax.
I am Sir
Yr. obt. Hble. Servt.
[Signed] Lachn. McIntosh
Mr. Frans. Courvoisie
P.S. if Captain Howell can with more ease, Let you have two hundred pounds of Georgia Paper Money, it may Answer as well if you can exchange it.
Frans. Courvoisie Esqr.
List of McIntosh’s Lottery Tickets, 1791.54
The marks and Numbers and Signers of fifty Lottery Tickets of the United States in 1776, first Class, in the hands of Lachlan McIntosh the elder, of Savannah, which were never yet enquired into, and the prizes (if there were any among them) never called for, and in such cases, by the original Scheme, were to be laid out for Tickets in the second and third Classes. The first ticket in this List is copyed at Length which serves for all the rest. VIZT.
|United States Lottery||No. 98,152|
Class the first.
This Ticket entitles the bearer to receive such prize as may be drawn against its Number, According to a Resolve of Congress passed at Philadelphia, November 18th. 1776
|Y. No.98,153. J. Barge||X. No.99,298. S. Delaney|
|A. No.98,154. J. Barge||S. No.99,299. S. Delaney|
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Fifty Tickets altogether, marked Numbered & signed as above.
Savannah in Georgia
4th. August 1791
[Signed] Lachn. McIntosh
“Jas. Seagrove Letter 3d. Decr. 1791”55
Your favour by Godfrey in my Boat with the Corn you was so good as to send came safe to hand. Want of opportunity hath prevented my writing you until this time. I have now to request that you will have ready beat out 150 Bushels of Corn & if you have 100 Bush[el] s Cow Peas for which I will pay you he[re] by an order of Messr. Spiers McLeod & Co. in Savannah. I shall dispatch a Vessel Tomorrow morning for it and hope you will have it ready. Excuse this scrawl as the Bearer is very impatient
I am with Respect
Your obedt H Ser.
[Signed] Js. Seagrove
St. Mary’s 3d Decr 1791
Majr. John McIntosh
Endorsed: Majr. John McIntosh
on St. Simons
To be forwarded by Mr. D. Manson as soon as possible.
“Subscription favor of John Houstoun Esqr. for £150.”
Whereas John Houstoun esqr hath been appointed by the General Assembly one of the Judges of the Superior Court of this State
And whereas the Salery affixed to the said Office is conceived by us to be Inadequate. We the Subscribers do hereby promise to use our influence with the City Corporation to pass a Vote in favor of the said John Houstoun for £150 Sterling, in addition to the Sum of £350 allowed by the State, and in case of failure with that Body, We also promise to use every Means in our power to obtain the Said Sum in his favor in the General Assembly.
Jos Clay Jun.
Spiers McLeod & Co.
Richd. S. Footman
F. T. Smithson
“Gideon Denison’s Letter dated Savannah 26th. Jany. ‘93 & delivered same day by Billy Deveaux”56
Savannah 26th Jany 1793
It is out of my power to furnish the negros to your Satisfaction & it is equally impossible to pay you egreeable to your wishes for the one half of the mortgage. I therefore must decline doing any thing farther in the matter than to reinstate Major Pendleton his asigns with full possession of the Mortgage, by he or they returning my Bond & note. I have notifyed John Berrien Esq who holds the Mortgage for the parties to that effect. any damage that you may sustain in consequence, I am willing to leave & submit to Judgment of indifferent men I am Sir your ob. Sert.
[Signed] G. Denison
General L. McIntosh
“Reply to a Bill in Equity”
STATE OF GEORGIA57
John McIntosh Complainant by his next friends Vs.
William and Lachlan the e[l]der Esquires
On the Equity side of the Superior Court
The Answer of Lachlan McIntosh one of the defendants to the Bill of the Complainant.
This defendant being required by the Bill of the Complainant to discover facts relative to the estate of the intestate George McIntosh the Complainants father long before he had taken any part in the administration of it, and being willing in order to do every possible justice, and render every satisfaction in his power to the Complainant, to go into a narrative of the transactions of the estate as far as he can recollect, prior to his taking a part in the administration of it; at the same time saving and reserving to himself now and at all times hereafter all and all manner of benefit of advantage of exception to the many insufficiencies, uncertainties and other imperfections and defects in the Complainants Bill contained, for answer thereto or to so much thereof as this defendant thinks is any ways material or necessary to answer, he answereth and saith: That after the peace of Aix La Chapelle the latter end of the Year one thousand Seven hundred and forty eight, every resource this then young Colony now state of Georgia had for its support being withdrawn, it became almost entirely depopulated, that among other emigrants this defendant left his parents and went to Charleston South Carolina, where he carried his youngest brother the late George McIntosh the father of the Complainant, who was at that time about eleven years of age, put him to a grammar school at this defendants own expence, and after the said George had acquired such other accomplishments as were then taught at that place, this defendant bound the said George for four years to an Architect and allowed him one hundred pounds Carolina currency a year during the Term of his the said George’s apprenticeship for pocket money, purchased a Negro boy for him to be brought up to the same business with himself, and to attend upon him, who is still alive, as this defendant believes and the most valuable slave belonging to the Complainant being the chief manager of his estate; This defendant further answering saith that after the term of the said George’s apprenticeship expired, this defendant brought him back to Georgia and got him appointed Commissary of supplies for the Troops in garrison at Frederica, and other posts dependent thereon, instructed him in geometry and surveying and furnished him with books for those purposes, in order, that the said George might by those means acquire a more perfect Knowledge of his own Country and have an opportunity of getting the most valuable Lands at that early period for himself, as this defendant advised and directed him. And as the inclination of the said George soon after his return from Charleston led him to planting, this defendant, was also his security in Charleston for the first parcel of Negroes the said George ever purchased with which and his own industry he acquired all the property he ever possessed. Of all these advantages he made the best use and became one of the most thriving planters in this state, uniformly ascribing all his successes to this defendants steady friendships to him, and always declaring and looking upon this defendant in the light of a father and tryed friend, rather than a brother; And this defendant further answering admits it to be true that the late George McIntosh brother to this defendant and father of the Complainant did depart this life at or about the time mentioned in the Complainants Bill of Complaint, and that the said George died intestate and without a Will, to the best of this defendants Knowledge and belief: And this defendant admits it to be true that the Complainant is the only child of the said George McIntosh now living, and that the said George was at the time of his death possessed of a considerable real estate in Lands amounting to the best of this defendants knowledge to thirteen thousand and eighty acres, consisting of forty five tracts, situate in the different Counties of Liberty Glynn and Camden in this state, and also a Lot of land in Savannah, the Grants and Titles to which said Lands and Lot were on the third day of July in the Year one thousand seven hundred and ninety two delivered to the Complainant, by this defendant, as by his receipt appears. And this defendant further answering admits it to be true that the said George at the time of his death was possessed of a considerable personal estate, consisting of Negroes, and other things, but denies that there ever came to this defendants Hands and possession any more or other of the personal estate of the Intestate than the Negroes mentioned in the Inventory herewith exhibited and appraised at three thousand seven hundred and sixty two pounds on the ninth and eleventh of August one thousand seven hundred and eighty four, and on the seventeenth day of January one thousand seven hundred and eighty six and seventeen pieces of silver, consisting of spoons and other old plate which was neglected to be put in the appraisement and is kept as a memorial for the Complainant of his Parents whom he can hardly remember: And this defendant further answering saith that he was at Augusta when he first heard of the death of the Intestate that he immediately came down, but did not arrive until some days after his funeral, that the short time this defendant stayed at the habitation of the Intestate, he principally enquired and examined into his papers, which were scattered about and hudled into unlocked broken Trunks; but found none of any consequence except the Grants and Titles for the Lands before mentioned, which were all put carefully into a small portmanteau Trunk and secured by the defendants Wife and family, in a pursuit by the enemy of seven or eight hundred miles, while he this defendant was a prisoner in Charleston, being captured at the siege of that City, in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty; And this defendant further answering saith that about the time he came down from Augusta after his brother’s death he engaged a Waggoner to carry to Charleston to the care of Mr. Philip Minis since deceased a parcel of Indigo belonging to the Intestate which Indigo he never saw nor does he know the quantity but sent it there that it might be secured out of the reach of the enemy, and has since been informed and believes it was afterwards delivered to the order of Sir George Houstoun; all the personal estate besides of every description was in the hurry of the retreat from the common enemy left in the care of the Overseer on the Intestate’s plantation at Sapello river. And this defendant further answering denies that he did immediately after the death of the said George apply for the administration of his estate to the Superior Court of this County, but admits it to be true that sometime in the Year one thousand seven hundred and eighty three after the evacuation of Savannah by the British forces at the solicitation of the late Sir Patrick and the present Sir George Houstoun he this defendant agreed to join them together with James Houstoun in the administration of the estate of the Intestate George provided they would give this defendant no trouble in the administration of it in pursuance of which solicitation and assent of this defendant application was made and Letters of Administration this defendant believes were granted to them accordingly on or about the thirtieth day of October one thousand seven hundred and eighty three, but this defendant denies that he ever qualified or acted under those Letters. And this defendant further answering admits that true it is that some time after the said Letters were granted if granted at all, to wit about the tenth day of December in the Year last aforesaid William McIntosh the elder a brother of this defendant and a codefendant to the Bill of the Complainant petitioned the Chief Justice of this state praying for a revocation of the Letters granted to the said Sir Patrick George and James Houstoun and this defendant and that the administration of the said estate and effects of the said Intestate might be granted to him the said William as eldest brother of the Intestate and to such others as by law or open consent might be entitled to the same, that the Chief Justice on considering the said petition granted the prayer thereof, and thereupon adjudged, that the administration of the Estate & Effects of the said Intestate of right belonged to the said William the petitioner whereupon he the said William without the knowledge or consent of this defendant had his this defendants name joined with the said William in the Judge’s order for the Letters, but this defendant having shortly before that period returned to this state after an absence of near five years on being exchanged for General Ohara, his family then in Virginia and his affairs much deranged by the War which required all his attention in his advanced stage of life, refused to qualify or have any thing to do with the said estate for a considerable time, however on seeing the estate of his said brother George much neglected and wasted and being impressed with the necessity of his joining the said William in the Administration of it in order to save it as far as possible for the Complainant the only child and representative of the Intestate this defendant did on the twenty fourth day of May one thousand seven hundred and eighty four qualify with the other defendant to this Bill and take upon himself jointly with him the administration of the said estate. And this defendant further answering denies that he has acted as an administrator ever since the letters were granted because this defendant says that he never got possession of the Negroes of the said estate till about the first day of January one thousand seven hundred and eighty five. And this defendant further answering saith, that his only motive in joining in the administration was to protect the estate from waste and ruin, himself under the most embarrassing circumstances, incredibly poor after a long and necessary absence from his Country, plundered of almost every thing he possessed and not a farthing of money belonging to the estate on hand or any present means of making any, all the moveable effects belonging to the estate having been sold together with twenty two of the best Negroes by the late administrators Sir Patrick and George Houstoun under the usurpation, nothing to purchase tools cloths provisions or any other necessary for settling the Negroes without selling some of them, neither could credit be obtained, even if the means of settling them had been in the power of this defendant, the whole Country around was harrassed by a banditti accustomed to plunder and rob insomuch that there really was no safety for any moveable property twenty miles distant from Savannah and in addition to all this an Indian War shortly after broke out which nearly depopulated the whole Country South of Chatham County, under all those circumstances which this defendant believes would have terrified almost any other person than this defendant and the other from undertaking so arduous a task, they notwithstanding determined old and inactive as they were to persevere although no other means in their power were left than to hire out the Negroes to the highest bidder from year to year which was also attended with many inconveniences and much trouble and risque as the state about that period abounded with paper emissions of various kinds which served as a medium for cash in dealings amongst the Citizens, these circumstances coupled with the tediousness of legal proceeedings induced people to give exhorbitant prices for every article offered for sale notwithstanding which this and his codefendant under all these embarrassments had no alternative left but to make the trial, not supposing the Claimant whom they had so essentially served would endeavor to take advantage of any little inadvertencies or irregularities which they might have fallen into under such circumstances, and in such items. And this defendant further answering saith that some time after he qualified as an Administrator John Houstoun Esquire an Uncle of the Complainant instituted an Action against this defendant and the said William his brother as Administrators of the Intestate in the name of Miss Ann Stewart and recovered an account of three hundred and twenty two pounds seventeen shillings and three pence with interest thereon, and that the present Sir George Houstoun another Uncle to the Complainant after engaging Samuel Stirk William Stephens and John Houstoun Esquires had three writs served on these defendants on the same day as Administrators of the said estate for about two thousand pounds sterling with interest charged on that sum to the day of bringing the Actions which nearly doubled the original debt and at that time in this defendants opinion would have swallowed up the whole estate if sold for cash, at length after much expence which this defendant at that time could but illy afford and frequent attendancies in Court the fate of these Actions was by order of Court left to arbitration and instead of allowing the said Sir George the Sums of Money he demanded it was awarded that he should pay the defendants seventy eight pounds eight shillings and nine pence and return a young Negroe fellow the said Sir George detained and since sold for one hundred pounds as this defendant believes, and also pay them three hundred and seventeen pounds three shillings and five pence with interest from the first day of January one thousand seven hundred and eighty one as surviving Administrators of the said George McIntosh under the british usurpation, and the said Sir George should also use the utmost of his endeavors to recover ninety two pounds sterling due by his brother in law George Kincade for Negroe hire during the said british administration of the estate which this defendant believes to be still due as by the award will appear. And this defendant further answering admits it to be true that he together with his codefendant did on the twenty third day of December one thousand seven hundred and eighty four at Great Ogeechee where the Negroes of the said Intestates estate then were in possession of William McIntosh the Younger [,] son of this defendant to whom they had been hired for that Year by Sir Patrick and George Houstoun set up and expose to sale in pursuance of public notice given all the taskable hands of the Intestate consisting of twenty eight in number from the first of January one thousand seven hundred and eighty five till the first of January one thousand seven hundred and eighty six as by the said notice will appear when to this defendants surprise they were knock’d off at the enormous rate of twenty pounds for each taskable hand to this defendants son William which he this defendant much disapproved of as the said William was a near relation of the Complainant and had given so extravagant a price for the Negroes that he could never expect to pay their hire by labor but the said William persisted in his purchase, and this defendant further answering admits that the same Negroes that were hired to the said William his Son for the Year one thousand seven hundred and eighty five after being duly advertised in the Gazette of the twenty third day of December of that Year to be disposed of for the Year one thousand seven hundred and eighty six at Savannah the conditions of which were that the purchaser should give bond and warrant of Attorney to confess Judgment thereon within twelve months for the hire of the Negroes that Year as by a copy of the advertisement will appear, which this defendant thought might probably prevent his said Son William from getting them a second year were knocked off at the enormous price of nineteen pounds twelve shillings and six pence for each taskable hand to Richard Leake who immediately signed the conditions of sale in the name and on behalf of the said William McIntosh who was not present at the sale, this circumstance so much displeased this defendant that he hardly spoke to the said William, his son for several years. The Auctioneer after the sale according to the conditions thereof had the Negroes appraised made out the Bond and warrant of Attorney and presented them to the said William, but could not prevail on him to execute them who still had the Negroes in possession, thus the Auctioneer was put off from day to day as this defendant was informed and believes, by the purchaser until that Year was too far spent to advertise and sell them over again; And this defendant further answering saith that he repeatedly pressed the said William his son for a fulfilment of his agreement for the Year one thousand seven hundred and eighty five which he never fully completed as well as for the payment of his bond for the hire of the Negroes for the Year one thousand seven hundred and eighty four, and that he the said William frequently promised to discharge the greatest part if not the whole of the hire for the Year one thousand seven hundred and eighty four and one thousand seven hundred and eighty five when his crop should be beatten out which he said was delayed in order to get his land in order provided he was not sued for the same otherwise he would keep the estate out of the money three four or five years if possible.
This defendant thus awkwardly and delicately situated by the imprudence and obstinacy of his said Son William was determined to act against him with more decision than against any other person in a like situation and accordingly having received no rice or other payment agreeably to promise from his Son William he put the bond for the Year one thousand seven hundred and eighty four and agreement for the Year one thousand seven hundred and eighty five into the hands of James Jackson Esquire Attorney at Law on the twenty sixth day of August one thousand seven hundred and eighty six to be immediately sued Mr. Jackson was then the defendants only counsel in all the transactions of the estate and advised this defendant to defer bringing the Suit against the said William till the circulation of the paper medium ceased as there were persons watching this defendants conduct who would not hestitate saying that he sued his Son William in order to favor him and to afford a pretence of paying the debt in paper money which was much depreciated and continued to be a legal tender till the Guardians of the Complainant received the whole of the property of the Intestate and the sole direction of it out of the hands of this and the other defendant. This defendant further answering saith that in order to avoid the evils and incoveniencies of the years one thousand seven hundred and eighty five and one thousand seven hundred and eighty Six and finding that nothing could be made out of the Negroes by hiring them, he with the other defendant to the Bill ventured for the Year one thousand seven hundred and eighty seven to place them on the plantation of the Intestate situate on Sapelo river although the Indians were still troublesome but without tools seed rice necessaries of any kind or money of their own or of the estates, in this unavoidable dilemma they were obliged to send two of the Negroes to Savannah to be sold, but as no more than twenty five pounds was offered for each, they were brought back again and wench called Polly who was the wife of a fellow belonging to Lachlan McIntosh the younger was purchased by him for fifty six pounds to be paid in corn, rough rice and seed potatoes which necessity obliged the defendants to accept without having time to advertise her according to law whereby the rest of the Negroes were relieved otherwise they must have been sent adrift for a subsistence and all prospects of a crop given up, the necessary delay occasioned by these circumstances, with the bad order of the land laying waste for many years, without the necessary buildings and other accommodations required on a rice plantation reduced this years crop to eighty barrels of rice with the necessary provisions. And this defendant further answering admits that in the beginning of the Year one thousand seven hundred and eighty eight there was a fine prospect of a crop, but that early in that year the Indians began to kill and plunder slaves and other property all around the neighborhood of the plantation which necessarily obliged the defendants to be at the expence of keeping a guard of white men constantly over the Negroes rather than loose so promising a crop, and for the further security of the Slaves which was still a greater object with the defendants than the crop itself they purchased a large Pittiagua boat to carry off all the negroes at once to the Islands in case of any dangerous alarm which so frequently happened that the crop this year neated only forty eight barrels which barely paid the heavy expence attending the culture of it. And this Defendant further answering saith that the Year one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine was attended with nearly the same expence and trouble with the Indians, yet the Crop neated ninety eight barrels of rice and plenty of provisions, seed rice and seed potatoes, as by the account hereto annexed and exhibited to this honorable Court will very clearly and regularly appear, all of which were in the beginning of the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety delivered to the Complainants Guardians together with all the Slaves mentioned in the Inventory except a Wench Polly sold for provisions as before is mentioned and a fellow called Billy who after being advertised according to Law was sold to Patrick Crookshanks for fifty seven pounds who gave his note payable in [blank] days from the date thereof which was put in Suit and Judgment obtained thereon which this defendant says is now of force the reasons for selling this Negroe were because he was an idle fellow and a runaway and has since as this Defendant has been informed and believes shot in the woods. And this Defendant further answering saith that the debts dues and demands in favor of and against the estate of the Intestate as far as they have come within his knowledge will appear by the accounts hereto annexed and exhibited to this honorable Court and which he prays together with the other Accounts attached to them may be considered as part of his answer to the Complainants Bill. And this Defendant denies all and all manner of combination and confederacy wherewith he stands charged in and by the said Bill of Complaint: Without that, that there is any other matter or thing material or necessary for this defendant to make answer unto, and not herein and hereby well and sufficiently answered unto confessed or avoided, traversed or denied, is true. All which matters and things this defendant is ready to aver and prove, as this Honorable Court shall direct and award, and hereby prays to be hence dismissed with his reasonable Costs and Charges in this behalf most wrongfully sustained.
[Signed] Matt. McAllister Solictr.
for Defdt L. M.
10th. Septr. 1793.
[Signed] Lachn. McIntosh
Sworn to this 11th. Septr. 1793 Before
[Signed] J. Houstoun
John Steele to Lachlan McIntosh.58
March 13, 1800
By recurring to the 2d. section of the Act of the 2d. of March 1799, you will perceive that the time therein prescribed for receiving the statements of the Emoluments and Expenditures of the Officers of the customs for the year 1799, has elapsed, and as you have by neglecting to comply therewith, rendered yourself liable to the penalty provided in said Act; unless satisfactory reasons are offered without delay, I shall feel it my duty to institute suit for the recovery thereof.
I am, Sir
your obt. servant
[Signed] jno. Steele
Lachlan McIntosh Esquire
Endorsed: Lachlan McIntosh Esquire
Naval Officer, Savannah Georgia
Postmark: Comptroller’s Office
(Signed) Jno. Steele
A calculation of the real, intrinsick Value of Tide Swamp Land, in the best Pitch of the Tide, and Lyable to no hazard, being deemed the most Valuable Lands in the States of Carolina & Georgia.—where the Interest of Money is Seven per Centum per Annm.—and upon the supposition which cannot now be doubted, that real Estates there, are as permanent & sure as any where else.
150. Acres of such Land (being independent of Reservoirs &ca.) makes what is commonly reckoned a compleat Rice Plantation, sufficient for the direction of one Manager (& when in order is the best Land for Indigo Provision &ca.) grows better the Longer it is wrought, and will produce three barrels containing 550 lb. Net Rice annually to the Acre (altho some have made five barrels) is 450. barrs. at £3 Sterling per bbl. £1,350
Such Plantation will require 35 able Slaves to Manage it, which have been Usually hired in Carolina and Georgia at, or under £10 each per Annum, which paid the purchaser of the Slaves a very good Interest. But to include all Expences & every exigence that may happen we will say 40. Slaves at £12 each per Year is
|The Net Annual produce||£ 870|
The Net Annual profit therefore of 150. Acres best Tide Land when in order is Eight hundred & seventy Pounds Sterling, or £5.16/. per Acre forever clear of all Charges.—which at fourteen Years purchase, equal to Seven per Cent. Interest, is worth £80 Sterling per Acre. Say Eight pounds Sterg. per Acre.
Note, the hire of Slaves is prefered above for the easier Calculation & least risque, altho’ purchasing of them would make the Expences of the Plantation less in the End.
It ought to be observed also, that in Europe where the Usual rate of Interest (which governs all Contracts) between Individuals is 5 per Cent. or twenty Year’s purchase—that real Landed Estates there sells for thirty, forty, & fifty Years of their Annual Income, because Money is continually depreciating in Value as it increases in quantity.—while Landed Estates for that very reason proportionably Appreciates or rises in Value.—& is moveover a surer & more improvable Property.
John Mackintosh to Thomas Tebzum59 [?]
Thos Tebzum [?] Esqr. [No place or date]
Since I wrote my last w[hic]h was yesterday I am informed that the market for Oak at Philadelphia is dull in which Case I hope youll order the Cargo to the most Eligible place as a delay woud occasion much inconvenience—but as I trust entirely in you & Capt. Hunter I need not say More I Remain With Much Esteem
[Signed] J. Mackintosh
Fragment of a return of stores, date and place missing.
END OF PART I
* McIntosh, in drafting a paper often wrote a word or phrase above another word or phrase within a brace, showing a choice of expression for the final draft. These papers have been transcribed with the second word and phrase in parentheses following the original. To distinguish between McIntosh’s own parenthetical material and the added words or phrases, the latter are set in italics.
* McIntosh sometimes lined through phrases on his manuscript. These deletions are shown as McIntosh marked them.