of What Occurred During the Reception and Dispatch of Some Saltzburger Emigrants to Georgia in America
THE matter of the Saltzburger Emigration attracted the attention of almost all Europe as soon as it began; and everyone, especially in the Protestant Church, was eager to receive more specific knowledge about it. Therefore, as a corresponding member of the English Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge,1 I took the opportunity at the beginning of 1732 to report to London the particular circumstances of these happenings which are so unusual in our day. This news was printed in London without the author’s knowledge and was disseminated throughout the English nation; and it was soon followed upon request by other credible accounts about the emigrants. This had hardly occurred before a number of sizable checks were sent from England during a period of several months for the free and conscientious disposition of the above-mentioned author for the benefit of the emigrant Saltzburgers.2
The particular zeal of this nation for propagating the Christian Religion and the active charity which it has shown in general as well as by individual voluntary contributions, which were necessary for the furtherance of such a glorious work and for the assistance of many sufferers, are well known on the whole from various important instances. This has been proved again, especially in the case of the individual contributions, by the fact that the above-named sums of money were not gathered by public collection. Neither His Majesty, the King, nor Parliament has ever authorized such for the Saltzburgers. On the contrary, only individual persons from all classes have contributed these gifts voluntarily and have turned them over to selected members of the above mentioned praiseworthy Society, by whom they were forwarded.
(2.) This was not all, for what these individual persons had started with their charitable care for the Protestant Saltzburgers was later gloriously continued by the praiseworthy Society. After His Royal Majesty of Great Britain had most graciously resolved to establish a new colony in America, namely in a part of the province of Carolina which has been given the name of Georgia, the oft-praised Society made an agreement with the Georgian Company to share expenses for the maintenance of three-hundred Saltzburgers and other emigrants devoted to the Protestant religion, until they could earn their daily bread. For this reason it caused its Secretary, Mr. Henry Newman, to send to the editor, together with a brief account of the present condition of the province of Georgia, an inquiry as to whether a number of Saltzburger emigrants might resolve to journey to the aforementioned province under the very favorable conditions appended here.3*
The Society was informed of many difficulties to be expected in such a matter, and I corresponded with it for several months. After most of the problems had been eliminated, the Lord Trustees or commissioners of Georgia4* finally issued to the editor under royal authority a patent5* authorizing the acceptance of a certain number of emigrants. Likewise the praiseworthy Society authorized him to supply the new colonists with an upright pastor and catechist, as well as to send a pastor of integrity, and a catechist, besides a commissioner to lead them to Georgia.
(3.) In this and all of the events connected with it God’s good hand was so obvious that no one could withdraw from this happy opportunity to further the cause of God. The hope that this might spread the gospel of Jesus Christ among the heathens of this distant region should easily move us to far more uncertain undertakings, all the more as so-called Christians, partly Deists and Worldlings, shrink away from the Word of the Cross, which they consider foolish. Thus there was cause humbly to adore God’s gracious care of the emigrants, which has opened for them everywhere, and even in the New World, the gate to plenteous provision, both spiritual and material.
Thus, for instance, the Trustees of Georgia, as well as the praiseworthy Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, continued with their most unusual charity and eagerness to serve these poor exiles; even His Royal Majesty of Great Britain supported very strongly the memorial sent by the former to Parliament so that it grants ten thousand pounds sterling to the Trustees for the better establishment of the colony. The Saltzburger Emigrants were to share in these rich provisions, as they were specially mentioned in the memorandum. And finally His Royal Majesty instructed his embassy in Regensburg to give every possible assistance in the matter of receiving and transporting the emigrants in Germany.
(4.) There was, however, no lack of obstacles and difficulties. Many were worried about the long voyage which the emigrants had to make, especially because it was across water and was thereupon said to be more dangerous; and it was to be feared that some people might die on the ship before they could reach the coast of Carolina. The example of the people from the Palatinate,6 who had gone there some twenty years before, was still remembered well, and everybody was warned against similar precarious undertakings, and the latest reports from Pennsylvania did not encourage those in a doubtful state of mind. The Tirnbergers, who had gone to Cadzand in Zeeland, were now said to regret their rashness, too late,7 and besides there was little reliable news regarding the status of the Saltzburgers in Prussia. The Saltzburgers destined for Georgia were to be brought to a land where they would have to live among Englishmen whose language they could not understand. The pastors sent with them might die soon. And finally it was said that the land might not be as good as it was made out to be, as it was considered punishment in England if anyone was sent there, and under the circumstances it seemed unnecessary to leave Germany if one had to work over there as much as here.
Thank God all these doubts and objections have been eliminated, for the most part, by the outcome of the undertaking, and even at the time they were not of such importance as to deter anyone from an enterprise that was dared for reasons of faith. For, not to mention that the distance to Georgia is not too great to complete the voyage in six to seven weeks, there was really no cause to consider it so difficult and terrible, in view of the many examples of distinguished persons of rank who had traveled to the East and West Indies, and because special care had been taken to make the voyage as comfortable as possible for the Saltzburgers. The danger of the voyage by water could not be made to look so great by inexperienced and ignorant people as to deny it certain special advantages and comforts or to confuse the minds of Christians resolved to follow the call of God. Their faith had cause neither to look upon anything else nor to fear death at sea more than death on land, for both are the Lord’s, and the emigrants had to be prepared for their last journey here as well as there, according to God’s will. If they feared God they could count on the help of his Grace even aboard ship, as well as on the help of good captains and conscientious pastors. Furthermore, they were assured of sufficient victuals and medicines.
The comparison with those who went to America from the Palatinate is still less appropriate because they went on their voyage in order to escape the tribunals of this world, instead of eliminating them through true humility. Furthermore, they went on their way without being called, and many thousand strong, so that no advance preparations could be made for them, so that most of them arrived in America as beggars and had to work off the costs of their passage as slaves, not to mention the bad care which they received on shipboard.
The Saltzburgers, on the other hand, had been graciously called and invited to go to Georgia after having emigrated from their homeland in accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Westphalia8 where they were no longer tolerated because of their religion. Their number was very small and arrangements for their transportation had been made for the entire trip. All their expenses were to be paid and they were to be received in Georgia as British colonists and free people and were to be maintained until they could support themselves.
The Lords who had been appointed commissioners for the Georgia Colony, and who had proved themselves to be very much concerned with the welfare of the emigrants, had made available such good ships for their transportation that, with God’s help, there could be no doubt of a happy and comfortable crossing. And in Georgia proper, the upright Mr. Oglethorpe had made advance preparations for them in a most fatherly way. This at once eliminated the objections created by the very doubtful news from Pennsylvania; for the lesson of those who went to America without necessity or calling, but only with the hope of leisure, could not possibly apply to our emigrants.
Even the circumstances of those Saltzburgers who settled in Cadzand differed in many respects from that which was offered to our colonists, for there was no reason to doubt in any way the promises of the Commissioners who were extremely concerned with furnishing the best for the emigrants they were receiving, without seeking the least benefit for themselves. Besides, much of the news spread about the Tirnbergers was very uncertain. Perhaps one or the other of those who had authority over them did not treat them according to the wishes of the authorities, or perhaps the emigrants had acquired some of the impatient and surly attitude of the Israelites.9
The news from Prussia was much more reliable and of such a nature that, considering the good provisions made for the Saltzburgers that migrated there, one could only be strengthened in his resolve. The question about the difference between the English and Saltzburg languages could be answered all the more easily, partly because the emigrants were to live together and the pastors traveling with them could serve as interpreters by learning the English language, and partly because some Germans were already living in the land and thus knew the English tongue. Furthermore, in the course of time, the Saltzburger children and younger people would learn it quickly and introduce it imperceptably among the rest of their fellow countrymen. In case of the death of the pastors there were sufficient assurances that the honorable Commissioners as well as the Society would not delay, in such an event, to provide the congregation again with capable and conscientious teachers, just as it had been decided to send a competent catechist with them in addition to the pastor.
Concerning the last question, it was not the purpose of the trip to Georgia that they might find a life of ease there, yet they could be assured that God would provide their daily bread in Georgia as elsewhere, in accordance with His will, to be earned by the sweat of their brow. To compare our emigrants with the criminals sent to America is utterly out of reason because the ships’ captains sell these unhappy people for a number of years, that is, as long as they have been condemned to stay in America, to be servants, so that it is reasonable to look upon their transportation as punishment. Besides, such people are rarely sent to Carolina, where Georgia is located, but mostly to New England, New York, Barbados, Jamaica, etc.
On the whole, the matter of settling the British colonists had been built on a firm and God-pleasing foundation. It had been started in that faith which does not require everything to be predetermined and visible, but has trust in the gracious providence of God and His Word and which will neither be deterred by the length of the way nor let itself imagine that these words will not be as meaningful in Georgia as in other places: SHALL WE RECEIVE GOOD AT THE HAND OF GOD AND SHALL WE NOT RECEIVE EVIL? Job 2:10; likewise: IF ANY MAN WILL COME AFTER ME, LET HIM DENY HIMSELF, AND TAKE UP HIS CROSS AND FOLLOW ME. Matthew 16:24. The emigrants received in faith the words which God had spoken to Joshua when he led his people across the Jordan, in Canaan, among the heathens, namely: I WILL NOT FAIL THEE, NOR FORSAKE THEE. BE STRONG AND OF GOOD COURAGE; and again: BE NOT AFRAID, NEITHER BE THOU DISMAYED: FOR THE LORD THY GOD IS WITH THEE WHITHERSOEVER THOU GOEST. Joshua 1:5,6,9. Thus they could joyfully answer all well or evilly intended rumors with: HE HATH SAID, ‘I WILL NEVER LEAVE THEE NOR FORSAKE THEE,’ so that we, the emigrants, may boldly say: ‘THE LORD IS MY HELPER AND I WILL NOT FEAR WHAT MAN SHALL DO UNTO ME. What could the long voyage do to me? What could the sea do to me?’ Hebrews 13:5,6.
5. We here in Augsburg resolved, therefore, in God’s name, to accept this oft-repeated calling and let ourselves be used in this matter without the least thought of personal gain. Soon thereafter, namely in August 1733, a number of emigrants from Saltzburg arrived in the vicinity of Augsburg. When they were made the offer to be taken to Georgia under the above mentioned conditions, some of them decided to accept this proposition. Their number was 42 persons, who were cared for here in Augsburg for several weeks, until the time of their departure. Each person received nine, and later ten to thirteen kreutzers daily for his subsistence, and those who could read were supplied with Bibles, hymn books, catechisms, Arndt’s True Christianity,10 and other edifying materials.
There was no little concern with the thorough instruction of the emigrants in the fundamental teachings of Christian belief and the Protestant religion. For this purpose special sermons were preached for them on Sundays, holidays, and weekdays; for those, however, who could not attend public worship, special hours of devotion were arranged. For this, one hour daily was set aside, and the children of the emigrants were provided with special schoolmasters. For those emigrants who wished to partake of Holy Communion before their departure special preparations were made so that they could attend communion together on the day of Simon and Jude in St. Anne’s Church, after a general confession, and after they had promised publicly to remain faithful to Protestant doctrine and to lead a righteous life. The thirty-first of October was set as the day of departure for our new Georgia colonists. A little earlier, Mr. Georg Philipp Friedrich von Reck,11 who had been appointed Royal British Commissioner for them, was presented to them in a public ceremony. And because the two pastors,12 who had been called for the new congregation from Halle, in the land of Magdeburg, could not arrive in Augsburg in so short a time, a candidate for the ministry, Schumacher by name, was delegated to accompany them to Rotterdam.
6. On said 31st of October the colonists actually departed from Augsburg. The Hon. Mayor of the Protestant part of the city, Mr. [Johann Georg] Morrell, being one of those gentlemen charged with the emigration affairs, and one who had given many valuable services to these as well as other Protestant emigrants, had arranged all the necessary details in cooperation with the Commissioner von Reck. The baggage was dispatched by wagon to Marksteft, near Wertheim, from where it was to go by boat down the Main River. For the emigrants themselves, and especially for their children, two covered wagons were hired on which they happily set out on their trip, in God’s name. They had previously received passports from the Royal British and Hanoverian embassy in Regensburg, as well as from the praiseworthy council of the Protestant part of the city of Augsburg.
The Editor, as authorized agent, supplied them with necessary instructions and gave them a short speech of exhortation, prayer, and blessing. To pay the costs of the trip, there were distributed among them not only the 500 Rhenish gulden that had been sent over from England, but also 173 gulden from a locked box to which the Protestant inhabitants of our city contributed during their visits to the colonists, and also 142 gulden from the Protestant Emigrant Fund in Regensburg. In addition the Protestant ministry of Augsburg gave one gulden to each person, and some people of means added a half gulden to that. We cannot list all of the other numerous presents of linen and other necessities donated by individuals, which equipped them well for their trip in the coming winter season.
7. Their way led through Donauwerth, Ebermergen, and Harburg to Dinkelsbühl. At the latter place they were greeted and given Christian blessings by the city pastors. When they arrived in the free city of Rothenburg on the 4th of November, they entered two by two, singing hymns. A member of the city council assigned them to private homes, where they were feasted appropriately, and at the city hall each was given a present of one-half gulden. The Roman Catholic governor at Markbreit, in the principality of Schwartzenberg, did not want to give free passage to them or to the emigrants going to Hanover; but, because nearly the entire population of the place was Protestant and made it known in every way that they wanted to see the emigrants, Commissioner von Reck did not delay his trip. He and his colonists passed through the town on November sixth without further objections.
After embarking at Marksteft and going via Würzburg to Wertheim, they were received there with great kindness, even though the inhabitants of this worthy town had been placed in great need by the flood of the previous year and thus were in no position to do anything further for them. Her Highness, the ruling countess, received the children of the Saltzburgers and treated them most graciously. The prayer meetings of the colonists, that were held mornings and evenings, had the beneficial effect of deeply moving a Roman Catholic person, who tearfully thanked the accompanying pastor before leaving.
On Nov. 11th the journey was continued to Frankfurt, where the Commissioner had gone in advance by boat from Hanau in order to announce the arrival of the colonists. When they arrived there on the 13th, they were led in double column and singing hymns to the Nürnberger Hof in the city, where, besides free maintenance, they received much in the way of spiritual and material benefits. On behalf of the praiseworthy city council each man received one and one-half gulden, each women one gulden, and each child one half gulden. An anonymous benefactor had two gulden given to each of them, another twenty kreutzer, and the rest of the inhabitants contributed according to their ability. The very charitable attitude towards our colonists that was shown here by Mr. von Münch and the Royal British resident, Mr. Gullmann, deserves special praise. On November 14th an edifying sermon was given in the Franciscan Church by Pastor Walther, on the text Colossians 1:9, et cetera, and on Sunday 15th another in the Catharine’s Church by the Senior of the Ministry, Dr. Munden.
At that time the Tirnbergers who had returned from Holland were staying in Frankfurt. Upon inquiry, the Commissioner declared that he had orders to accept all those who were able to identify themselves as Saltzburger emigrants and that they could go with him on the trip to Georgia if they voluntarily accepted the proposed conditions. Some of them showed themselves not averse to accepting this offer, especially since one of the Saltzburger emigrants, named Thomas Geschwandner, had praised highly the good treatment they had received so far. However, since most of them were sick and weak and could not undertake such an offer at this time, the praiseworthy city council made the kind offer to support and care for the spiritual and physical well-being of the Tirnbergers until they recovered and were in a position to make so long a trip.
Towards evening on November 15th, our colonists boarded their ship again at Frankfurt. On the way to Rotterdam the chaplain assigned to them [Schumacher] tried conscientiously to improve their knowledge of the Word of God, with particular stress on the Article of Justification from the epistle to the Galatians, as well as the doctrine of sanctification from the epistle of John and the letters to the Thessalonians. And he exhorted them to be steadfast and righteous in their conduct as Christians. They always paid close attention and, from time to time, sought to cheer and strengthen themselves with prayer and the singing of hymns.
8. Their happy arrival in Rotterdam took place on Nov. 27th. Here, after representations had been made by the Commissioner, the praiseworthy city council most kindly permitted the billeting of the colonists, which certain people had at first made difficult. The two pastors assigned to them, Mr. John Martin Boltzius, until recently deputy inspector of the Latin School of the orphanage at Glaucha, near Halle, and Mr. Israel Christian Gronau, who had been a praeceptor at the same orphanage, had arrived in Rotterdam in the meantime. They had left Halle on November 7, after receiving their appointment and instructions, and they were ordained on the 11th in the count’s chapel at Wernigerode.
They took over the duties of their office with their new congregation, in the name of God, on the 29th of November, which was the first Sunday of Advent, by giving sermons on the ship, the former in the morning and the latter in the afternoon, which they repeated for them in the evening. Candidate Schuhmacher, who had accompanied the emigrants as their chaplain, took leave from them on the following day by giving a farewell address for their trip, based on 2 Corinthians 13:11, after which they set sail for England on Dec. 3. In the following sections of this report the gentle reader will find a detailed account of what happened there and on the whole trip to Georgia, as well as of their establishment there.
9. And now to give the gentle reader a bit of information about the second transport, which followed on the 23rd of September, 1734. There was little hope for this one at first, since it was reported from England that no new contingent could be accepted this year because of the large sums that had been spent for the colony as a whole and particularly for the abovementioned emigrants who had gone there. Nevertheless, another resolution followed soon which stated that, for ample reasons, they were willing to accept another 40 to 50 persons. Singled out for this was especially that family of Saltzburgers of five persons which had been unable to travel a year ago because one of the children had broken a leg.13 This family had been kept at the Protestant poorhouse here in Augsburg at English expense.
In addition to these, a number of relatives of those Saltzburgers who had already gone to Georgia were to be accepted. They had stayed in the Free Cities of the neighborhood, along with fellow countrymen of theirs who had not yet been able to get further and would benefit from their admission to Georgia. After this resolution had been made public by a pamphlet printed here, so many new colonists from Memmingen, Lindau, Leutkirch, and Leipheim arrived on the 16th and 18th of September that, on September 20th, a number of more than 50 heads [of families] had assembled. The recommendations regarding their former conduct which they had with them14* gave hope that the desired purpose would be happily achieved by them, and that they would, be a credit to the Gospel even in the remotest regions and among the heathens.
10. These people were willing to follow the call to go to Georgia without causing any difficulties, but in spite of that there were others who tried to sow all manner of doubt into their path. It is hard to believe that anyone who had received sufficient information on the state of affairs and who did not intend to influence others according to his own selfish heart could think up the objection that the new colonists should not leave the occasional jobs which they had got in Germany, because they could never know whether promises would be kept and whether they would not find themselves cheated in the end. Such unreasonable judgment would not be so surprising from persons who are ignorant of the matter. But since so many testimonials were available and the faithfulness and eagerness of those whom God had chosen as His tools for this work were not unknown, it was quite unreasonable to cause further doubts. To be sure, the emigrants had taken service at different places, but they had not let themselves become serfs. Instead they had reserved their right to quit such service freely if circumstances demanded it. When they received the call to Georgia they were advised to pray to God so that He might make them certain in their hearts to make the resolution according to His will. Morever, they made their decision to go to Georgia with the consent of their superiors and employers, and considered beforehand with their confessors. One cannot blame the emigrants for their desire to join their countrymen so that they might live with them and have their own land as free British subjects. Some of them have let it be known that in Georgia they would not be subject to so many trials and temptations to lead a sinful life, such as many of the other emigrants amongst us have experienced to their sorrow.15*
11. Under these circumstances there was no reason to help expedite the second transport with any less delight than the first one. Since everything proceeded as desired, there was really nothing to do except to follow God’s guidance in simple obedience. Among other things, it ought to be specially noted that, because of representations made by the Royal British ambassador to Vienna, it was finally arranged that the Roman Catholics here in Augsburg would not hinder the lodging of the emigrants in the city this time as they had hindered that of the first group the year previously. The colonists, however, stayed here for only a few days.
During this time we spared no effort to provide for their spiritual and material welfare to the best of our ability; and on several occasions we roused them with prayer and endeavored to urge the Word of God on each one according to his particular need. To gain the same end they also attended public worship daily. Special services, with exhortation and blessings, were held for them on the day of St. Matthew in the Protestant church of St. Ulrich by acting Senior Weidner, and on the following Wednesday by me in the main church of St. Anne’s. The same had been done before on the 13th Sunday after Trinity in an evening sermon by my special colleague, Deacon Hildebrand. At that time a good portion of the emigrants went to communion in the church last mentioned. On the first two occasions they received a material gift in both churches, consisting of I gulden for each person, which came partly from the Protestant city council of Augsburg, and partly from the local Protestant ministry, the latter being able to do so because a certain sum of money had been entrusted to it by an out-of-town source.
Since the pastors who had gone to Georgia on the first transport had written for a number of books, and since the departing colonists had asked for some for themselves, a large box was sent along containing large and small Bibles, New Testaments, books of holy verse, catechisms with and without pictures, Arndt’s True Christianity and Garden of Paradise, Briegish and other hymn books, books for the sick, teachings of the cross, history of the Passion with and without copper plates, and Schaitberger’s16 letter, in addition to other small tracts and ABC books. May God bestow His rich blessings on this seed that was taken across the ocean at that time. A few days before the emigrants departure some newly engaged couples among them were married, properly and in Christian fashion, after having been previously admonished. This took place for 5 couples on the day of St. Matthew, Sept. 21st., and for another couple, with permission from the Protestant council, on the following day.
12. The emigrants actually departed on the following September 23rd. Their baggage was packed on two wagons hired to go to Wertheim, on which the women and children could also ride. Then I called all the colonists together before their departure in order to exhort and bless them most cordially once again and to introduce to them their chaplain for the trip, Mr. Matthew Friedrich Degmair, a worthy candidate for the ministry, who had been chosen to accompany them to England to further the welfare of their souls. Mr. John von Vat had been appointed as commissioner to lead them to England. He had been introduced to the colonists earlier and had stayed here in Augsburg for some time on express orders from the praise-worthy Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, as a man well known to it for years as upright and well qualified for such tasks.
Both the commissioner and Candidate Degmair addressed the colonists, and the official physician of the city, Dr. Octaviano Ploss, spoke to them regarding their health and handed instructions to the commissioner showing how and in which cases the medicines sent along should be used. After this they were finally dismissed in the name of God, who created and still maintaineth heaven and earth and sea, and everything that in them is; and they started on their trip with many good wishes from those present as well as from those persons who accompanied them on part of their trip. Again there was no lack of manifold signs of love and charitable gifts from the local inhabitants, who aided them with money, clothing, and also food and drink. The latter was done especially at Meutingen, on the gracious order of a prominent Protestant councilman patricii ordinis.
It was a particularly fortunate disposition of Divine Providence that, on the day following the departure of said colonists, the first commissioner, Georg Philipp Friedrich von Reck, who, as mentioned above, had departed from here on October 31 of the previous year with the first group, came back to us in Augsburg from Georgia in good health and spirits. He gave new grounds for joy and for the praise and the glorification of the Grace of our God through his oral reports on his blessed expedition.17 He brought at the same time for himself and Mr. von Vat, Royal Passes to accompany the emigrants to Georgia now and in the future, if more of them should be accepted.18*
Our colonists took the same route to Rotterdam as the one taken by the first group. They arrived there hale and hearty on Oct. 17th but had to remain there until the 27th of the same month because of adverse winds. On that day they set sail at three o’clock in the afternoon and reached Helvoet Sluys on the 31st, about twelve o’clock. Here the captain took a new pilot on board. In the afternoon at three o’clock they came to the open sea and on the following first of November reached the English coast under favorable winds but had to lie at anchor overnight because the sea was too high. On the following Tuesday, Nov. 2nd., they had to go back into the Channel. Finally, with favorable winds, they landed happily at Gravesend at five o’clock in the evening. There they made it their first concern to praise and glorify God, in accordance with the first nine verses of the 107th Psalm, for His merciful and mighty guidance.
13. At Gravesend they found orders from the praiseworthy Society asking them to come on to the Red-House at London so that, according to the wording of the letter, an additional several thousand persons might have the pleasure of seeing the dear Saltzburgers who preferred to suffer and leave everything rather than compromise their conscience. They reached London the following Wednesday, November 3rd, toward nightfall. There, on the 4th., Dr. Heinrich Walther Gerdes,19 pastor of the German but so-called Swedish Church, joined them on the ship and brought along a resolution from the Society asking that they go ashore on the following day and spend the day at a house prepared for them, but stay overnight on board ship. On Friday the court minister Heinrich Alard Butienter,20 delivered an address to the new colonists on Matth. 2:28-29 and afterwards gave them an examination, which all of them passed very well.
A number of members of the frequently lauded Society as well as many other persons had joined them, and these were so pleased with their fine understanding of Christianity, their devoted singing, their excellent deportment, and the general circumstances connected with the Saltzburgers as a whole, that they were frequently moved to tears of joy. After this the emigrants ate together, making the best of dinner music by singing hymns. They obviously understood that nothing but the best in spiritual and material things was wished for them; and they could not glorify and praise God enough for these benefactions.
On the following day, Nov. 7th., the Saltzburgers were to take Holy Communion publicly, for which they were prepared by Mr. Degmair, the ministerial candidate assigned to them. Early Sunday morning, after having prayed to God together, they were taken ashore to Billingsgate in 6 boats sent by the Lord Mayor of the City of London from their ship which was called the Two Brothers. Their commissioner, Mr. Vat, and Mr. Degmair, their own chaplain, as well as several city officials such as the City Marshall, whom the Lord Mayor had sent for this purpose, accompanied them from here to the above-mentioned Swedish Church in Trinity Lane. There Holy Communion was served by Messrs. Dr. Gerdes and the court minister Butienter.
The former followed this with a rousing sermon on the regular Gospel of the Last Supper in which he gave them many good admonitions and much comfort for their intended voyage. He also urged the rest of his listeners to make a contribution for these strangers, about whom he testified, among other things, that during the examination held on the previous Thursday, in which the entire Christian Doctrine had been covered briefly, he had not received a single incorrect answer. Furthermore, they had put many others to shame by living according to the Gospel and had shown themselves true Christians in spite of all the difficulties of their travels. All of this made such an impression on the listeners that, even though this time the collection had not been announced 8 days in advance as usual, 47 pounds sterling was gathered, which is approximately 407 florins in our currency. This money, together with that contributed by the Society and other persons, was distributed so that each adult received 38 English shillings, of which 20 make one pound sterling.
After the service was over they were led through a large gathering of people to the nearby inn in the following order: in front marched several constables sent by the Lord Mayor of London to clear the way. These were followed by several gentlemen from the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and by several Trustees who marched in pairs. Then followed, in good order, Commissioner Vat and the pastor for the trip, Mr. Degmair, with the Saltzburgers. At the inn they were feasted in a large hall. There the good conduct of the emigrants caused all of those present, both of the upper and lower classes, to be greatly moved, so that they could not listen to the pious praying and singing without shedding tears, and all the noble gentlemen present, both the Trustees of the Colony of Georgia and the members of the Society, were eager to be the first to serve them at the table. As might be expected, the Saltzburgers for their part acknowledged these extraordinary signs of kindness with much humility, and among other things one of them was heard to say that: he was put to shame in his heart that these rich and noble gentlemen were thus serving them who were mere beggars. Another one said: “Oh, if only the Catholics in Saltzburg and in other places could see how well off we are, how surprised they would be!”
After the emigrants had eaten and had sung the hymn “O Jesus, My Joy,” they were led back to church by the gentlemen of the Society, in their former order. Here, after having sung several hymns, they were given a very impressive and edifying sermon on the words of Mark 10:29-30 by the minister of the court, Mr. Butienter. After the sermon four new couples from their midst were joined in marriage and, accompanied by the organ, the four couples sang “I am a poor exile …” Then the entire congregation sang “May God give us His Grace,” which ended the services. The City Marshall and the constables then led the emigrants to the Tower, from where they were taken back to their ship in six boats.
During evening prayers they again gave humble thanks to the Allhighest for all the spiritual and material good which they had experienced during the day; also Mr. Degmair, who had been their chaplain up until now, took leave from them with much shedding of tears on all sides. On the following day, November 8th, Dr. Gerdes joined them on board ship and gave Holy Communion to an emigrant by the name of Ruprecht Schoppacher and to his wife Maria, who had not been able to go to church on the previous Sunday because she was pregnant. Also, 7 shillings were given each person by the court minister, Mr. Butienter, and by an English pastor, Mr. Thomas Wilson, from the money which had been received from the Emigrant Fund at Regensburg. After that everyone was assigned his place on the ship Prince Frederick21 on which they were to go to Georgia. For their voyage they were provided with all necessities, and the Society gave to every man an overcoat and special box with shoes, stockings, shirts, and linen.
At 12 o’clock the ship left for Gravesend, where it lay at anchor at the mouth of the river to await favorable winds. There, the first Royal German Chaplain to His Majesty, Mr. [Friedrich Michael] Ziegenhagen, who had been unable to come earlier because of his duties at the chapel, visited the emigrants on the ship at Gravesend and addressed them with a very edifying speech based on the 45th Psalm. He also christened the young daughter [Margaretta] of which Mrs. Schoppacher had been delivered on the evening of the 8th of November, and he had food and drink brought to the ship for all of the Saltzburgers. Besides, he gave one crown to each person over twenty, and one half crown to each under twenty, so that each adult Saltzburger had 38 English shillings in currency, which is about 16 gulden in our money. Through the efforts of the honorable Mr. Oglethorpe, who had brought the royal Indian family22 with him from Georgia to England and who had now accompanied them to Gravesend in the royal carriage for their return voyage to their fatherland, better arrangements were made on the ship, with the assistance of Commissioner Vat and the ship’s captain [George] Dunbar, for the dear Saltzburgers and especially for the better care of the above mentioned woman in childbed. After that a very moving farewell took place.
It is to be remembered that the praiseworthy Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, having faith in the frequently experienced providence of God, had undertaken to pay all expenses that had been incurred for the voyage to Georgia, the acquisition of necessary provisions, both present and future, as well as complete maintenance for one year after the arrival in Georgia of the 57 colonists and their commissioner. This, according to an accounting given by the Trustees of the Society amounted to 1174 pounds sterling, 1 shilling, and six pence; or, figuring one pound sterling equal to 8 gulden 40 cr., about 10175 gulden in our currency. This includes neither the expenses of the group from the time of its stay in Augsburg until its actual departure from Gravesend nor the laboratory equipment, the medicines for the colonists, and the presents which were sent along this time to the apothecary [Andreas Zwifler] who had gone with the first transport.
Meanwhile, Commissioner Vat had resolved in God’s name to accompany the emigrants all the way to Georgia. Another intelligent man, Mr. Weisiger23 was assigned to accompany the emigrants to Georgia. He had already lived for several years in Pennsylvania, where he had a family; and he had just spent a year in Germany, Holland, and England, where he had been sent by his Lutheran brethren to collect funds for building churches and schools. He was travelling at the expense of the praiseworthy Society to lend the commissioner a helping hand with the care of the emigrants. He was also to hold prayer meetings on board ship in line with the instructions given him by the two court ministers.
14. Great success could be expected in advance because of all the well made preparations and the faithfulness of the ship’s captain, Mr. Dunbar (who was highly praised for his friendliness and love for the emigrants); and especially because of the gracious care God had shown until then to the emigrants during their safe trip and happy crossing. It was looked upon as a special disposition of God and a good opportunity for the furthering of God’s works in general and particularly for the reception of the Georgia colony and the Saltzburgers that had settled there that, as mentioned before, the king or chief [Tomochichi] of a certain Indian nation bordering Georgia had come to England with his family and the oft-praised Mr. Oglethorpe. They were on the same ship on which the Saltzburgers were, in order to return to their country. Thus it was not unreasonable to hope that the exemplary conduct of our dear Saltzburgers would bring no little spiritual benefit to these heathens who were, of course, upright by nature.24 It is to be hoped that further news about this matter will be received in the future.
In the meantime it might be desirable to add a few items regarding this royal family and the praiseworthy conduct of its members during their stay in England. Their desire for greater knowledge had caused them to make the trip to Europe in the previous year. A good account of this is given in a letter of June 27th of last year, which Mr. Oglethorpe sent from St. Helen’s near the Isle of Wight to Sir John Philipps, Bart, in London, after his return from Georgia. Therefore we undertake to print it here word for word, especially as it bears good testimony for the Saltzburgers who had gone to Georgia first. It reads as follows:
“I gladly report that, on departing from Georgia, I left Baron von Reck, the two pastors, and the entire community of Saltzburgers in excellent health. They are a very modest, industrious, cheerful and devout people. God Almighty was obviously pleased to protect them on their voyage, as has been reported in detail by Baron von Reck in his letters to Mr. Newman. It was their pleasure to settle on a river which they called Ebenezer. There they intend to erect a stone monument to commemorate God’s having delivered them and led them to the ends of the earth, where they may glorify and praise the name of the Lord in complete freedom, and also may be a light to the heathens. These are the pastors’ own words which, I hope, I translated correctly. And certainly it appears as though a door has been opened for the conversion of the Indians; because a superior or chief of the Indians, Tomocha-chi,25 the Mecko of Yammacraw, a man with an excellent mind, is so desirous of having his young people instructed in the science and wisdom of the English, and consequently in the Christian religion, that he came over with me in spite of his advanced age in order to find ways and means for instructing his people. He is staying with me now, and he has brought with him a young boy whom he calls his nephew and immediate heir. This child has already learned the Lord’s Prayer in the Indian and English languages. I shall leave the Indians on my estate in the country until I go to the city, where I shall have the pleasure of calling on you and of reporting on further happenings which may please and amaze you.
I remain, etc.
The copper plate26 of the two persons named here, namely King Tomo Chachi and his grandson or nephew, Tooanahowi, can be found by the kind reader at the beginning of our report. The rest of his family and entourage are called by the following names in a report from London; Scnauki, wife of Tomo Chachi, Hillispylli, a war chief, Apokowski and Umpychi, a chief of Pallachocolas. During his stay in England Tomo Chachi had this to say, at an official function, regarding the reasons for his voyage. “I thank Him who made me that He brought me across the great water in good health. When I was young, I followed war, and I was fortunate. Subsequently, the wisest men of my nation wished me to go to England, for which I was ready. But I did not want to entrust myself and my children to the people of Carolina. However, when I saw that the beloved people of the Trustees brought their children with them to live with my children, I was no longer afraid, as old as I am, to go to England; and I am happy now to see this come true. Many wise men of my nation are able to express this desire better than I can; yet I hope that, if I fail and do not satisfy them, it will be attributed to my weakness.”
The said persons, in addition to three Indian chieftains and one interpreter, went to Kensington on August 4, 1734, after having arrived in England in the company of Mr. Oglethorpe, and there were received in audience by Their Majesties the King and Queen, as well as by the entire royal household, in the following manner. The master of ceremonies, Mr. Clement Cotterell, fetched them in three royal carriages, with six horses each. Their faces were painted very beautifully, after their custom, but their bodies were covered with new clothes, in moorish fashion. When they came to Kensington they were received below, with their battle axes, by the guards, and on the staircase by the most distinguished body-guard which customarily marches directly in front of His Majesty. After that, led by the said Mr. Clement Cotterell, they were presented to His Majesty the King by the Lord Chamberlain, the Duke of Graffton, Tomo Chachi addressed the king as follows: “This day I see His Majesty face to face, I see the greatness of his house, the multitude of his people. I have come for the best of the whole nation called the Creeks, to renew the peace which it has kept for some time with the English. I have come in my old age and even though I will not live long enough to derive any personal gain from it. I have come in the best interest of the children of all nations of the Upper and Lower Creeks so that they may be instructed in the knowledge of the English.27* These are the feathers of the eagle,28* which is the swiftest of the birds that fly in our regions. They are a sign of peace in our land and have been carried from place to place, and we have brought them here, on great king, to leave them with you as a sign of everlasting peace. Oh great king, whatever words you will say to me I will faithfully report to all the kings of the nations of the Creeks.”
To this His Majesty was pleased to give the following very gracious answer. “I am happy to have the opportunity to assure you of my high regard for the peoples from which you come, and no less am I happy with the assurances which you brought me from them. I also accept the present as a sign of their sincere devotion to me and my people with most sincere thanks. I shall always be prepared to maintain good relations between them and my own subjects and to give you proof, on every occasion, of my special friendship and esteem.”
When they were later introduced to Her Majesty the Queen, who received them seated in the gallery, Tomo Chachi addressed her in the following manner: “I am happy to see this day and to have the opportunity to see the mother of such a great people. And since our people have now mingled with those of your majesty, we live in the humble hope that you will become the common mother and protector of us and our children.” To this Her Majesty likewise gave a very gracious answer. Later they were introduced to his royal highness the Prince of Wales, his royal highness the Duke of Cumberland, the royal Princess of Orange, and the Princesses Amalia, Caroline, Marie, and Louise and were taken back to their quarters by Mr. Clement Cotterell in three royal carriages.
When one of their group died of small pox on the 3rd of August, the rest of them were moved with great sadness. Efforts were made to console them, but in vain. When finally Tomo Chachi was asked why he mourned so, he answered that he well knew that one must obey the higher being and that he was not weeping because this one had died but because he had not lived to see the day they were waiting for, on which a greater light of knowledge would appear to them. In order to give them better opportunity to mourn their dead in their own fashion and to recover from their great sadness, Mr. Oglethorpe took them to his country estate; yet, even upon their return on the 8th they were very downcast and shed many tears together for the deceased.
On August 17th the Archbishop of Canterbury caused Tomo Chachi, mico or king of Yamacraw, and the rest of the Indians to be brought in his boat to Putney, where they dined with Madame Dutress and were entertained in a very agreeable fashion. When Tomo Chachi took his leave he paid a compliment to Madame Dutress by saying that if only he knew English, he would open his heart’s thoughts to her and tell her how deeply he was moved by the magnificent reception and treatment and how he was even more pleased to see her, and also how he would like to thank her for the efforts and assistance she had given in sending white people to Georgia.
The following day they visited His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury in Lambeth, who received Tomo Chachi with the greatest tenderness and love. He assured the Indians of his fatherly concern for their ignorance of Christianity and assurred them that he wished with all his heart that they and their countrymen could obtain better instruction and that he was very delighted now that an opportunity for that seemed to be at hand. After this, when the archbishop attempted to rise in spite of his sickness, Tomo Chachi Mico noticed that it caused him difficulty and insisted that he should seat himself again. When His Grace refused, the Mico did not continue saying what he had intended to say but asked for the Archbishop’s blessing, intending to disclose what he still wanted to say to his Reverence Dr. Lynck, the Archbishop’s son-in-law. Hereupon he retired.
Later he was feasted with an excellent repast, and the Archbishop’s whole family paid him their respects in the great gallery. In his conference with Dr. Lynck he expressed, among other things, his joy over the venerable appearance of the Archbishop and the tender love which he had shown. When Mico returned from there he showed great happiness because now he believed that some good men would be sent to instruct his young people. All this greatly increases the hope that God will open the way for His Gospel in these regions and should encourage to more diligent and solemn prayer for the furthering of this work all those who take seriously the glorification of their Saviour and the salvation of the heathens who are so poor and ignorant yet so eager for truth.
15. We now continue with the story of the departure of our emigrants. On Friday, the 12th of November of last year, at three o’clock in the afternoon, they and the above-mentioned royal family set sail at Gravesend on the ship Prince Frederick. Reports in the latest letters indicate that they landed together at Savannah on December 1729 and that the Saltzburgers, with their commissioner Mr. Vat, arrived happily at Ebenezer on the 13th of January of this year. They had been at sea only six weeks and one day and had only one very small storm during their voyage. After their arrival at the place last mentioned, they celebrated a thanksgiving on the next day, January 14th, together with the other Saltzburgers who had settled there before them. Now they are busy getting settled on the land as was done by the others who, meanwhile, have gladly taken them into their huts until they can build some for themselves.
They happily related how they had not only been treated very well by their ship’s captain but also, as noted above, had been so well provided with all necessities at their departure from England that they could bring a considerable portion of their provisions ashore. Therefore they have sent, through the commissioner and others, several letters of thanks to England, and to Germany, and especially here to Augsburg, in order to express their appreciation for all the benefits received. In a letter to the Trustees of Georgia said Captain Dunbar likewise reported a number of happenings on their voyage and upon their arrival in Savannah. In closing, we want to pass this on to our kind reader. It reads as follows: “All of us, Tomo Chachi the Mico, Scnauki, his wife, Tooanahowi, his brother’s son, the rest of the Indians, and all of the Saltzburgers arrived at Savannah, happy and in good health, on December 27th. During the entire voyage the Indians showed their well-known modesty in every respect. The same is true of the Saltzburgers, who are indeed a pious, frugal, and industrious people and who caused me much less trouble on the ship than I had expected. I hope no one is dissatisfied with the treatment he has received on the ship. I have purposely delayed this letter long enough to be able to give a report on the condition of the colonists who settled this land earlier.
We had an opportunity to visit them when we heard that some strange Indians had crossed the Ogeechee River to reconnoiter the new land. We set out on January 8. Tomo Chachi had assured us that he would have accompanied us in person if his own business had not required his presence at home. If, on our march through the neighborhood, we should encounter any hostility, we were to send him immediate word, for in that case nothing would keep him from joining us with his men. Meanwhile, three of the Indians who had been to England, Hillispylli, Umpychi, and Stimolichi were not to be held back but joined us, with a servant of Mr. Musgrove30 as interpreter. On the entire march they showed the greatest precaution, modesty, and courage. Toward noon we reached Thunderbolt, where the people who had settled there had already cleared and fenced so much land that they will be in a position to sell a considerable amount of grain, etc., after the next harvest. They have made good progress with their potash production,31 they have already built three well fortified houses and, during my stay, were loading a small sea-going vessel with barrel staves for Madeira. We spent both nights at Skidoway, where they had advanced with building and agriculture much further than I had thought it possible. They are so careful and orderly with their watch that no boat may pass by day or night without stopping. Of this I had proof myself on my return trip. Their battery of four pieces is well placed. The aviso-boat is located two English miles south of Skidoway32 where, when it is there, the crew has a clear view for a great distance and can put out to sea at will. We reconnoitered the various islands to Jekyl Island and to the mouth of the Altamaha river and found no one except the friendly Indians of the neighborhood, so that we could happily return to Savannah on January 19th.
Tomo Chachi, Tooanahowi, Hillispylli, and Umpychi were polite enough to come to the ship this morning in order to inquire about my health. They retain very grateful memories of the great courtesies they enjoyed in England and asked me to report to the honorable Trustees that Santeechi has already gone to the nations of the Upper and Middle Creeks, which at present are favored by British interest, and whose emissaries are expected within two months.”