Benjamin Martyn to the Rev. John Martin Bolzius, May 28, 1748, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 287-288, concerning good conditions at Ebenezer, appointment of John Ludwig Meyer, Salzburger silk culture, and Ga. trade. By the Arundel Man of War, Capt. Reynolds.
I rec’d two Packets dated in January last and deliver’d them as directed, one to Mr. [James] Vernon and the other to Mr. [Friedrich Michael] Zeigenhagen. Your Letter to Mr. Vernon has given great Satisfaction upon several Accounts; For the Health, which the People under your Care have enjoy’d, when at Frederica and Pensylvania, many People, as you say, have been carried off by Fevers and other Distempers. In the second Place, for the Goodness of your Harvest, when the Crop fail’d in South Carolina last Year; And for the Supplies of Horses and Plows, which your People have had, which must forward your Agriculture. And above all, your Letter was highly pleasing, upon Account of that Tranquillity in which your People live, that Spirit of Industry which they shew, and the Sense they have both of the Spiritual and Temporal Blessings, which they enjoy in their Settlement.
AS I told you in my last, the Trustees had, out of Regard to your earnest Desire, appointed Mr. [Johann Ludwig] Meyer a Conservator of the Peace at Ebenezer; They have likewise resolv’d to grant the Sum of £ 20 Sterl. within one Year, to enable him, to go between Savanah and Ebenezer, as an Agent for the Affairs of your Settlement; And I have by this Conveyance, writ to the President and Assistants, by the Trustees Order, that they must pay this Money upon your certifying to them the Services and Expences of Mr. Meyer from time to time in acting as such Agent.
The Trustees have resolv’d to grant the Sum of Five pounds Sterling to each of the two young Women at your Settlement, who have learnt the Art of winding Silk from the Cocoons, not only as an Encouragement to them to persevere, but to induce the other Women to follow their Example. The Trustees are pleas’d to see the Saltzburghers are busy in planting Mulberry Trees, they must find the good Effects of it, and as these Plantations increase, and the People improve in the Art of winding the Silk, they’ll soon get the better of all their Difficulties, and will have a sufficient Recompence for the Pains they take at present. You will receive by the next Ship some of the last Anniversary Sermons preach’d before the Trustees; At the End of which is a Letter from Mr. Lloyd, an eminent Silk Merchant, who takes Notice of the Silk which you sent over, approves of it as a very ingenious Essay; And shews what great Profit will arise from the Improvements and Increase of it.
The Trustees are very sollicitous to open, if possible, a Trade for Lumber, which would be of great Advantage to your Settlement. Mr. [William] Beckford, a Gentleman of great Fortune at Jamaica, has promis’d to take all his Lumber from Georgia, which amounts yearly to a very great Quantity; He has promis’d likewise to promote the trading for it among other Gentlemen, who have large Possessions in that Island; But the Want of shipping is the great Difficulty, and even this (it is to be hoped) will be surmounted, since a Peace is very near a Conclusion, and consequently the freight of Goods must be lower’d, and shipping more easily procur’d.
As I have had but short Notice for writing to you, I am forc’d to do it in a great hurry especially as I have other Letters to dispatch.
Benjamin Martyn to Gov. James Glen of S. C., May 28, 1748, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 288-289, concerning Indian present distribution. By the Arundel Man of War, Capt. Reynolds.
The Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia have rec’d a Letter from his Grace the Duke of Bedford, one of His Majesty’s Principal Secretaries of State, signifying that, “His Majesty hath been graciously pleas’d to direct the Sum of £3000, Sterling to be annually issued for Presents to be sent from hence to be distributed to the Indians contiguous to, and in Alliance with the Provinces of South Carolina and Georgia, in such manner as two Persons (one to be appointed by your Excellency, and the Council, and Assembly, and the other by the Trustees) shall judge most for His Majesty’s Service, and may best answer the intended Purpose of securing the Friendship of those Indians; and that particular Accounts, properly vouch’d, of the Distribution of the Presents, are to be transmitted to his Grace from time to time.”
Sir, The Trustees rec’d his Majesty’s Commands with the greatest Pleasure, and as they have the Welfare of both the Provinces sincerely at heart, and are sensible how much this Instance of his Majesty’s Goodness will contribute towards it; They will with Alacrity concur with your Excellency and the Council and Assembly, in the most effectual Measures for carrying them into Execution.
As His Majesty’s Intention by this Bounty, is the securing the Friendship of the Indians, the Trustees believe you, with them, will think it advisable, that the Presents should be distributed at such Places, as may be more easy and convenient for the Indians to go to; And therefore, that a Moiety of the Presents should be deliver’d to them in South Carolina, and the other Moiety in Georgia; And that before they are distributed in Carolina, previous Notice should be given for the Person appointed by the Trustees, to attend the Distribution, as the Trustees will take Care in their Instructions, that Notice shall be sent to your Excellency of the Time when the Indians are to come to Savanah, or any other convenient Place in Georgia, that you may order the Person appointed for Carolina to attend the Distribution there; By this means the two Agents will always act in Conjunction, agreably to His Majesty’s Pleasure, and will be able jointly to vouch the Accounts, which are to be transmitted to his Grace from time to time.
As I was directed by the Trustees to acquaint you, Sir, in a former Letter, that they would be always ready to cooperate with you, in any Measures for the mutual Prosperity of the two Provinces, I have their Orders to assure you that they continue in the same Disposition, and will lay hold of every Opportunity in their Power to shew it.
Benjamin Martyn to the Rev. John Martin Bolzius, May 31, 1748, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 289-290, concerning Thomas Bickler’s appointment as constable, destruction of wild cattle, hired plantation in S. C., and German servants. By the Arundel Man of War, Capt. Reynolds.
The Trustees have appointed Mr. Thomas Bickler a Constable at Ebenezer with an Allowance of £5p Ann. The Care of the Arms there is to be committed to him, and the mustering of the People upon any Occasion. His Business will be likewise to attend the Orders of your Self, and Mr. [Johann Ludwig] Meyer as Justices of the Peace, and serve the Warrants you may think proper to issue.
The Trustees have sent Directions to the President and Assistants, with regard to destroying the wild Cattle on Abercorn Creek, and Savanah River behind Abercorn and Joseph’s Town, and to clear the Swamps. They are to divide the Cattle among those in the first place, who may have a Right in them & afterwards among the most necessitous. The President and Assistants are acquainted with your kind Proposal to give up any Right the Saltzburghers may have in these Cattle, that there may be no Obstruction to destroying them on their Account.
The Trustees are pleas’d to find the Term is expir’d for which you hir’d a Plantation over against Ebenezer on Savanah River in South Carolina, for the Use of the Orphan House, and that you have given it up again.
As a Peace with France and Spain is pretty near being establish’d, there won’t, as you say, be any Difficulty perhaps in procuring such German Servants as you want for your Settlement. I don’t doubt but you have written to Mr. [Samuel] Urlsperger upon this; But however, I shall take the first Opportunity of writing to him likewise upon the same Account.
Benjamin Martyn to the President and Assistants in Ga., May 31, 1748, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 290-291, concerning destruction of wild cattle, encouragement of silk culture at Acton and Vernonburgh, charity to Christopher Ortman, inquiry if Negroes in Ga., bounty on indigo, and Thomas Bickler constable at Ebenezer. By the Arundel Man of War, Capt. Reynolds.
Sir and Gentlemen
Since I clos’d my Letter to you dated the 28th. instant I have had the Trustees Orders to acquaint you with a few more Particulars.
They find there have been great Complaints of the Increase of wild Cattle in the Swamps, on Abercorn Creek, and Savanah River behind Abercorn and Joseph’s Town, and of the Mischief done by them in drawing off the tame Cattle belonging to the Neighbouring Settlements. They therefore instruct and require you to give a Power to those Settlements to destroy the said wild Cattle, and clear the Swamps. And then to divide them among those in the first Place, who may have a Right in them, and afterwards among the most necessitous, especially the People of Acton and Vernonburgh. The Saltzburghers are willing to give up their Right in these Cattle, that there may be no Obstruction to the destroying them on their Account.
As I mention’d to you in my former, that the Trustees expected you would do every thing in your Power to revive a Spirit of Industry among the People of Acton and Vernonburgh, and as they had planted Mulberry Trees, the Leaves of which they were forc’d to carry to Savanah for Sale. They desire you will encourage them to go on in their Plantations of these Trees, and that you will find some means of putting the Women of these Settlements upon acquiring the Knowledge of hatching the Eggs and feeding of the Worms for 1000 wt. of Leaves wont produce above 100 wt. of Cocoons, and therefore a Saving of the Carriage of 900 wt. is of more Value than the 1000 wt. of Leaves; that they may turn their Plantations to a better Account, than they can do by selling their Mulberry Leaves. And if you find them disposed this Way, whatever Assistance they may want towards carrying on the Work, must be given them.
In Regard to what you wrote about Mr. [Christopher] Ortman; As he is so old and infirm, and incapable of providing for himself, the Trustees are willing you should continue the Charity you gave to him.
The Trustees desire to know if Mr. Peter Baillon has any Negroes upon his Plantation; Or if any others in Georgia have, and how long they have had them.
The Parliament have lately granted a Bounty upon Indigo rais’d in the British Plantations. The Act will be sent over to you, that you may communicate it to the People.
The Trustees have resolv’d to appoint Mr. Thomas Bickler, a Constable at Ebenezer, with an Allowance of £ 5 p Ann. The Care of the Arms and mustering of the People there is to be committed to him.
Benjamin Martyn to William Stephens, May 31, 1748, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 291-292, appointing Stephens and Patrick Graham to distribute Indian presents. By the Arundel Man of War, Capt. Reynolds.
As, in my Letter to you and the Assistants dated the 28th. instant I inform’d you, that the Trustees had received a Notification of His Majesty’s Pleasure, to appoint a Person to act in Conjunction with a Person to be appointed by the Governor Council and Assembly of South Carolina, in the Distribution of Presents to be sent from hence to the Indians, contiguous to and in Alliance with the Provinces of South Carolina and Georgia; and that you would be informed who would be appointed by the Trustees for that purpose, I have now the Pleasure to acquaint you, that the Trustees have appointed Your Self; And as it may probably happen that Journies must be taken to several places, which might be inconvenient for you, they have appointed Mr. Patrick Graham to be your Coadjutor, and will send both the Appointments by this Conveyance, the Arundel Captn. Reynolds. Your Instructions are not yet prepared, but will be sent to you by the first Opportunity.
[P.S.] You’ll be pleased Sir to inform Mr. Graham.
Benjamin Martyn to John Potter, Secretary to the Duke of Bedford, May 31, 1748, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 292, concerning distribution of Indian presents.
The Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia think it their Duty to acquaint his Grace the Duke of Bedford, that being desirous of giving the earliest Proof of their Obedience to His Majesty’s Commands, They have appointed, under the Seal of the Corporation, a Person for acting in Conjunction with a Person to be appointed by the Governor Council and Assembly of South Carolina, in the Distribution of the Presents to the Indians, contiguous to, and in Alliance with the Provinces of South Carolina and Georgia.
The Person, whom they have nominated, has been for many Years, and is now, the Commissioner for Indian Affairs in the Province of Georgia.
Benjamin Martyn to Peregrine Fury, agent for S. C., July 1, 1748, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 292, concerning Indian present distribution.
Before the Secretary at War comes to any Resolution who shall be appointed to purchase the Presents for the Indians, it may not be improper to offer one thing to his Consideration. You are sensible, that when the Indians come down to any of the English Towns, they expect to be entertain’d with as much eating and drinking during their Stay, as they desire. Upon Occasion of these Presents many of the Chiefs will undoubtedly come from several Nations, and from distant Parts of both Provinces, and if they should be disappointed of the Entertainment they expect, the Disgust they may take won’t perhaps be remov’d by any Presents they can receive. It is therefore submitted, whether some Part of the Sum of £3000 (which His Majesty hath been pleased to grant for Presents) should not be reserv’d to be sent over to both Provinces to defray any Expences they may be at in the Distribution of the Presents. It is certain the Trustees have not Ability to undertake any Expence of this kind, because they have not applied to Parliament for any Supply since the Session in 1745/6. They then rec’d only the Sum of £4,000; and they have no more remaining than just sufficient to Support the ordinary Expences of the Colony till Lady Day next.
Benjamin Martyn to Gov. James Glen of S. C., July 12, 1748, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 293, concerning Indian present distribution. By the Henrietta, Capt. Alex. St. Barbe.
By Order of the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia, I acquainted your Excellency in a Letter dated May 28th. that; They would, with the greatest Alacrity, concur with your Excellency and the Council and Assembly in the most effectual Measure for carrying into Execution His Majesty’s Commands for distributing Presents (granted by His Majesty to be annually sent from England) to the Indians contiguous to, and in Alliance with the Provinces of South Carolina and Georgia; Which Distribution is to be made by two Persons; acting in Conjunction, one of them to be appointed by your Excellency and the Council and Assembly, and the other by the Trustees.
At the same time I inform’d your Excellency that the Trustees believ’d, you would be of the same Opinion with them, that it might be proper for the two Agents to distribute the Presents at such Places in both Provinces, as would be most convenient for the Indians to attend at, and that a Moiety of them should be distributed in each Province.
Sir, Upon this Plan the Trustees have fram’d their Instructions to their Agent (William Stephens Esqr.) and they have directed me to send you a Copy of the same, as a Proof of their Readiness to cooperate with your Excellency, and the Council and Assembly, in carrying on this Service in such a manner, as will best answer his Majesty’s gracious Intention of securing the Friendship of the Indians.
Benjamin Martyn to Secretary at War Henry Fox, July 23, 1748, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 293, concerning purchase of Indian presents.
The Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America having been inform’d, that a Recommendation has been made to you of a Person to be concerned in the Purchase of Presents for the Indians contiguous to South Carolina and Georgia, on behalf of South Carolina, take Leave to recommend Mr. Harman Verelst their Accomptant for this Service, on behalf of the Province of Georgia, he having formerly been employed by them in the making such Purchases.
Benjamin Martyn to the Rev. Samuel Urlsperger, July 25, 1748, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 294, concerning securing German servants for the Salzburgers.
Mr. [John Martin] Bolzius has represented to the Georgia Trustees, among other Things, that it would prove of great Service to the Settlement of Ebenezer, if a Number of proper German Servants, that is sober peacable and really industrious, could be procur’d, and sent over to Georgia for them. The Trustees don’t doubt but he has writ to you upon the same Subject, and describ’d the Sort of Servants he desires, and the Number of them; And as they are of Opinion, that nothing would more conduce to the Prosperity of the Saltzburghers than such a Supply of Servants, they cannot help recommending it to yours and Mr. [Chretien] Von Munch’s Consideration. The Custom in Georgia is for Servants to work four or five Years, as they can be agreed with; But the Advantage to the Servants for their working five Years, is, they will have their Lands set out at the beginning of their Service, and will be allow’d one Working day in a Week to labour, with their Master’s Tools and Maintenance on their own Land, in Order to prepare their future Maintenance thereon; And each Man, who is of age, is allow’d fifty Acres; Which Advantage of one Working day in a Week for themselves is not allow’d to those Servants who serve only for four Years.
As there will probably be soon a General Peace, the Servants may be more easily procur’d than in a time of War, and the Conveyance of them will undoubtedly be more safe, and less expensive. You will please to let the Trustees know what Hopes you have of assisting the Saltzburghers on this Occasion; And you will then be acquainted, how far the Trustees will be enabled to contribute towards the Passage of such Servants from Rotterdam to Georgia, by a future Supply they may receive from Parliament, their present Fund being near exhausted.
Your Letter of the 29th. of January last was rec’d the 8th. of last Month, and on the 21st. instant a Copy thereof, and with it your Letter of the 29th. of February last, and a Certificate from the President and Assistants of their having rec’d from you 11,500 ft. of Board and Plank to be used in finishing the Church at Savannah; Which Letters and Certificate shall be laid before the Common Council of the Trustees the first Meeting they have and Mr. [Chretien] Von Munch shall be made acquainted therewith. But in the Summer the Gentlemen are out of Town, and eight to make a Common Council assembled, we must wait till towards Winter for.
Harman Verelst to Alexander Gordon, Clerk of the Council in S. C., July 28, 1748, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 295, acknowledging receipt of mail.
Your Favour of the 26th. of April last28 I rec’d the 21st. instant, and since that the small Box by Captn. Marshall. The Packet by Captn. Cleland did not come to hand. The Trustees are much obliged to you for your Care of their Dispatches.
Harman Verelst to the President and Assistants in Ga., July 29, 1748, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 295-297, concerning sola bills sent, accounts taken at sea, German servants, self-support in Ga., Indian present distribution, and receipt of mail. By the Henrietta, Capt. St. Barbe.
Sir and Gentlemen
By the Arundel Man of War Captn. Reynolds you were acquainted that a Remittance in Sola Bills would be made you in August or September; But as an Opportunity offered sooner, the Trustees have sent you £ 200 in 200 Bills of £l each Letter A. No. 12501 to 12700 towards their estimates Expences in Georgia to Christmas next.
The General Account of Expences defrayed in Georgia for one Year from Michaelmas 1745 to Michaelmas 1746.
The Account of Sola Bills rec’d and paid from the 1st. of May 1747 to the 31st. of August following, to discharge the Salaries and Expences from Christmas 1745 to Michaelmas 1746, and Duplicates of Receipts for the same, That for the Quarter to Christmas 1745, and Duplicates of Receipts for the said Quarter being arrived safe, whereon the Balance at Christmas 1745, is stated the 30th. of April 1747 to be £ 783.7.5 which is the Sum chargeable to the beforementioned Account of Sola Bills now wanting. And by the General Account of Expences defrayed in Georgia for the half Year to Lady Day 1747, it appears that the Balance due to the Trustees at Michaelmas 1746 was £928.17.- 1/4. These Balances I send you the amount of, to prove your being right when you send the abovementioned Account of Receipts and Payments for the three Quarters from Christmas 1745 to Michaelmas 1746, besides the General Account for the Year to Michaelmas 1746, which are wanting.
There was another Account and Vouchers also on board the said Ship, which must be supplied by Duplicates with all convenient Speed. Vizt.
The Account of Sola Bills rec’d and paid from the 1st. of September 1747 to the 30th. of the same Month for discharging one Quarter’s Salaries and Expences due at Christmas 1746, and Duplicates of Receipts for the same; The Balance of which Account brought to that for the Quarter to Lady Day 1747, which with the Receipts for the same are rec’d, appears to be £407.4.8 1/4 which Amount I send you to prove your being right, when you send the said Quarter’s Account of Receipts and Payments to Xmas 1746, which is wanting.
As the Preliminaries for a General Peace with France and Spain are signed, the Correspondence will become more regular and safe between Georgia and England; And if the Parliament shall enable the Trustees to assist in furnishing the Colony with German Servants for Hands to forward Cultivation (as the Trustees present Fund is very near exhausted) and to carry on the Civil Government thereof; They will be glad to apply what they may be enabled to do, in sending over such Servants, which in time of Peace may more easily be come at.
The many Hindrances the Colony has met with by being a Frontier, and the Desire of the Spaniards by their invading it, and of the French if they could have obtained it, have been Reasons for the Assistace of the Government; But as such Reasons will now be at an End, all possible Means of Self Support must be forthwith used, that the Effect of them may be soon hoped for, and the Nation thereby become eased of the Expences thereof.
Your Letter to the Trustees Secretary dated the 4th. of May last, and a Copy thereof have been rec’d, the one the 21st. and the other the 25th. instant, and opened by me in the Absence of the Secretary, to acknowledge the Receipt of them by this Opportunity. The Original shall be laid before the Trustees the very first time they meet, and their Resolution transmitted as soon as may be.
His Majesty has been pleased to order Presents to be purchased, and sent from England for the Indians contiguous to and in Alliance with South Carolina and Georgia; to be distributed by a Person to be appointed by the Governor Council and Assembly of South Carolina, in Conjunction with William Stephens Esqr. appointed for that purpose by the Trustees for Georgia; You therefore herewith receive his Instructions, to be Entered in your Books of Proceedings for your Guidance therein, and then to deliver them to the said Mr. Stephens for his Directions, a Copy of which the Trustees have sent to Governor [James] Glen, that the Person to be appointed by South Carolina may receive reciprocal Instructions from the Governor Council and Assembly of that Province.
[P.S.] On the 26th. instant a small Box was rec’d by the Townsend Captn. Marshall, forwarded by Mr. [Alexander] Gordon, with a Letter from the President dated 14th. March 1747, and Copies of Papers which had been before sent and taken.
Benjamin Martyn to the President and Assistants in Ga., Aug. 5, 1748, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 297-298, concerning a prize ship taken in Ga. by Capt. William Thomson. By the Henrietta, Capt. St. Barbe.
Sir and Gentlemen
Captain William Thomson by his Memorial to the Trustees dated the 28th. of last Month has represented, that by Virtue of a Letter of Marque be carried into Frederica in Georgia November 17th. 1746 a Swedish Ship called the Charles Henry Wrangle, laden with Sugars from Leogane, which he met with the 14th. of the same Month off Jekyll Bar, and had left in Port without proceeding to Condemnation in Georgia, intending to do it in the Admiralty of England; The former Captors of her having appeal’d to the Lords Commissioners of Prizes in England from her being adjudged as Swedish Property, and obtain’d that Sentence to be revers’d. He has also represented, that Lt. Col. [Alexander] Heron, the now Commanding Officer in Georgia, had raised a Pretence of Forfeiture of the Remainder of the Swedish Captain’s Cargo, for his having sold more than he had Occasion to do; But Captain Thomson has now begun Process for Condemnation of the said Ship and Cargo here, and desired the Protection of the Trustees for preserving his Property in the said Capture. I take the first Opportunity therefore to apprize you thereof, to prevent as much as in you lies any thing being done to the Prejudice of Captain Thomson’s Right in the Premises.
Harman Verelst to William Stephens, Aug. 17, 1748, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 298, concerning mail received, method of transmitting mail, and accounts with the Trustees. By the Carolina, Capt. Wm. Trenn.
Your Letters of 20th., 23d., & 27th. of May last29 were rec’d yesterday, with your Journal and the Proceedings of the President and Assistants from January before.
The Occasion of Mr. [Alexander] Gordon being desired to forward Letters in Correspondence with the Trust, arose from the Interruption the War gave to that Correspondence; But as Peace is like to be restored, the Correspondence will return wholly to Mr. [William] Hopton, unless Occasional Opportunities may use Mr. Gordon in it. As to the large Balance you mention, wherein Mr. Hopton’s Name is a part, what relates to him thereof was but two Sums he rec’d for Bills I sent him, the one of £12 and the other £6 which the Trustees paid Value for here, the other part arose from what you rec’d. vizt. For Mrs. [Frances] Watts £40.1.9; Mr. [Nicholas] Rigby £20 replaced, and £ 300 in Bills of Exchange, which made up the £378.1.9 mentioned in my Letter of the 18th. of March 1746 as part of the Remittances for the Trustees estimated Expences.
Harman Verelst to the Rev. John Martin Bolzius, Aug. 17, 1748, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 299, concerning silk sent and lumber for Savannah church. By the Carolina, Capt. Wm. Trenn.
Your Letters of the 3d. & 9th. of May and 1st. June30 last were rec’d yesterday, with the Silk Cocoons, which I will shew to Mr. [Samuel] Lloyd, who has been long in Italy, and is entirely Master of the Silk Affair, and is one of Our Trustees for Georgia; This Return, and the Silk you have sent which will be expected soon will enable you to have very full Instructions to perfect this Work.
In my last of the 28th. of July you have Notice of my receiving the Certificate from the President and Assistants of their having rec’d 11500 feet of Board and Plank for the Church. I am now to acquaint you of my having Mr. [William] Russell’s Receipt for 1456 feet of Plank, and 400 feet of Inch and 1/2 broad Boards more deld. for the Use of the Church.
Mr. [Chretien] Von Munch has been made acquainted with your Request, and that Notice will be sent him as soon as the Money is order’d.
Benjamin Martyn to John Potter, Secretary to the Duke of Bedford, Dec. 21, 1748, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 299-303, concerning the disbanding of Oglethorpe’s regiment.
The Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia, being inform’d, that the Regiment which was Station’d in that Province, is order’d to be disbanded, and that three Independent Companies are to be form’d, out of the same, and to be station’d in South Carolina, have directed me to acquaint You that they think it their Duty, on this Occasion, to lay before his Grace the Duke of Bedford his Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State, Some things which they conceive to be of the highest Importance, and which they desire his Grace will be pleas’d to lay before his Majesty.
Monsieur [Thomas] Goraldino, Minister from the King of Spain, by a Letter to his Grace the Duke of Newcastle his Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State dated 21 September (2 October N. S.) 1736, a Copy of which is hereunto annex’d,laid an absolute Claim to as far as 33 degrees and 50 Minutes of Latitude, which comprehends all the Province of Carolina as well as of Georgia, And this Claim with Alarms given at that time by the Spaniards to the Colony of Georgia, made the Trustees think it their Duty to present a Memorial to his Majesty dated August 10, 1737; That by a necessary Supply of Forces, the Province which is the Southern Frontier of North America, might be protected against the great Dangers that then Seem’d to threaten it. Whereupon his Majesty Ordered this Regiment to be posted in Georgia and South Carolina for the Defence of the Southern Frontier of His Majesty’s Dominions on the Continent of North America.
The Trustees therefore from a Sense of their Duty think it incumbent on them to represent that the Colony of Georgia, by virtue of such Orders, will be left without Protection; and that the Spaniards, having before the War, laid a Claim to this Colony (which Claim the Trustees have never yet heard they have withdrawn) will, they apprehend look upon this Derelection as a tacit Acknowledgement of that Claim; And that thereby so many of his Majesty’s Subjects invited there under the Protection of his Majesty’s Charter, as well as Foreign Protestants, encourag’d to take Refuge there, from Popish Persecution, will be expos’d to the Rage of their inveterate and irreconcileable Enemies.
London 21 September (2 October N.S.) 1736
The King my Master had the greatest Reason to expect, from what I had the Honour of hearing insinuated by His Britannick Majesty’s Ministers in September 1735, before Mr. [James] Oglethorpe’s Departure, that his Voyage to the Province called Carolina, would have been so far from being able to produce any Effect contrary to the Treaties subsisting between the two Crowns, that it might rather serve to settle the most perfect and best Intelligence between the Government of the abovesaid Province and that of Florida, which belongs to His Majesty; But contrary to these Expectations, the Governor of St. Augustin, the Capital City of the abovesaid Province of Florida, soon after the Receipt of the Letters which I directed to him by the said Mr. Oglethorpe in Order that he might contribute on his Part to so useful a Design, had the Mortification to see a Fortress (situated in the Territories of His Majesty eight Leagues distant from St. Augustin) attached by the Inhabitants of the new Colony called Georgia on the 3d. of March last, and that after they had killed a Soldier belonging to the Spaniards, who defended it, they cut his Head off and carried it away with them in Triumph; After which the said Inhabitants of Georgia had built a Fort upon the Territories of the Sovereignty of Florida, 25 Leagues to the Northward of St. Augustin, at the Entrance of the River of St. Simon, in which they had put a Garrison for it’s Defence, notwithstanding that formerly the Inhabitants of Carolina, who had built a Fort in the same Place, caused it to be demolished by Order of the Court of England, at the Request of That of Spain.
The Governor of St. Augustin having given the King an Account of the abovesaid Encroachments, has likewise mentioned, that he had just rec’d Advices from his Lieutenant who resides in the Fort of St. Mark in the Province of Apalache, that the Indians of the Provinces of Uchisses and Talapuzes, Subjects of His Majesty, had complained, that the English were then employed in building a Fort on the Territories of His Majesty, which are inhabited by the above-said Uchissese Indians, and that they had even given out, that they intended to build another on the Territories of the Talapuze Indians to the North West of St. Augustin, and that another Party of 300 English had appeared on the Frontiers of the said Province, and that having set up a Standard of War in a Town of Indians called Apalachicolo, they had summoned the chief Town of the abovesaid Province called Caveta, to join them in Order to make War against the Spaniards, acquainting them at the same time, that they were resolved to demolish the Fort of St. Mark, and afterwards to besiege St. Augustin, to which the Governor did not scruple to give Credit, since the English of Georgia made continual Incursions into the County of Florida, and molested the Inhabitants likewise.
The King has ordered me to represent to His Britannick Majesty, that such a Behaviour in the Inhabitants of Georgia looks rather like an Inclination to interrupt the Peace and good Intelligence happily subsisting between the two Crowns, than to settle their Duration; And as the Facts are glaring of themselves, and can’t fail to strike the Mind Of His Britannick Majesty, which is so equitable and full of Justice, I thought I could not execute His Majesty’s Orders better than by submitting them to the Consideration of His Britannick Majesty, according to the Account given by the Governor of St. Augustin; To which I must add, that the Colony of Carolina being situated in 32 degrees of Latitude, and 294 1/2 of Longitude, and that the Colony of Georgia being to the Southward of the other. That of Georgia is without Dispute on the Territories of the King my Master; and even the former, according to the Treaty of Peace in 1670. By the 7th. Article of which, the Limits were settled precisely for the said Province, and that of Florida, at 33 degrees and 50 Minutes of Latitude, and 339 degrees and 20 Minutes of Longitude, tho the Town called Carolina was tolerated, because it was built before the making the said Treaty. And as by the 8th. Article of the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, it is agreed that the Limits and Demarcations of the West Indies should remain on the same foot as they were in the Reign of Charles the 2d. of glorious Memory, the King my Master hopes, and does not doubt, but that His Britannick Majesty, by an Effect of his Uprightness and Justice, upon his being informed of what I have the Honour to communicate to your Excellency, will immediately give Orders to cause the Inhabitants of Georgia to be punished, who shall appear to have been guilty of interrupting the Peace between the two Nations, and that Observance be paid to the Limits which have been settled between the two Crowns, and that the Forts which have been built on the Territories in the Demarcation of Florida be immediately demolished. This is what I beg your Excellency to represent to His Britannick Majesty and to let me know his Royal Resolution.
I have the Honour to be &c.
To His Grace The Duke of Newcastle.
Harman Verelst to the Rev. John Martin Bolzius, Jan. 2, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 303-304, concerning lumber sales, payment of bills of exchange, silk received and instructions on silk winding, By the Francis & John. Capt. Henry Boyton.
Your Letter of May 9th. and Postcript of the 1st. of June, and also your Letter of the 12th. of June last,31 have been received. The Trustees have allowed you 5s p 100 feet for the 11500 feet of Board and Plank you delivered for the Church at Savannah amounting to £28.15.-, and have also allowed you 6s p 100 feet for the 1456 feet of the red Pine Wood Plank, and 5s p 100 feet for the 400 feet of Inch & half broad Boards you since delivered for the Use of the Church amoting to £5.7.4. Both which Sums Messieurs Peter Meyer and Co. will give the proper Receipts on the Certificates sent over for the Use of Mr. [Cretien] Von Munch, to whom you desired Payment to be made.
Mr. [Friedrich Michael] Zeigenhagen having represented to the Trustees the Necessity you was under of drawing a Bill of Exchange for £46.16.6 3/4 on Mr. Broughton for the Bounty of 2s a pd. on the Silk Balls raised the last Spring at Ebenezer; The Trustees gave me Orders to pay the same, which I notified to Mr. Broughton, who directing the Bill on me, it was paid the 29th. of last Month, when it became due.
The Silk Cocoons you sent me, I forwarded to the Gentleman, to whom the Trustees are obliged to for the Instructions sent over relating to the Silk; and having lately received one of the two Boxes of Spun Silk, I sent the same to him for Examination and desired his Observations on both to forward to you as soon as possible.
You are referred to my Letter of the 18th. of March 1746 for the Instructions they sent you, which are very explicit, if duly attended to, and do recommend your reconsidering the same. The Trustees are satisfied of the Necessity of a Chimney to each Furnace, for carrying out the Smoke which to be sure for want of such Chimneys blackens the Silk, as you rightly observe. And another Thing very essential when the Silk is reeling, is to see your Women continually keep pouring in clean Water, and that the Fire be kept so hott as to keep the Water near boiling, and change the whole Water, and clean the Basons at least four times a day; Which will be another Means of making the Silk the brighter, and consequently of more Value.
Harman Verelst to the President and Assistants in Ga., Jan. 2, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 304-305, concerning sola bills and accounts, silk reeling instructions, and purchase of Indian presents. By the Francis & John, Capt. Henry Boyton.
By the Henrietta Captain St. Barbe with my Letter of the 29th. of July last, £200 in Sola Bills was sent you, towards the Trustees estimated Expences in Georgia to Christmas last; And by this Conveyance you receive £100 more in Sola Bills, Letter A No. 12701 to 12800 being 100 of £l each, to be applied for the same Use. And when the Trustees have made their Application to Parliament, they will order such Expences for the Ensuing Year as shall be found proper to be defrayed in Georgia by them, and send you Remittances for that purpose.
On the 2d. of last Month the General Account of Expences in Georgia for the half Year to Michaelmas 1747 was received; And the Trustees hope soon to have the Duplicates of those Accounts and Vouchers, which the Mary Billander had on board when taken at Sea, as in my last Letter were particularly described.
P.S. Mr. [John Martin] Bolzius having represented to the Trustees, that for want of a Chimney to the Furnace used in the Silk Affair, it blackens the Silk, the Trustees are satisfied of the Necessity thereof to each Furnace, and direct their being built; And it is very essential when the Silk is reeling, to see the Women continually keep pouring in clean Water, and that the Fire be kept so hot as to keep the Water near boiling, and to change the whole Water and clean the Basons at least four times a day; which will be another Means of making the Silk the brighter, and consequently of more Value. This being an Instruction Mr. [Samuel] Lloyd, one of the Trustees, gave me for the Saltzburghers. I communicate the same to you for the Benefit of Savannah.
The Lords Justices by their Warrant dated 25 August 1748 having appointed Mr. Jermyn Wright and my Self, to purchase the Presents for the Indians in South Carolina and Georgia, and to consign them to the Govr. Council and Assembly of South Carolina, for the Use of the two Persons who are to distribute them in Conjunction, to the Indians in South Carolina and Georgia; Which Presents by the same Warrant were to be in seperate Purchases. I have therefore sent a Copy of the Bill of Lading and Invoice for those I purchased to the Agent appointed by the Trustees, and desired his giving you a Copy of said Invoice; and I have also desired the Govr. of South Carolina to send you a Copy of the Invoice of those sent by Mr. Wright for the same Use in Order that you may the better control the Quantities distributed in Georgia, pursuant to the Trustees Instructions, when the Agent lays the Accot. of those distributed in Georgia before you for your Inspection and Approbation. The Presents purchased by both, go by this Conveyance.
Benjamin Martyn to the President and Assistants in Ga., Jan. 2, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 305-309, concerning conflicting land grants at Augusta, status of Savannah church building, silk production and encouragement, disbanding of Oglethrope’s regiment, land for discharged soldiers, government at Frederica, Bartholomew Zouberbuhler’s dissatisfaction, and securing land from Uchee Indians for Ebenezer. By the Francis & John, Capt. Boyton.
Sir and Gentlemen
The Trustees rec’d a few days ago the Packet, which was sent from the President in a Box by the Glascow Man of War.
They have but few Things to observe upon in the Letters; But in the first place, they Order me to let you know they are well pleas’d with the Caution you have shewn, with Regard to those who have applied for Grants of Land, in inquiring into their Abilities to cultivate the same; and they desire you will persevere therein. On this Occasion They have directed me to take Notice to you of a Petition (which has been given them thro the Hands of Dr. Mead) from William Gray of Augusta Planter dated February 16th 1747/8 “That having been in possession of 500 Acres of Land for Eight Years and upwards, and settled on the same by and with the Permission of General Oglethorpe, and improv’d and planted it, he now finds to his great Disappointment, that a Warrant is granted by you at the Desire of one James Frazer of Augusta, Storekeeper for Mr. William Yeomans of Charles Town, that the said Lands might be admeasur’d and lain out by Thomas Ellis, Surveyor, for the Use and Benefit of Peter Shepherd, Patroon of the said Yeomans’s Boat, who publickly professes himself a Papist, and that the said Lands have accordingly been laid out for Shepherd, to the great Damage of the Petitioner, which he can make full Testimony of.”
Upon reading this Letter, the Trustees look’d into your Proceedings, and they found, that on the 22nd. of April 1747 Peter Shepherd petitioned you for a Grant of 500 Acres on an Island situated on the River Savanah, above 16 Miles above Fort Augusta, adjacent to the Uchee Old Field, and that you recommended him to the Trust for the same; But on the 16th. of Janry. 1747 the Surveyor acquainting you, that you were misinformed in the Quantity of Lands on the Uchee Island, whereby Peter Shephered was disappointed in having a Possession there as intended, and the said Shepherd renewing his Petition for a Grant at some other Place within the District of Augusta, you ordered him the like Quantity at new Savanah, near Lands belonging to Daniel Dourouzeaux.
The Trustees hope that Peter Shepherd’s Disappointment at the first place might be owing to the Surveyor’s finding that Land belong’d to William Gray, especially as there is but the Difference of a Month between your last Order, and the Date of Gray’s Petition, and he might therefore be ignorant of your last Order; But if otherwise, you must make a full Enquiry into it, that, if the Allegations of his Petition are true, Justice may be immediately done him. The Trustees are inform’d by Dr. Mead, that Captn. Kent is in the same Circumstance as Wm. Gray, and Part of his Land has been granted to another; Enquiry must be made into that likewise, that Justice may be done him. And they desire you will, in all the Allotments of Land you may make, give a strict Charge, that in running them out for new Grantees, the Surveyor should take particular Care, never to encroach on the Property of others.
The Trustees expected you would have sent some Account of the Church being finished, but perhaps an Account may have been in some of the Letters, which have miscarried; However, They take it for granted, from your Silence about it, that it is now compleat.
The Trustees think that the Sum of £20 given by you in August last to the Widow Anderson was very right, as She has shewn a remarkable Zeal and Industry in the Silk Business. The Silk which has been received at different times from the Colony has been organzin’d, and woven into Damask; And by the Opinion of the Weavers and Mercers, thro whose Hands it has pass’d, or have seen it in the Piece of Damask, it answers all the Ends of the finest Piedmontese Silk, and some even give it the Preference. It will always be sure of a speedy and profitable Market, and to encourage all the People to apply themselves to gain the Knowledge of winding off the Silk, the Trustees intend, instead of paying them for the Balls, to pay them immediately for the Silk it Self, to as full a Value as can be afforded, allowing for Expences afterwards; and Mr. [Samuel] Lloyd, one of the Trustees, is settling the different Values for the different Sortments of Silk, which you will receive with further Instructions, by the next Packet. In the mean time the great Advantages arising from the Silk cannot be too strongly or frequently inculcates; and the Trustees hope for this from you, both by Example and Exhortation to the People; And they bid me say, the Progress made by the People in this Produce shall for the future be the Measure of their Favours. That you are in possession of a Treasure, of more Consequence than any Mine would be, and which will not require great Pains or Labour to produce. This has been for many Years recommended to you and by you to the People, from the Trustees, and they are more earnest in it now, from the Credit this little Silk has already gain’d in the Town. It is very evident the Art of winding off the Silk from the Balls may be obtain’d by reading proper Instructions, and closely observing them, and these Mr. [Samuel] Lloyd has furnish’d you with. The Saltzburghers have shewn an Attention to them in a peculiar manner, the Trustees are therefore desirous of giving them all the Encouragement in their Power to persevere; This likewise they require you to do, and particularly that they be not only allow’d, but assisted (where they may want it) to wind off the Silk themselves at Ebenezer, as it is not the Design of the Trustees to have this the Business of any particular Woman in the Province, but the Employment of every one.
His Majesty has been pleas’d to signify his Orders (which Captn. [George] Dumbar carries over by this Ship to Lieut. Col. [Alexander] Heron) that Lieut. General [James] Oglethorpe’s Regiment shall be disbanded, and that three Independent Companies shall be form’d out of the same, to be station’d in South Carolina; But, to shew His Majesty’s Care of his Subjects in Georgia, and that he is determin’d to maintain his indubitable Right, and preserve the Possession of the Colony, he has been pleas’d to order a Detachment of two Officers, with Non Commission Officers in proportion, and forty private Men to be station’d at or near Frederica; And one Serjeant, one Corporal, and twelve Men in Jekyll Island.
Govr. [James] Glen is directed likewise by the Duke of Bedford, Principal Secretary of State, to make a Detachment of twenty Men with an Officer from Port Royal to be station’d at Fort Augusta.
These Detachments (considering we are now at Peace with all our Neighbours) are look’d on by the Government to be a sufficient Security for the present.
His Majesty has been pleas’d also to order, that the Sum of £ 5. Sterling p head shall be given, at the time of disbanding, to such of the Soldiers as shall make it their Option to stay and settle in the Colony, rather than return to England; The Trustees therefore direct, that two of the Assistants should (on the Receipt of this) immediately go to Frederica, in Order to be present at the disbanding of the Regiment, and offer to each Man of such Soldiers a Grant of 50 Acres of good Land, in what Part of the Colony they may chuse, and not already granted with Provisions for a Year to them and their Wives and Children, in the same manner as have usually been given to those, who have been sent over at the Expence of the Trust; And you must transmit to the Trustees by the first Opportunity a List of such Soldiers who may resolve to stay, their Wives, and Children, and the Places where they may settle.
The Trustees direct that the two Assistants, who shall go to Frederica, should make an immediate Enquiry into all the Grants of Land made, or Lands possess’d within the Island of St. Simon’s, or the Neighbourhood of it, how far they have been cultivated, and by whom possess’d, or for whose Benefit; And particularly, a large Parcel of Land on the Island of St. Simon’s, said to be set apart for the Use of the Regiment; And also the 3000 Acres which were granted, upon the first Establishment of the Regiment, for five Acre Lots for each of the Soldiers. If any of those, who shall stay after their being disbanded, should chuse their Lots on these Lands (and these should be first offered to them) their five Acre Lots must then be made up fifty; And if there should be more than these Lands, so proportion’d, would be sufficient for, Lots must be offer’d to them as near adjoining as possible, that they may be able to assist one another in Cultivation. Offers must likewise be made to such of the Officers, who shall be disbanded, and may be inclin’d to stay, that if they have Grants already, they shall have all the necessary Confirmation of the same. And those who have not, must on their Desire be furnished with them, in proportion to their Abilities, and in what Part of the Colony they may chuse.
The Trustees likewise direct the aforesaid two Assistants to make an Enquiry what Number of Freeholders may be at present at Frederica, or near it, and whether sufficient to form a Town Court, that this may be reviv’d at that Place, in Case the Trustees should think proper; And they require as speedy an Answer to this as possible after the Enquiry. They would be glad to know at the same time if any One of the Assistants would be inclin’d to go to Frederica, and reside there as first Magistrate, and which of them, and what Terms he would expect.
The Trustees are concern’d to find that you have any Apprehensions of Mr. [Bartholomew] Zouberbuhler’s being dissatisfied, and looking out for Preferment in any other Place. He has perform’d his Duty so well hitherto, and so much better than any of his Predecessors that the Loss of him, could not easily be repair’d. What the Trustees can, they are very willing to do, to make him easy. Mr. Verelst will write more fully to him than I have at present Time to do; But the Trustees have resolv’d, to have the 300 Acres for Religious Uses cultivated in the best manner that can be for the Support, not only of himself, but his Successors; They intend that he shall have three Servants for this purpose, and that a Hut shall be built for the Convenience of his Servants on the 300 Acres. I must refer you, as I write in a hurry, to Mr. Verelst’s Letter to him for the rest.
The Trustees want to know if you have taken any Steps towards obtaining of the Uchee Indians, the Lands lying a little above Ebenezer, in Order to be added to their Township; They desire you’ll take the first Opportunity of doing it, and acquaint them as soon as possible with your Proceedings.
Benjamin Martyn to the Rev. John Martin Bolzius, Jan. 2, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 310-311, concerning silk culture, land above Ebenezer Creek, and peacetime military establishment. By the Francis & John, Capt. Boyton.
Your Letters of the 23d of July and the 5th. of August, together with your Journal, have been rec’d, and laid before the Trustees, to whom they prov’d very satisfactory. The Progress made by the Saltzburghers in the Silk is particularly so, and will prove highly beneficial to themselves in a short time. It begins now to be a Subject of Discourse here in London, for some of the Silk, lately sent over, among which was some of the Saltzburghers, had been organizin’d by Mr. [Samuel] Lloyd, the Gentleman who sent you the Instructions, and was afterwards woven into as fine a Price of Damask as has been seen. You may depend on the Trustees giving all the Encouragement in their Power, and that you can reasonably ask for your People to persevere in it; And I have by their Directions, and as you desir’d, wrote to the President and Assistants, that your young Women should be permitted to draw off the Silk themselves at Ebenezer.
I have likewise wrote to know what the President & Assistants have done, in relation to the Uchee Lands lying a little above Ebenezer, which they were to have purchas’d of the Indians, in Order to be added to your Township. As this may depend a good deal upon the Humour of the Indians, with whom they must proceed in the gentlist manner imaginable, it may not be accomplish’d perhaps so soon as could be wish’d; But the President and Assistants have orders to take the first Opportunity to do it.
His Majesty has been pleas’d (upon the Establishment of the Peace) to signify his Orders for disbanding Genl. Oglethrope’s Regiment, which Orders are to be carried over by the Conveyance by which you’ll receive this; You, and the Saltzburghers however need not be alarm’d, as to the Preservation of the Colony, which is a Point His Majesty has resolv’d upon, and has accordingly order’d a Detachment of 40 Men with proper Officers to be station’d at Frederica, and a Detachment of a Serjeant, a Corporal and 12 Men at Jekyll Island, and in Order to watch the Motions of the Indians, another Detachment of an Officer and 20 Men to be station’d at Fort Augusta, which last will guard the Passage into the Colony of Georgia by the River Savannah. Which Detachments (considering it is now a Time of Place with all our Neighbours) is look’d upon by the Government to be a sufficient Security for the present.
Benjamin Martyn to Gov. James Glen of S. C., Jan. 2, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 311, concerning peacetime military establishment. By the Francis and John, Capt. Boyton.
The Secretary at War has acquainted the Trustees for Georgia, that His Majesty has been pleas’d to signify his Orders (which Captn. [George] Dunbar carries over to Lieut. Col. [Alexander] Heron) that Lieut. General Oglethorpe’s Regiment should be disbanded, and that three Independent Companies are to be form’d out of the same, to be station’d in So. Carolina; But that a Detachment of two Officers, with Non Commission Officers in proportion, and 40 private Men are to be station’d at or near Frederica in Georgia; and 1 Serjeant, 1 Corporal and 12 Men in Jekyll Island.
He has likewise inform’d them, that His Grace the Duke of Bedford, principal Secretary of State, is by this Conveyance to signify to you Excellency His Majesty’s Orders likewise, for a Detachment of 20 Men with proper Officers to be made from Port Royal, to be station’d at Fort Augusta up the River Savanah.
Sir, As I had the Honour to inform your Excellency by a Letter dated March 10th. 1746, I have now the Trustees Orders to repeat, that they look on the Welfare and Interest of the two Provinces, South Carolina and Georgia, to be inseparable and They govern themselves by this Principle. They have no Doubt but your Excellency is of the same Opinion, and therefore hope you will give Directions to the several Officers of the Detachments to be made into the Province of Georgia, that upon all Occasions, they should submit to, and be ready to support the Civil Administration of Justice.
Harman Verelst to the Rev. Bartholomew Zouberbuhler, Jan. 2, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 312, concerning servants to cultivate his land, and lumber in Ga. By the Francis and John, Capt. Boyton.
Your Letter of the 2d. of August last, and Representation to the President and Assistants in Georgia, have been rec’d, and laid before the Committee of Correspondence of the Trustees; The Account you give of the Employment of your two Servants is very well testified, the Trustees have no Desire of preventing your receiving the Allowances for their Maintenance, though you have but one at present. Their great Aim is to have the Land appropriated for Religious Uses, so cultivated as to be hereafter productive of a Rent, and their Reason of having the Servants they allotted under your Direction was to hasten that good End, and for that purpose they have it in their Thoughts to supply you with two more Servants to be added to the One you have, to be employed at all proper times in the said Cultivation for your Benefit, and to order a good Hutt to be built, for their Residence on the Land; This don’t hinder them from rendering you any Service in their Power, when unemployed in such Cultivation.
The Trustees have Reason to experct, there will be a Demand for Lumber from the West Indies, and that the Wood in Georgia will become so converted in Scantlings, Shingles and Staves by such Demand, as well as the Use the Saltzburghers at Ebenezer make of the Wood; That it will find it’s Value, though at present you represent it, as an Incumbrance, by Inability of converting it as cheap as Neighbouring Provinces. Laborious Servants cannot prove a Burthen, but possibly some People who have met with the contrary Sort, may have found them so.
The Trustees are very well satisfied with your Care in Spiritual Affairs, and will apply to get your Stipend continued from the Incorporated Society; You also find their Willingness to continue the Payment of the Allowances for two Servants, though you have but one at present, until they can send you two others to that one, fit for Labour, for your own and Successor’s Benefit on the Land for Religious Uses, which in the first place is for the Maintenance of a Minister.
Harman Verelst to William Hopton, Jan. 3, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 313, concerning the dispatch of mail to Ga. By the Francis and John, Capt. Boyton.
By the inclosed Receipt, You are intitled to receive a small Box, I shipp’d on board the Francis and John Captn. Boyton, by Order of the Trustees for Georgia, to your Care to forward to Georgia. The Trustees desire, that on Receipt of this, you will immediately get the Box on shore and by a special Messenger at their Expence, send it directly to Savannah, without waiting for the Opportunity of any Passengers who may be on board for Georgia. Please therefore to lose no time in the Dispatch required of you, and acquaint Mr. [William] Stephens you had the Trustees Direction for the Expence of this Express.
Harman Verelst to the Governor, Council and Assembly of S. C., Jan. 5, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 313-314, concerning purchase and distribution of Indian presents. By the Francis and John, Capt. Boyton.
Sir and Gentlemen
The Lords Justices by their Warrant dated the 25th. of August last having appointed Mr. Jermyn Wright and my Self to purchase Presents for the Indians in South Carolina and Georgia, and to consign them to you, the Governor Council and Assembly of South Carolina, for the Use of the two Persons who are to distribute them in Conjunction to the Indians in South Carolina and Georgia; Which Presents by the same Warrant were permitted to be in seperate Purchases, though for the same Use; I have therefore herewith sent you the Invoice and Bill of Lading for those I purchased, and shipp’d on board the Francis and John Captn. Henry Boyton, and consigned them as directed by the said Warrant, which I hope will come safe to Hand.
Please to instruct the Person you shall appoint to act in Conjunction with the Person appointed by the Trustees for Georgia in the said Distribution, to let me know how the Assortment I have sent proves, to answer His Majesty’s Royal Intention of giving the proper Presents to the said Indians; And if any Alterations may be necessary in the next Year’s Presents from those now sent, either in Quantities or Nature of them, I shall carefully observe it.
I have sent to Wm. Stephens Esqr. (the Person appointed by the Trustees for Georgia to act in such Distribution with the Person to be appointed by you) a Copy of the Bill of Lading and Invoice of the Presents purchased by me; You will please therefore to order a Copy of the Invoice Mr. Jermyn Wright sends you by this Ship, of those he purchased, to be sent to the President and Assistants in Georgia, whereby the whole Quantities and Species of Presents sent will appear, and enable the said President and Assistants, as well as you the Governor Council and Assembly, to controll the Quantities distributed by the said two Persons in Conjunction, in the respective Provinces, when the said Persons shall lay their several Accounts of Distributions in each Province before the respective Administrations in them for Inspection and Approbation, to vouch their said Accounts of Distributions in each Province, to be forwarded from South Carolina and Georgia to His Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State, as required by His Grace the Duke of Bedford’s Letter; And in Order that this Service should not stop for want of the Personal Attendance of Wm. Stephens Esqr. in South Carolina, the Trustees have also appointed Mr. Patrick Graham, one of the Assistants in Georgia, to act for the said William Stephens, when it shall be necessary, in such manner as may best answer His Majesty’s intended Purpose of securing the Friendship of the said Indians; and to vouch the particular Accounts of such Distribution, pursuant to the Instructions given by the Trustees for Georgia, and such Instructions as you shall think necessary to give. A Copy of those given by the Trustees for Georgia are herewith sent you.
Harman Verelst to William Stephens, Jan. 5, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 315-316, concerning Indian present distribution. By the Francis and John, Capt. Boyton.
You being appointed by the Trustees for Georgia the Person to act in Conjunction with the Person to be appointed by the Governor Council and Assembly of South Carolina in the Distribution of Presents sent from England, for the Indians in South Carolina and Georgia; Which by the Lords Justices Warrant dated the 25th. of August last, were permitted to be purchased by Mr. Jermyn Wright and my Self, in seperate Purchases, though for the same Use; and were directed to be consign’d to the Governor Council and Assembly of South Carolina, for the Use of the two Persons who are to distribute them in Conjunction, to the Indians in South Carolina and Georgia; I have therefore herewith sent you a Copy of the Invoice and Bill of Lading for those I purchas’d and shipp’d on board the Francis and John Captn. Henry Boyton.
I have desired the Governor Council and Assembly of South Carolina to order a Copy of the Invoice of the Presents purchas’d by Mr. Jermyn Wright and sent by this Ship, to be sent to the President and Assistants in Georgia; From whom you may have a Copy, and to whom please to give a Copy of the Invoice I send you, whereby the whole Quantities and Species of Presents sent will appear, which are to be distributed in Conjunction in both Provinces. I have sent to the said Governor Council and Assembly a Copy of the Instructions prepared by the Trustees and sent you which, with those the said Governor Council and Assembly shall prepare for the Person they shall appoint to act in Conjunction in this Service, will be the Rule for the said Distribution. And the said two Persons being to attest the Accounts of the Distributions made in each Province, and to lay the same before their respective Administrations, that is to say, the Account of those distributed in South Carolina before the Governor Council and Assembly in that Province for their Inspection and Approbation, and the Account of those distributed in Georgia before the President and Assistants in Georgia for their Inspection and Approbation; Which Accounts are to be sent to England from the said respective Provinces to His Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State, as required by His Grace the Duke of Bedford’s Letter.
I have also acquainted the said Governor Council and Assembly; That the Trustees, to prevent any Stop to this Service for the Want of your Personal Attendance in South Carolina, had appointed Mr. Patrick Graham, one of the Assistants in Georgia to act for you when it shall be necessary, in such manner as may best answer His Majesty’s intended Purpose of securing the Friendship of the said Indians, and to vouch the particular Accounts of such Distribution pursuant to the beforementioned Instructions. A Copy of those given by the Trustees I have herewith sent you.
Benjamin Martyn to Lt. Col. Alexander Heron, Jan. 7, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 316, concerning land for disbanded soldiers. By the Francis & John, Capt. Boyton.
His Majesty having been pleas’d to order that upon the Disbanding of Lieut. Genl. [James] Oglethorpe’s Regiment, the Sum of 5 £ Sterl. shall be given to each of the Soldiers of the said Regiment who shall be disbanded; And shall make it his Option to stay and settle in the Colony; The Trustees have order’d two of the Assistants in Georgia to attend at the Disbanding, and immediately put such Soldiers in possession of fifty Acres of good Land each Man, and have likewise resolv’d to grant to them, their Wives, and Children Provisions for a Year, Provided They proceed in the Cultivation of their Lands, to raise a future Maintenance for themselves and Families; Which the Trustees have order’d me to acquaint You with, that You cooperate therein, as His Majesty’s Orders for Disbanding the Regiment, and paying the said Sum of 5 £ Sterl, to each of the said Men, are sent to you.
Benjamin Martyn to the President and Assistants in Ga., Jan. 7, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 317, directing inventory of stores and boats in southern Ga. By the Francis & John, Capt. Boyton.
Sir and Gentlemen
As the Trustees Storehouse at Frederica has been us’d for the King’s Magazine of Stores, and as the Regiment is Ordered to be Disbanded; The Trustees direct, that the two Assistants, who are to attend the Disbanding of the Regiment, do employ a proper Person to take an Inventory of all the Stores and Provisions therein (describing the several Species thereof) and also an Account of what Boats and Vessels, and their several Appurtenance are in the Southward Part of the Province, whether belonging to His Majesty, or the Trustees, and the Assistants are to appoint a proper Person to take care of the said Stores, Boats &c to prevent any Embezzlemt. thereof, and to transmit as soon as possible a particular Account, distinguishing which may belong to His Majesty, and which to the Trustees.
Harman Verelst to the President and Assistants in Ga., Jan. 10, 1748/ 9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 317-318, concerning sola bills and land for Capt. George Dunbar. By the Francis and John, Capt. Boyton.
Sir and Gentlemen
Captain George Dunbar having Occastion for a Remittance of £ 200 to pay in Georgia; The Trustees have rec’d Cash for their Sola Bills of Exchange dated the 2d. instant No. 12801 to 13000, Letter A. Value One pound each, delivered him for the same, and to whom by the Trustees Order I have given a Receipt for the said £ 200 to be paid into the Bank of England for answering the Payment of the said Bills on their Return to England, when issued.
These Bills were fill’d up at first as the former ones were, but to prevent any Inconveniency by Disappointment to Captain Dunbar, if by Accident it should so happen that two of the three Persons the Bills were fill’d up to should dye before his Arrival, his Name by Order of the Common Council of the Trustees was added in the Bodies of the said Bills, by an Interlineation in each; You are therefore to order the Indorsements on them to be filled up in Georgia to the said Captn. George Dunbar, or in such manner as he shall direct, the Trustees having rec’d Cash for their full Value, as abovementioned.
These Bills are to be Enter’d in the Trustees Accounts in Georgia either Debtor or Creditor; But You are to direct a Minute of your Board to be taken, of the Order you shall give on this Occasion.
[P.S.] Captain Dunbar, who brings you this, having on 25th. of March last applied to the Trustees for 500 Acres of Land in lieu of his former Grant of that Quantity, which he agreed to surrender up, the Trustees recommend it to you to accommodate him therein in such manner as you can, and will best suit his intended Cultivation of them, with such Right of Common as before was wrote to you.
Benjamin Martyn to the President and Assistants in Ga., Jan. 14, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 318, concerning arms for discharged soldiers and James Habersham appointed an Assistant. By the Francis and John, Capt. Boyton.
Sir and Gentlemen
Orders are just given, and sent to Lt. Col. [Alexander] Heron, or the Commanding Officer of Lieut. Genl. Oglethrope’s Regiment, that the disbanded Soldiers should be permitted to keep their Arms, if they make if their Option to stay and settle in the Colony; The Lt. Col. perhaps may think proper to deliver up to the two Assistants (who are to attend the disbanding) the Arms for the Use of the said Soldiers chusing to settle there; In this Case, the said Assistants must give them to the Soldiers, after they are put in possession of their Lands, and no time must be lost in laying these out for them, for which Reason the Surveyor must accompany the Assistants, when they go to the Southward.
The Trustees have appointed Mr. James Habersham, an additional Assistant.
Benjamin Martyn to Lt. Col. Alexander Heron, Jan. 14, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 319, concerning delivery of arms to discharged soldiers. By the Francis and John, Capt. Boyton.
I am just inform’d that you will receive Directions from the Secretary at War, and the Board of Ordnance, that the disbanded Soldiers, who shall make it their Option to stay and settle in the Colony, should be permitted to keep their Arms. It may not be improper perhaps to use a little Caution in this Case lest the Soldiers, after having declar’d their Option, should go away with their Arms; These may therefore, if you think proper, be delivered to the two Assistants, who shall attend at the disbanding, in Order to be given back to the Soldiers immediately on their taking Possession of their Lands.
Benjamin Martyn to James Habersham, Jan. 14, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 319, informing him of his appointment as an Assistant. By the Francis and John, Capt. Boyton.
I have the Pleasure to acquaint you that the Trustees have just appointed you an additional Assistant to the four already in Georgia.
Harman Verelst to William Stephens, Jan. 16, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 319-320, concerning packet of mail and silk received. By the Francis and John, Capt. Boyton.
Yesterday the Boatswain of the Charming Nancy Captain White, brought a Box directed to the Trustees Secretary, containing the Contents of your Packet dated in October 1747 sent by the Mary Billander Captain Bostock, taken in her Passage to England; Of which Box p Captn. White, no Advice was given, and had the Captain omitted sending it, it might have been lost, and the Trustees had a second Disappointment of the said Contents, which were much wanted and particularly as to the Accounts now received.
Mr. [James] Habersham sent me a small Box of Silk from Ebenezer by the same Ship, and advised me of it. You will inquire how this Omission of Advice happen’d, that the like may be prevented for the future.
Benjamin Martyn to John Potter, Feb. 2, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 320-321, concerning Martyn’s letter published in Dutch and English newspapers.
I have laid before the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia, Your Letter dated the 28th. of January last (which did not come to my hands ‘till yesterday morning), that his Grace the Duke of Bedford having taken notice that a Translation in French of my Letter to you of the 21st of December last,32 in relation to an Order for disbanding the Regiment of Foot in Georgia, is printed in the Hague French Gazette of the 27th. of Janry. N.S., and that a Paragraph likewise relating to this Matter is printed in the Whitehall Evening Post of the 26th of Janry. his Grace had directed those two Papers to be sent to me, in Order to be laid before the Trustees &c.
Sir. It was with the utmost Concern and Surprize the Trustees found that a Paper from their Office, especially of such Importance, had made its way into any Foreign Gazettes, at this critical Juncture. They are truly sensible of the pernicious Consequences of it, for, no Notice being taken at the same time of what his Majesty has been graciously pleas’d to order. vizt. That Detachments of Soldiers from three Independent Companies in South Carolina are to be station’d in proper Places in Georgia to preserve the Possession of the Province. The publishing this Letter seperately may tend to confirm the Spaniards in the Opinion, they have entertain’d of their Right to the Provinces of Georgia and South Carolina, and it must necessarily raise Apprehensions and Distrusts in the minds of those foreign Protestants, who are already happily settled in Georgia and of those likewise who might be inclin’d, upon the Establishment of Peace, to go from Europe to join them; This Letter must occasion their Despair of finding that Protection which they have expected, and has been promis’d to them, in that Part of his Majesty’s Dominions.
The Trustees read also, with the greatest Astonishment, the Paragrah in the Whitehall Evening Post relating to the said Letter, and containing invidious Remarks on the Disbanding of the Regiment; Remarks entirely foreign from their Sentiments, and which the Letter could not authorize the News Writers to make. They think it their Duty, on this Occasion to declare their perfect Satisfaction in what his Majesty has been pleas’d to order. They have not one Doubt of the Safety of the People under their Care being preserv’d, or of the Possession of the Province of Georgia being maintain’d.
In pursuance of his Grace the Duke of Bedford’s Directions, The Trustees have made the strictest Inquiry in the best manner they could, whether any, or what Copies of my Letter to you have been given to any Person or Persons and to whom, and They do not find after such Inquiry, that any Copy of my said Letter has been given out of the Office to any Person except one which was given to Lieut. General [James] Oglethorpe at his desire on the day the said Letter was written.
The Trustees have directed me to say further, that they are entirely ignorant by whose Means or Contrivance the said Letter was communicated to the Authors of the Utrecht and Hague Gazettes, or the said Paragraph in the Whitehall Evening Post (which is varied from the Letter by the Addition of invidious Remarks) was there in inserted.
Benjamin Martyn to the President and Assistants at Savannah, March 11, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 322-325, concerning little recent mail, spirit of industry needed, silk production encouragement, time of meetings of president and assistants, need of wharf for lumber sales, James Habersham’s appointment as assistant, receipt of representation to admit Negroes to Ga. By the Fortrose, Capt. James Mackenzie.
Sir and Genlemen
The Trustees have order’d me to tell you, that they have rec’d but little Intelligence from you lately, at which they are surpris’d, as there have been more frequent Opportunities of sending Packets since the Establishment of Peace, than there us’d to be.
They hope this Peace will produce, what, all their Admonitions for several Years have been ineffectual in, that is, the raising a Spirit of Industry among the People, for they are concern’d to find that the Inhabitants of Savanah, after so many Year’s Possession of their Lands, are oblig’d to have Recourse to New York even for Corn for their Subsistance. Upon this Occasion, the Trustees think it incumbent on them to acquaint you in particular, that their Term of Government of the Colony will expire in four Years and an half, and therefore it becomes more immediately necessary for you, to cultivate and improve your Lots, that these may be in a Condition to support you in a proper manner when your Salaries must cease; and they hope your Examples will have a good Effect on others.
If the People will yet give their attention to what has been so often recommended to them by the Trustees, vizt. The Produce of Silk; They may within these four Years make such a Progress, as may render the Province of the highest Importance in this Article, and recommend it to the farther Care and Bounty of the Government here; And, that nothing may be wanting in the Trustees towards promoting it; They have come to the following Resolutions that you shall be enabled to pay immediately to People who raise and produce the Silk.
The Sum of 14s Sterling for every pound of 16 Ounces of the first Sort of Silk of 5 or 6 Threads
And 6s for every pound of 16 Ounces of the worst Sort.
As some of the People may be only able to raise Cocoons, and others only to wind the Silk, They must then be paid in the following Proportions. vizt.
For the Cocoons, which produce the first Sort, that is, those wherein one Worm only is contain’d, the Sum of One Shilling Sterling is to be paid for every pound of 16 Ounces; And as 10 or 11 pounds of these Cocoons will make one pound of Silk, the Sum of 3s Sterling must be paid to the Winder of it.
For the Cocoons, which produce the second Sort, which is of about 8 Threads, One Shilling Sterling is to be paid for every pound of 16 Ounces, and two Shillings Sterling to the Winder of every such pound of Silk.
For the Cocoons, which produce the worst Sort, that is, those wherein two or three Worms are intermix’d, four pence Sterl. for every pound of 16 Ounces, and Is Sterl. to the Winder.
By the foregoing Prices and Regulations the Persons who wind off the Silk, or their Families, will have sufficient Encouragement to raise what Cocoons they can themselves; And those who raise the Cocoons will be encourag’d likewise to employ their Female Children in learning to wind; And yet those who can do only one of the two will have an ample Profit from their Labour.
When any Cocoons are brought to be paid for, Mrs. Anderson, or some other Person, who understands the Art of winding must attend in Order to examine the Cocoons and give their Opinion to you of what Sort they are, that you may determine what the Owners of them are to be paid. And the Cocoons must be purchas’d in time, or else they will prove useless, unless for Seed.
The Trustees desire to know, whether Mrs. Camuse rais’d any Cocoons, or reel’d off any Silk in the last Year, and what became of them; or it. For no Account has been rec’d of any Silk rais’d at Savanah since the Year 1747, nor is that Silk yet rec’d which is suppos’d to be for want of a safe Conveyance.
As I told you in my last Letter, the Trustees direct that the Saltzburghers be at Liberty to wind off their own Cocoons at Ebenezer. They hope you have paid, as they order’d the Sum of £ 5 Sterl. for each of the two Women in that Settlement and as a third there has acquir’d the Art, they have resolv’d to give her likewise the same Sum as a Reward for her Industry; They will also give the Sum of 40s Sterl. to every other Woman at Ebenezer, and in other Parts of the Colony, who shall qualify herself in the same manner within the next Year.
I have by the Trustees Directions, acquainted Mr. [John Martin] Bolzius with this; And they have resolv’d to send over a Sum of Money to be deposited with him, in Order to pay the Saltzburghers, for the future, for their Silk, upon the Spot, in the Proportions as mentioned above.
Mr. Miller of Chelsea has been preparing some Instructions for cultivating Mulberry Trees, and with this are sent over to you, that you may give Copies of them among the People, who should be told likewise, that the black Mulberry Leaf is as proper as the white for the Worm, tho there is no greater Difficulty in raising one Tree than the others.
The Trustees want to be inform’d in several Things about which I have wrote to you; particularly the Church and what has been done with Regard to the Cowpen, and killing the wild Cattle.
The Trustees think you should have stated Times of Meeting, at least One day or two in the first Week of every Month, that those People of the Province, who are at a distance from Savanah, may not be liable to Disappointments (when they have Occasion to attend you) and to additional Trouble and Expence.
I have acquainted you before how much the Trustees have at heart the Opening of a Lumber Trade; They are still attentive to it; And as the Saltzburghers, by means of their Saw Mill, are most likely to begin such a Trade, every Encouragement which can be given, the Trustees require you to give; As they can float their Boards and Plank down the River Savanah, it is absolutely necessary that they should have a convenient Wharfe, for lodging and piling them ready for Shipping, and appropriated to themselves. The Trustees direct me to say they cannot see what Objection there can be to their having a Wharf of 60 or 70 feet in front, between the present publick Wharf and the Guard House, instead of being on the Upper Side of the Town of Savanah, which must be inconvenient for that purpose; The Town, and every Inhabitant of it, will reap the Benefit of having Shipping and a Market there, instead therefore of throwing any Difficulties in the Way, all should unite in removing them; And this the Trustees particularly expect from you.
You will receive herewith the Appointment of Mr. James Habersahm to be the 5th. Assistant, in Mr. Patrick Graham’s becoming the 4th. by Mr. Samuel Marcer’s being the third.
P.S. I have this Instant rec’d your Letter dated January 12, 1748/9 with the Representation, which I’ll lay before the Trustees the first Opportunity.
Mr. Miller’s Instructions how to plant, prune and manage
Mulberry Trees in Georgia.
The two Ways of propagating Mulberry Trees, are by Seed, and laying down the young Branches, which in one Year will be sufficiently rooted for transplanting.
The Seeds of the white Mulberry may be easily procured in Quantity either in the South of France or Italy.
The Seeds of the common Mulberry of Carolina may be gotten in the Woods when the Fruit is ripe, and this Sort I should prefer to the white.
These Trees should always be kept low like Hedges, for the more easily cutting off the Leaves, which is most expeditiously done with Garden Sheers, in the same manner as Hedges are clipp’d.
There should be new Plantations made every third or fourth Year, for which Purpose some of the lower Shoots should be laid down in the Ground, the Year before which is the most expeditious Way to propagate them.
Benjamin Martyn to the Rev. John Martin Bolzius, March 11, 1748/9, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 325-327, concerning silk culture, payment of John Ludwig Meyer, wharf for lumber trade, and culture of mulberry trees. By the Fortrose, Capt. James Mackenzie.
I have rec’d and laid before the Trustees your Packet containing Letters and a Journal dated in October last.
It is with great Pleasure they see the Industry of the Saltzburghers in manufacturing the Silk, and your own Attention to this very usefull Product. Orders are again sent, by this Conveyance, to the President and Assistants to pay the Sum of £ 5 to each of the two young Women, who had learnt to wind, in case they have not been paid, as you complain’d; And the Trustees have resolv’d to give the Sum of £ 5 Sterling to the third young Woman, recommended by you, as a Reward for having acquir’d the Art; And they will give the Sum of £ 2 Sterling to every other young Woman, who shall make her Self Mistress of the same within the next Year. As in your Letter to the President and Assistants, dated October 8th. you was doubtfull whether the Sums order’d to be given to the two first young Women were to be a Yearly Allowance, I am directed by the Trustees to acquaint you, that they never design’d them so, but only as Rewards for their Industry & Application, in having learnt the Art of winding; Indeed, as the Trustees could not afford to give such Annual Sums, so the People who raise the Cocoons, and wind the Silk, will not stand in need of them, as the Price they will receive for their Labour, and the immediate Payment of the Money, will be a sufficient Encouragement for their Perserverance. That the Money may be paid immediately to the Saltzburghers concerned herein, the Trustees intend to send over a Sum of Money to be deposited in your Hands, and to be paid by you, or by Mr. [John Ludwig] Meyer under your Directions, in the following Proportions. vizt.
The Sum of 14s Sterling for every pound of 16 Ounces, of the first Sort of Silk of 5 or 6 Threads.
And the Sum of 6s for every Pound of 16 Ounces of the worst Sort.
As some of the People may be able only to raise Cocoons, and others only to wind the Silk; They must then be paid in the following Proportions. vizt.
For the Cocoons, which produce the first Sort, that is those wherein one Worm only is contain’d, the Sum of Is. Sterl. is to be paid for every pound of 16 Ounces; And as 10 or 11 pounds of these Cocoons will make one pound of Silk, the Sum of 3s. Sterl. must be paid to the Winder of it.
For the Cocoons, which produce the second Sort. Is. Sterl. is to be paid for every pound of 16 Ounces, and 2s. Sterl. to the Winder of every pound of such Silk.
For the Cocoons, which produce the worst Sort, that is, those wherein two or three Worms have intermix’d, four pence Sterling for every pound of 16 Ounces, and Is. Sterl. to the Winder.
By the foregoing Prices and Regulations the Persons, who wind off the Silk, or their Families will have sufficient Encouragement to raise what Cocoons they can themselves; And those who raise the Cocoons will be encourag’d likewise to employ their Female Children in learning to wind; And yet those, who can do only one of the two will have an ample Profit from their Labour.
When any Cocoons are brought to be paid for, the young Women who are Winders, at least two of them, must attend, in Order to examine the Cocoons, and deliver their Opinion to you of what Sort they are, that you may determine what the Owners of them are to be paid; The Cocoons must be purchas’d and deliver’d to the Winders in time or else they will prove useless, unless for Seed.
I shall by this Conveyance, repeat the Trustees Directions to the President and Assistants, that the Saltzburghers are to have full Liberty of winding off all their own Silk at Ebenezer.
As in your Letter to the President and Assistants of October the 8th., you seem’d to be under some Difficulty about the Directions of the Trustees, “That £ 20 Sterl. p Ann. should be paid to Mr. [John Ludwig] Meyer, as Agent for the Saltzburghers, upon your certifying his Services and Expences.” The Trustees did not mean by this, that every trifling Service, or minute Expence should be certified, but only his doing the Duty in general of such Agent.
The Trustees are truly sensible how advantageous it would be to your Settlement, and the Colony in general, to have a Lumber Trade open’d. And they do not at present see any Objection to your having a proper Place; for a Wharf to be built (by your People as you propose) under the Banks of Savannah, to lodge and pile up the Boards, Plank &c. which may be waited down, in Order to be ready for Shipping. The Trustees will send their Orders, by this Opportunity to the President and Assistants to assign you the most convenient Place they can for a Wharf.
They are much pleas’d with the Account you give in your Journal of September last, of the Crops of Corn, Pease, Potatoes, Rice &c rais’d by your People; And particularly with your Method of planting your Mulberry Trees, with Pompions and other Things between them. As you mention’d in your Journal; a Want of proper Books to instruct your People in the Method of planting and pruning the Mulberry and other Trees; Instructions are prepar’d by a very ingenious Man, well vers’d in the Art of Gardening, and inclos’d with this will be sent to you, so that I hope you will want no Knowledge necessary for cultivating the Mulberry Trees; And I am sure you want no Advice to encourage your People to be industrious in planting them.
Harman Verelst to the Rev. John Martin Bolzius, March 25, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 327, concerning silk from Ebenezer, and packages sent. By the Fortrose, Capt. Mackenzie.
By a Letter from Mr. Harris by Captn. Hooper, dated at Charles Town in South Carolina 25 November last,33 I rec’d a Bill of Lading for the other Box of Raw Silk from Ebenezer by the Two Sisters Captain Bogg, which Ship I hope soon to hear of.
I have sent to Mr. [William] Hopton to be forwarded to Savannah, and from thence to you at Ebenezer, 3 Covered Boxes mark’d H.P.B., BE, & EL on board the Fortrose Captn. James Mackenzie, which I hope will come safe to hand.
Harman Verelst to William Stephens, March 25, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 328, telling of parcels shipped for the Salzburgers. By the Fortrose, Capt. Mackenzie.
By Bill of Lading dated the 23d instant I have consign’d to Mr. William Hopton at Charles Town in South Carolina, Three cover’d Boxes mark’d H.P.B., BE, and EL, which are to be forwarded to you, and by you to the Revd. Mr. [John Martin] Bolzius at Ebenezer; They being sent from Germany for the Saltzburghers to his Care, and at his Disposal; The Freight of them has been paid by the Trustees here. You are therefore to forward the said Parcels accordingly, with the Letter inclosed.
Benjamin Martyn to the President and Assistants in Ga., May 19, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 328-329, concerning allowing Negroes in Ga. By the Charming Judith, Capt. Taite.
Sir and Gentlemen
I have laid before the Trustess your Letter of the 4th. of May 1748, wherein you mention Abundance of People having applied to you for Grants of Land in Georgia, and Numbers of Negroes being introduc’d into the Province, and you give your Reasons, why you hope the Trustees might be induc’d to permit them under Restrictions. I have acquainted the Trustees likewise with the Letter I wrote to you dated the 26th. of August 1748,34 in Answer to yours, and wherein I desired you would on Consultation with the principal People of the Province, send over what you thought might be usefull Regulations, in Case the Trustees should think proper to apply for the Repeal of the Act against Negroes. I have laid before them also the Representation in Consequence of my Letter, which is dated the 10th. of January 1748/9 which has the Town Seal affix’d to it, and is sign’d by yourSelves and several other Inhabitants of the Province.
The Trustees could not but resent any Persons violating in so open a manner, a Law evidently made for the Security of the Province, especially as, from a constant Experience of the Trustees Attention to procure them all the Good in their Power, the People might hope for every thing being granted to their Petitions, which could be with Safety. But whatever the Resentment of the Trustees might be, They have come to a Resolution, to petition His Majesty, that the Law against Negroes may be repeal’d; And to pray, that an Act may be ratified for permitting them in the Province of Georgia, under such Restrictions and Regulations, as will be maturely consider’d in His Majesty’s Privy Council, the Performance of which will most certainly be insisted on; And as they will be calculated chiefly for the People’s Interest, a Sense of this, as well as Duty to His Majesty must undoubtedly enforce Observance of them.
There is One thing I ought here to apprise you of. vizt. That as it is the general Desire of the Nation to have the raising of Silk carried to the greatest Length and Perfection possible in Georgia, as being what is most wanted in England, and does not interfere with the Products of other Colonies, the Trustees do expect, that in the Act, to be prepared by the Council, Clauses will be inserted; which may provide and secure, that the Culture of Silk will not be prejudic’d by the Introduction of Negroes, but rather promoted by it.
Benjamin Martyn to William Russell, May 19, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 329, informing him of his nomination for Naval Officer in Ga. By the Charming Judith, Capt. Taite.
I have laid before the Trustees your Letter to me dated December 31st. 1748; And They have come to a Resolution to recommend you to the Commissioners of the Customs for the Place of Naval Officer in the Province of Georgia. When you are appointed by them I’ll give you Notice.
Benjamin Martyn to Richard Nevil Adlworth, May 29, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 330, concerning German protestants in England.
Several German Protestants have this Morning applied to the Trustees, and all edg’d, that they have been prevail’d on by one Mr. Riemensperger to leave their Habitations in Germany, and come over at their own Expence to England, in order to go & settle in South Carolina; and They not being provided for, as they expected, by him, and being left in great Distress, have petitioned the Trustees for Relief, and that they be sent over to Georgia. The Trustees have taken their Case into Consideration, and, least they should be left to starve, or should become burthensome here, and as they are proper Persons to be sent, the Trustees had agreed to send over fifty of them; But finding they were but seventy, and some of them Children, they have resolved to send over the whole Number, which are as many as their present Circumstances will enable them.
The Trustees hear likewise there are great Numbers coming from Germany, probably, upon the same Invitation, which, as it has happen’d to come to their Knowledge. They think it a matter of Respect to his Grace the Duke of Bedford, not to lose any time in communicating.
Upon the Establishment of Peace in Europe it was thought necessary by the Government here to make a Reduction of part of the Army; upon this Occasion the Georgia Trustees, to manifest their Care of the People in that Colony, directed me to write a Letter to Mr. [John] Potter, Secretary to the Duke of Bedford, Principal Secretary of State, and represent the State of the Colony, as a Frontier, that some Forces might be left in it for it’s Security. Among other Things then represented, it was natural to take Notice of the Saltzburghers, and other Foreign Protestants, that they might not be left exposed to the Spaniards, who, as Papists, must be their irreconcileable Enemies. A due Attention, Sir was shewn to this Letter; The Trustees were assur’d, the Colony would be sufficiently protected, and a constant Regard would be had to the Safety and Welfare of the Saltzburghers, and the other Inhabitants of it, and Orders were immediately given for a sufficient Number of Soldiers to be station’d in proper Places of the Colony, to maintain the Possession of it. By some Accident the Letter which I wrote to Mr. Potter stole abroad, and was publish’d in the Utrecht and Hague Gazettes of the 27th. of January last N.S.; But no Notice was taken at the same time of the Measures of his Majesty, our King, order’d to be taken in Consequence of the said Letter. The printing this has justly given Offence to the Government, and the greatest Concern to the Trustees, lest ill grounded apprehensions and Fears might be rais’d and spread in Germany, and other Parts of Europe, for the Saltzburghers, who are already happily settled there; and which must naturally tend to frighten other Protestants, who might be inclined to seek an Asylum there. To prevent the ill Consequences of this, as far as they are able, the Trustees have directed me to acquaint you with the foregoing Passages, and to send you part of another Letter, which I wrote to Mr. Potter, in Answer to a Letter from him, written by Order of the Duke of Bedford, being assur’d you, and Monsr. [Chretien] de Munch will make the proper Use of it, to expel the Poison the other Letter may have spread.
Before the publishing my Letter in the Gazettes, I wrote to Mr. [John] Bolzius, and acquainted him with the Measures taken for the Protection of the Colony, and assur’d him that he and the Saltzburghers could have nothing to apprehend, and that their Welfare would be a constant and great Object of the Care of the Trustees. I have the pleasure of informing you, that they go on very successfully in the Silk, and this must soon turn out greatly to the Advantage of their Settlement. This Produce will find Employment for any Numbers who may go from Germany to Ebenezer, that is, during the Season of feeding the Worms; and winding the Silk and it will yield Profits for an ample Support for such Numbers, tho they have other Means of raising this. The Trustees have been taking such Steps for the Encouragement of the Saltzburghers in the Culture of Silk, not only by giving Rewards to those who have already learnt the Art of winding it, but to such also who may hereafter require it, and by giving them Money for the Silk immediately on producing it, that they have no doubt, but their Application and Industry will be quicken’d and strengthened hereby.
Benjamin Martyn to the Rev. Samuel Urlsperger at Augsburgh, June 5, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 332, telling him of German servants being sent to the Salzburgers.
I hope you received my Letter dated the 23d. of March last which I wrote to acquaint you with some Particulars relating to the Colony of Georgia.
As the Saltzburghers there have from time to time been complaining of the want of Servants, and have applied to you as well as the Trustees, upon this account. I have the pleasure of acquainting you, that an Opportunity has just Offer’d of supplying them with some. Seventy Persons, all Protestants from Saltzburgh and Wirtenburgh, were lately brought to England by one Mr. Reimensperger, in Order to be carried to South Carolina, but on their Coming here, they found themselves deceiv’d in his Promises, and their Expectations; Upon which, to relieve them in their Distress, the Trustees resolv’d to send them over as Servants for four Years, to subsist them till their Embarkation, and give them their Passage to Georgia. This Number is the utmost their present Circumstances will enable them to send, which they think proper, to acquaint you and Monsr. [Chretien] de Munch with, that, if it should come to your knowledge that any other German Protestants may think of coming with Expectations of being provided for in the same manner they may not be disappointed.
But if any are desirous of joining their Countrymen in Georgia, and can themselves defray the whole Expence of their Passage thither, the Trustees will on proper notice given them, order Lands to be laid out for them adjoining to Ebenezer, and in the same Proportions the Saltzburghers there have; Which is all they are to do.
You’ll please to communicate this to Monsr. [Chretien] de Munch.
I have rec’d your Letter of the 2d. instant,35 in which you say, you are directed by the Rt. Honble. Horatio Walpole Esqr. Auditor and Surveyor General of all His Majesty’s Plantations in America, to apply again, to know whether any more Lands have been granted by the Trustees, than what were contain’d in the Extract of Memorials of Grants exhibited by the Trustees, and whether any, or what Part of the Quit Rents have ever been paid upon any of the Grants hitherto made, or to whom, for his Majesty’s Use, according to his Letters Patent, that they might be duly accounted for, audited, and pass’d. I did acquaint you Sir, on the 22d. of December 1747, by Order of the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia, that they had sent a Letter to their President in Georgia dated 19th. August 1745, relating to the Commencement of Quit Rents there, and requiring a Return to be made, proper for ascertaining the said Quit Rents on each particular Grant; That a Return had been made on March 1747, but not being satisfactory to the Trustees, They had thought proper to renew their Orders to their Officers in Georgia, that another more compleat might be transmitted to them by the first Opportunity.
I am now Sir, to acquaint you further, by Order of the Trustees, that They have received a Letter from the President and Assistants in Georgia dated November 5th. 1748, in which they say, “That soon after the Receipt of the Trustees Orders, relating to the Grants and Possessors of Land, that Affair was taken in hand by them, but the remote Parts of the Colony being under great Confusion, occasion’d by the frequent Exchanges and Alienations, oblig’d them to go back to the earliest Date of the Colony, which had taken up a considerable length of Time, and must necessarily yet more, but nothing should be wanting in them to compleat and perfect the same with the utmost Expedition.”
The Trustees have rec’d another Letter dated February 22d 1748/9 to the same Purpose, and I am now repeating their Directions, that the Return may be as soon as conveniently can be.
Benjamin Martyn to William Wood, Sec. to the Customs Commissioners, June 22, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 334, recommending William Russell as Naval Officer for Ga.
The Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia desire you will acquaint the Honble. the Commissioners of His Majesty’s Customs, that They recommend Mr. Wm. Russel of Savanah in Georgia for Naval Officer in that Province. They desire to know what Security is proper to be taken in his Majesty’s Name, in the Town Court of Savanah, for his due Performance of the said Office a proper Assestation of which They will direct to be transmitted to England in Order to be lodg’d at the proper Office in the Custom House.
Benjamin Martyn to the President and Assistants in Ga., July 7, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 334-338, concerning silk production, sola bills sent, salary and land and allowances for the Rev. Bartholomew Zouberbuhler, Yamacraw Indian lands, Nicholas Rigby and William Russell appointments, German servants to arrive, list of grants and possessors of lands needed, growth of mulberry trees, weaving at Vernonburgh and Acton to be discouraged, account of population desired, provisions for soldiers stationed in Ga., millwright to Ga., utility of Trustees’ cowpen, method of answering Trustees’ letters. By the Charles Town Galley, Capt. Peter Bogg.
Sir and Gentlemen
I acquainted you in my Letter dated March 11th. 1749 in what Proportions the Trustees had resolv’d the People should be paid for the Silk produced by them, and for the Cocoons likewise; and that for their Encouragement to apply themselves with Spirit to the Culture of it, they should be paid upon the Spot upon producing the Silk, or the Cocoons. The Trustees direct this to be done to those, who bring these to Savannah, and for the Ease of the Saltzburghers, that they may wind off theirs at their own Settlement, Mr. [John Martin] Bolzius must be supplied by you with sufficient Sums in Sola Bills from time to time for the Payment of their Silk and Cocoons, the proper Vouchers for the Silk raised by them he is to produce to you, that it may come properly attested to the Trustees to be the Growth of Georgia; Which Caution must be observed likewise with all others.
You will receive by this Conveyance £1000 in Sola Bills fill’d up to you Sir, Mr. [Henry] Parker, Mr. [William] Spencer and Mr. [James] Habersham.
As the Trustees have a good Opinion of Mr. [Bartholomew] Zouberbuhler, as you have acquainted them he discharges his Duty in a proper manner, and as he is agreable to the People in general; They have resolv’d to give him the Sum of £ 50 p Ann. besides the £ 50 p Ann. which the Society for propagating the Gospel are to pay him. They have resolv’d likewise to allow him two Servants; And They direct you to get the Parsonage House repair’d, and made convenient for him; Or else, as he has suggested, that it would be more convenient for him, if the House should be rebuilt, and on Allowance of £100 to him he will undertake this himself; The Trustees agree that this Sum should be paid to him at proper times, as he shall have Occasion for it in the Progress of building his House, provided it shall appear to you that the Work is perform’d in such manner, as to make it strong and lasting for those who may succeed him. The Glass for the Windows for his House are bought by the Trustees as part of the said £100 and amounts to £10.9.6.
It appearing to the Trustees that the Glebe Land is laid out in improper Places, and in different Parcels at such a distance from each other as must make it very difficult, if not impracticable to be cultivated by the Minister, with the Servants allow’d him; And as the Glebe should be near his Residence, and there may not be a sufficient Quantity for it near Savanah, except that which was formerly inhabited by the Yamacraw Indians lying near to the River Savanah; The Trustees direct you to enquire if any of the Yamacraws are in being, and whether, if there are, They have abandon’d that Tract of Land, or if they may be inclin’d to surrender it to the Trust, with which you must acquaint the Trustees by the first Opportunity. It must be observ’d, that it cannot be given up to any private Person, and any pretended Agreements or Contracts, made with the Indians, for that Purpose, are ipso facto void; You must therefore enquire if any Attempts have been made to persuade the Indians to come into any such Contracts, and of what kind these are.
The Trustees have resolv’d to grant to Mr. Zouberbuhler 500d Acres of Land; And also to his two Brothers Mr. Sebastian Zouberbuhler of New England, and Mr. Melchior Liekenstaiger of South Carolina, a Grant of 500 Acres each, as near adjoining to his as possible, if it shall appear to you that they have Abilities to cultivate the same.
The Trustees have appointed Mr. Nicholas Rigby your Clerk, Secretary for the Indian Affairs; and They have recommended Mr. Wm. Russel to be appointed Naval Officer in Georgia.
A Body of Germans, 63 in Number, are embark’d on board the Charles Town Galley (Peter Bogg Master) for Georgia, and are to be sent to Ebenezer to be indented Servants to the Saltzburghers. They are to have Lands in the most convenient Places allotted for them, and as they are to serve for four Years, it must be settled with their Masters, at the time of entering into their Service, whether they are to be allow’d, during this, one day in the Week to work on their own Lands, or whether they shall have as much time, as so many days would amount to, deducted all together towards the End of their Service.
With these, 19 more are embark’d, in Order to settle among the Salzburghers; They go at their own Expence; And Each Male of them of 21 Years of Age is to have 50 Acres of Land set out for him at Ebenezer. Those of the Servants, who shall pay to you the Sum of £6. Sterling, the Expence of their Passage, within three Months, must be declared free, and have Lands immediately given them.
Your Letter Sir, dated Febry. 22d 1748/9 to Mr. Verelst, with the Proceedings of the President and Assistants from November 3d. exclusive to the 19th. of Janry 1748/9 inclusive, and your Journal from November 17th. 1748 to the 22d. of Febry 1748/9, both inclusive, are just arriv’d. In your Letter you say “You should have been glad to have been more particular relating to the Grants and Possessors of Lands &c than you are able; Whereof You and the Assistants in your Letter to the Secretary of the 5th. of November last wrote fully, and to which Letter you beg Leave to refer him.” The Letter you refer to runs thus “Your Letter of the 10th. of March relates wholly to the Grants and Possessors of Lands; Soon after the Receipt of the same, that Affair was taken in hand by the Board, but being a Matter of great Consequence, and the remote Parts of the Colony particularly the South, being under great Confusion, occasion’d by the frequent Exchanges and Alienations, obliges us to go back to the earliest Date of the Colony, which has taken up a considerable Length of Time, and must necessarily yet more, but nothing shall be wanting in us to compleat and perfect the same with the utmost Expedition, and we hope agreeable to the Trustees Intention.”
I am now directed to acquaint you, that the Trustees expect you should carry their Orders with regard to the Grants & Possessors of Land into Execution, with all the Expedition you conveniently can; For the Auditor of the Plantations is very impatient for the Account of the Grants, and the Commencement of the Quit Rents thereon.
The Trustees are concern’d to find Sir by your Letter of Febry. the 22d. that the Culture of the Silk continues still in a languid State, and that you say the Original Cause still remains without Remedy. vizt. A Neglect of raising Mulberry Trees sufficient. They cannot but think a Remedy might have been applied before this time for as it is an express Condition in all the Grants of Land, that 1000 Mulberry Trees shall be planted and kept up on every 100 Acres of Land, you and the Assistants had it in your Power to see this Condition perform’d, or to have taken the Forfeiture; and the Trustees expect you to exact that Care, which, you say your Selves, has been wanting for the Preservation of the Young Trees, by fencing them in, or planting them in Places that are fenc’d, that they may not be injur’d or destroy’d by the Cattle. These Conditions must be inserted in all the Grants, for the Trustees will not ratify any Grants made by you, but upon those express Terms, which you must see are perform’d, or otherwise acquaint the Trustees, that the Forfeitures may be taken.
You say Sir likewise in your Letter, that the People of Vernonburgh and Acton are giving visible Appearances of reviving their Industry, that they are propagating large Quantities of Flax and Cotton, and are provided with Weavers who have already wove several large Pieces of Cloth, of an usefull Sort where of they sold divers, and some they made use of in their own Families. The Account of their Industry is highly satisfactory to the Trustees; But as to manufacturing the Produces they raise, they must expect no Encouragement from the Trustees; for setting up Manufactures, which may interfere with those in England, might occasion Complaints here; For which Reason you must, as they will, always discountenance them; and it will be necessary for you to direct the Industry of those People into a Way, which might be more beneficial to themselves, and would prove satisfactory to the Trustees, and the Publick, that is, to shew them what Advantages they will reap from the Produce of Silk, which they will receive immediately Payment for; And that this will not interfere with, or prevent their raising Flax or Cotton, or any other Produces for Exportation unmanufactur’d
It appearing by your Proceedings lately, that many & large Tracts of Land have been made to new Settlers, the Number of People in the Province must be greatly increas’d; It is of Consequence that the Trustees should be enabled to shew this Increase. They expect therefore that you will without Loss of Time procure the most exact Accounts you can of the Number of People in the different Parts of the Province, and transmit them by the first Opportunity. And They hope they shall receive these accounts before the next Session of Parliament; In these you will particularly note, what Number of Negroes have been introduc’d into the Province.
The Parliament have granted the Sum of £304.3.4 for certain Allowances in Provisions to the Detachments to be station’d in Georgia, besides their Pay. Mr. James Habersham is authorized by the Trustees to supply them with the said Provisions as follows (being the Plan on which Mr. Revel furnish’d the Regiment). He is to take Receipts from the Commanding Officer, whether Commission’d or Non Commission’d, for the Quantities deliver’d to him, by the said Officer distributed as undermentioned. vizt.
For seven days to each Person two pounds and one third of Bread or Flour, and not less than one Moiety of the latter, two pounds and one third of Beef, one Pint of Pease, two Ounces of Butter, and a Quarter of a Pint of Rice.
For the accommodating the said Detachments, & relieving them from time to time, the King will order a Boat with a Coxswain and ten Men, which Boat is appointed to be under the Trustees Direction.
In the former Part of this Letter I acquainted you that the 19 Germans who go at their own Expence, were to have Lands set out for them near Ebenezer; This is in Case they desire it there, but if they chuse to have it at Vernonburgh and Acton, Lands must be set out for them there, according to their Desire. A Millwright likewise goes by this Ship and pays his own Expence; He must have fifty Acres set out for him.
The Trustees observe that I wrote to you so long ago as May 10th. 1743 and likewise March 10th. and July 18th. 1746 to let you know that they wanted to be acquainted, what Use the Cowpen was of and whether it was necessary for them to be at such an Expence for it, and likewise what the Increase of Cattle there was, and what Returns the Cowpenkeeper made of them from time to time. But no particular answers have been made to them and as the wild cattle are much complain’d of as being very troublesome and pernicious to many of the Planters, you must take into Consideration the proper methods of putting an End to this Evil, and acquaint the Trustees with them.
On this Occasion the Trustees order me to say They expect that all the Letters I write to you, should be answer’d Paragraph by Paragraph.
P.S. A Copy of Mr. Miller’s Instructions about planting the Mulberry Trees will be inclos’d with this.
Banjamin Martyn to the Rev. John Martin Bolzius, July 7, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 339, concerning German servants arriving. By the Charles Town Galley, Capt. Bogg.
The Trustees have at last an Opportunity of gratifying you in what you have wish’d for the Salzburghers. vizt. Some Servants from Germany, and they readily laid hold of it as soon as offer’d. These are Men, Women and Children, sixty three, and as they seem a well dispos’d People, the Trustees have no doubt but they’ll prove usefull likewise, and will meet with a kind Reception from their Masters and others. They are to have Lands allotted for them in the most convenient Places, and as they are to serve for four Years, it must be settled with their Masters, at the time of entering into their Service (to prevent all Disputes afterwards) whether they are to be allow’d, during their Service, one day in the Week to work on their own Lands, or whether they shall have as much time, as so many days would amount to, deducted all together at the End of their Service.
The Trustees however have resolved, that in Case any of the said Servants shall within the Space of three Months from their Arrival in Georgia pay, or cause to be paid into the hands of the President and Assistants, the Sum of £6 Sterl. (the Expence the Trustees are at for their Passage) such Person or Persons so paying the same shall be declar’d to be free, and shall, each Man of 21 Years of Age, be immediately put in possession of 50 Acres of Land. The Trustees have likewise resolved that every married Couple shall serve together, and that no Girl under ten years of Age, or Boy under twelve, shall be seperated from their Parents.
I have acquainted Messrs. Urlsperger and Von Munch, with the sending over these Servants to you.
I shall by this Conveyance send to the President and Assistants the several Regulations on which the Trustees intend to form the Act for permitting Negroes in the Colony; And you will see a Regard has been had to those Points, which you wrote about to Mr. [Friedrich Michael] Zeigenhagen.
Benjamin Martyn to the President and Assistants in Ga., July 7, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 340-342, giving proposed regulations for Negro slaves in Ga. By the Charles Town Galley, Capt. Bogg.
Sir and Gentlemen
I acquainted you in my Letter dated May 19th. last, that the Trustees had resolv’d to petition his Majesty that, the Act for rendering the Colony of Georgia more defencible by prohibiting the Importation and Use of black Slaves or Negroes into the same might be repeal’d and to prepare a Law by which Negroes may be admitted under several Restrictions and Regulations. They have this now under their Consideration, and as you took into Consultation with you upon this Affair several of the principal People of the Colony when you propos’d the Regulations which occur’d to you, you must assemble such again, that they may see the Regulations, upon which the Trustees think proper to form the Act, which do not differ widely from those which you transmitted; but there are some additional Ones, which the Trustees look on as absolutely necessary.
In the first place, They can never lose Sight of the Colony being a Frontier, of the Danger which must attend too great a Disproportion of Blacks and white Men, and the Facility with which the Negroes may make their Escape from Georgia to Augustine, if not sufficiently guarded; They have resolv’d therefore, that every Man, who shall have four Male Negroes above the Age of 14, shall be obliged to have and constantly keep one indented white Male Servant aged between 20 & 55. If he shall have eight Male Negroes, he shall constantly keep two indented white Male Servants of the aforesaid Age, and for every four Negroes upwards he shall keep on additional white Male Servant of the aforesaid Age, his Sons not to be reckon’d among such white Servants. If any Person, having such Numbers of Negroes as aforesaid, shall refuse or neglect to provide such Male Servants in proportion within twelve Calendar Months, he shall forfeit for every Negro above the Number for which he has white Male Servants so aged, the Sum of £10 Sterl., and the further Sum of £ 5 Sterl. each Month after, during which he retains such Negro.
No artificer shall be suffer’d to take any Negro as an Apprentice, nor shall any Planter lend or let out a Negro or Negro’s to another Planter, to be employ’d otherwise than in manuring and cultivating the Plantations in the Country.
Proprietors of Negroes shall not be permitted to exercise an unlimited Power over them.
All Negroes, imported into or born in the Province of Georgia shall be register’d; And no Sale of Negroes from one Man to another shall be valid, unless register’d. Inquisitions shall be made once in every Year, or oftener if need be, into the Registers by Juries in the several Districts, who shall immediately afterwards make their Reports to the Magistrates.
As other Provinces have greatly suffer’d by permitting Ships with Negroes to send them on shore, when ill of contagious Distempers (as particularly South Carolina has often by the yellow Fever) proper Places must be appointed for such Ships as bring Negroes to Georgia, to cast Anchor at, in Order to their being visited, and to perform such Ouarentain as shall be order’d by the President and Assistants; And no Ships must be suffer’d to come nearer than those Places, before they are visited by proper Officers, and a Certificate of Health is obtain’d. And in Case of any contagious Distempers on board, proper Places must be appointed at a Distance from the Towns for Lazarettos, where the whole Crew of the Ship and the Negroes may be lodg’d and supplied with Refreshments, and assisted towards their Recovery. You must acquaint the Trustees by the first Opportunity, with the Names and Descriptions of the proper Places for the Ships to stop at, & likewise where to perform a Quarentain if there are contagious Distempers on board, that those Places may be specified in the Act.
No Master shall oblige or even suffer his Negro or Negroes to work on the Lord’s Day, but he shall permit or oblige them to attend at some time in that Day for Instruction in the Christian Religion which the Protestant Ministers of the Gospel must be oblig’d to give them. The Minister or Ministers shall on all Occasions inculcate in the Negroes the natural Obligations to a married State, where there are Female Slaves cohabiting with them; And an absolute Forbearance of blaspheming the Name of God by prophane Cursing or Swearing. No Inter Marriages between white People and Negroes shall be deem’d lawful Marriages; And if any white Man shall be convicted of lying with a Female Negro, or any white Woman of lying with a Male Negro He or She shall on such Conviction be, and the Negro shall receive a Corporal Punishment.
As the Culture of Silk is the great Object of the Trustees, and they are determin’d to make it, as far as lies in their Power, the Object of all the People in Georgia, by never ratifying any Grants in which the Conditions for planting, fencing, and keeping up the proper Number of Mulberry Trees are not inserted, and by insisting on the forfeiture of all Grants, where those Conditions are not perform’d, They have resolv’d, that every Man, who shall have four Male Negroes, shall be oblig’d to have, for every such four, one Female Negro instructed in the Art of winding Silk. The Conditions, as mention’d in my other Letter are, that 1000 Mulberry Trees shall be planted on every 100 Acres, the same proportion to be observ’d in less Grants; And that, for the Preservation of the Trees against Cattle, the Planter shall fence in his Mulberry Trees, or plant them in places already fenc’d.
As there are several publick Works which are absolutely necessary, such as maintaining the Lighthouse, providing for the Pilot and Pilot Boat, the Repairs of the Church, the Wharf, and the Prison and building Lazarettos; And other publick Services, such as the Support of the Minister when other Supports shall fail, and several Officers of Civil Government as Constables, Tythingmen &c. And as some Funds will be requisite for these, the Trustees think nothing can be more reasonable than a Duty upon Negroes at Importation, and an annual Tax p Head upon the Possession of them, which Tax and Duty must be paid for the Use of the Trust into the hands of proper Persons appointed by the Trustees; It will therefore be requisite for you in your Consultation, to consider what Duty and Tax may in your Opinion be proper for the aforesaid Services, and other necessary publick Uses of the Colony, and transmit your Opinion hereon, under the Seal as before, by the first Opportunity.
Harman Verelst to Thomas Lee, July 6, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 342, telling him that an anvil is sent for him.
Your Letter to Mr. Tomkins being brought to the Trustees representing you had paid the £4 for the Smith’s Bellows the Trustees sent you, and that you wanted a large Anvill in Georgia; They have therefore, to encourage your Industry, sent You one by this Conveyance weighing 2 cwt.:2:9 which at 5d. a pound came to £ 6:1:-. And the President and Assistants are directed to credit you therewith until you repay the same for the Trustees Use in Georgia, in Work or Service.
Harman Verelst to James Habersham, July 6, 1749, Westminster, C.O.5/668, pp. 343-344, giving him instructions about provisions for troops to be stationed in Ga., and sola bills sent. By the Charles Town Galley, Capt. Bogg.
His Majesty having order’d Detachments from the three Independent Companies form’d out of Genl. Oglethorpe’s Regiment, to do Duty in several Parts of Georgia, to preserve the Possession thereof; The Trustees were desir’d to furnish the said Detachments with certain Allowances of Provisions (over and above the Pay they receive from the Government) upon the Plan which Mr. Revell the Contractor furnished the late Regiment in Georgia; And that was to each Person for seven Days. Two pounds and one third of Bread or Flour and not less than one Moiety of the latter, two pounds and one third of Beef, one pint of Pease, two Ounces of Butter, and a Quarter of a Pint of Rice.
The Trustees therefore desire your supplying the said Provisions, and to receive Payment of the President and Assistants on the following Vouchers you are to deliver for the same; And I consulted Mr. Revell thereon, who advises the Bread to be baked in Georgia, and the Beef to be bought fresh there all the Year if it can; He says the Flour may be had from New York or Pensilvania and the Butter from New York.
You will consult the Commander of each Party of the said Detachmts. whether Commission’d or Non Commission’d Officer, as to the Quantities of each kind proper to be deliver’d at a time; And you are to take his Receipt for the Quantities and kinds delivered by you, which he must acknowledge to have so received to make a regular Distribution thereof to the Individuals, specifying the Number under his Command, and that they were received for himself and them; On which Receipts you must compute the Valuation due to you thereon, which will intitle you to Payments for the same, and to the Vouchers to discharge this Service. And as the said Parties will naturally be glad of an Opportunity of laying out part of their Pay in making up the said Allowances of Provisions to the Quantities and kinds of Provisions they shall want, you will have an Opportunity of furnishing such of them at the same time as may require it.
A Boat is to be order’d by His Majesty, to be under the Trustees Directions to be mann’d with a Coxswain and ten Men for relieving the Detachments in Georgia, and carrying the Provisions to them; But whether that Order will go by this or the next Conveyance is yet uncertain.
The Trustees have put your Name in to be one of the Issues of their Sola Bills, and £1,000 is sent by this Conveyance to clear off such Expences the Trustees had order’d on their reduced Estimate to Lady Day last, and upon Accot. of the said Estimate from that time, as well as the subsisting disbanded Soldiers and their Families for a Year who shall remain and settle on Lands in Georgia, and for the said Allowance of Provisions to the beforementioned Detachments doing Duty in Georgia, and £600 more for the same Services will be sent by the Apollo, the new Ship which Captn. Nickleson lately purchased, which will sail the latter End of this Month.
Harman Verelst to William Russell, July 6, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 344, telling of his recommendation to be Naval Officer in Ga.
The Recommendations of you to the Trustees, and your good Behaviour, have engaged their recommending you to the Commissioners of the Customs for the Office of Naval Officer in Georgia; And as soon as the Constitution and Instructions are got, which I sollicit for the same shall be forwarded to you.
Harman Verelst to Nicholas Rigby, July 6, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 344, telling of his appointment as Secretary of Indian Affairs in Ga.
Your Application for Secretary for the Indian Affairs, in which Office you represent to have acted without an Appointment from the Trustees, having been consider’d. An Appointment of you to that Office is sent over by this Conveyance to the President and Assistants to deliver you.
Harman Verelst to the Rev. John Martin Bolzius, July 6, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 345, sending medicines and telling that William Russell is appointed Naval Officer for Ga.
Mr. [John Ludwig] Meyer having sent a List of Medicines for the Saltzburghers at Ebenezer the Trustees order’d my getting them; They are sent by this Conveyance in a Chest directed Medicines for Ebenezer, which Chest will be sent to you. The Secretary having wrote fully about the Germans sent over by this Ship, I refer you to his Letter.
Your Recommendation of Wm. Russell to be Naval Officer has taken Place.
lb 1 Couch. Marin Cet.
oz 3 Croc. Stahl
161b Extr Panchymag
oz 2 Flor. Oxci sal
oz 2 Gum Kedar
lb 1 Herb Arnic
lb 1 Rad Taraxac
lb 1 Vincetox
lb 1 Sal. Sedlicens
oz 4 Sem Anis Stellat
lb 1 Terr Segell Alb
lb 2 Tart Vitriol ex Ciner Clav. Par.
oz 2 Theriac Calest
Harman Verelst to the President and Assistants in Ga., July 10, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 345-348, concerning Trustee estimates, expenses and accounts in Ga., glass for church and parsonage, anvil and medicines sent, appointments of Nicholas Rigby and William Russell, sola bills sent, and scythes and stones sent. By the Charles Town Galley, Capt. Peter Bogg.
Sir and Gentlemen
With my Letter of the 2d. of January last by the Frances and John Captn. Boyton, you received £100 in Sola Bills towards defraying the Trustees estimated Expences in Georgia to Christmas 1748; But the half Year’s account of Expences, which the Trustees received the 2d. of December 1748, amounted to £805.11.4 besides the Payments to Carpenters and others employed in finishing the Church; Which half Year’s Expence exceeding the Estimate the Trustees sent you the 18th. of March 1746/7 to take Place on it’s Arrival, occasion’d an Arrear of Demands.
When the next half Year’s Account arrives, it will be then seen how the said reduced Estimate has operated.
The Parliament having granted a Supply for the further Improvement of the Colony, the subsisting disbanded Soldiers and their Families for a Year, who shall remain and settle on Lands in Georgia, and for an Allowance in Provisions (besides their Pay from the Government) to the Detachments of the three Independent Companies from South Carolina, who are to do Duty in Georgia to preserve the Possession thereof. The Trustees have by this Conveyance sent over £1,000 in their Sola Bills, consisting of five Books containing 500 of £1 each, Letter A No. 13001 to 13500, and of one Book containing 100 of £ 5 each Letter C No. 1951 to 2050, to clear off such Expences as they order’d to Lady Day last, and upon Account of the above mentioned Services from that time; Which Bills are fill’d up to Wm. Stephens Esqr. Henry Parker, Wm. Spencer and Jas. Habersham or any two of them to issue under your Direction, to whose Care the said Bills are committed.
And in Order to remind you of the Estimate the Trustees sent you the 18th. of March 1746/7, amounting to £1211.13.4 for a year (besides the £5 a Year to Tythingmen where ten Families or upwards were in their Tythings, and no more Tythingmen were to be employed than in such Tythings) herewith you receive a Copy of the said Estimate, with this Addition, that £40 a Year having been paid the Clerk of the Accounts in Georgia instead of £30.- that was estimated, the Trustees approve thereof; And they have also added the Article of £50. a Year they have allowed to Mr. [Bartholomew] Zouberbuhler as Missionary besides the £50. a Year he receives from the Incorporated Society, and the Allowance from the Trustees for maintaining and clothing two Servants for him; The Payments of which allowances made by the Trustees, they direct he may puncually receive Quarterly; But They have advanced him the £ 50 a Year Allowance from them to Christmas next.
The Allowance in Provisions to the Detachments doing Duty in Georgia (besides their Pay from the Government) is on the Plan Mr. Revell the Contractor used to furnish the Regiment with, Mr. [James] Habersham is therefore wrote to, to supply the Quantities and kinds thereof, which are as follow. To each Person for seven days, two pounds and one third of Bread or Flour, and not less than one Moiety of the latter; Two pounds and one third of Beef, one Pint of Pease, two Ounces of Butter, and a quarter of a Pint of Rice; And Mr. Habersham must proportion the Quantities of each kind he is to deliver to each Party for the serving so long a time at each Delivery as the Commander of the Party and he shall agree; Whose Receipt to Mr. Habersham for the same will be his Discharge, mentioning therein that the said Commander undertakes the regular Distribution thereof to the Individuals; and Mr. Habershams Valuations of the Quantities and kinds so delivered with his Receipts thereon for the Money, will be your Discharge for the Payments to him. For which a seperate head of Account must be made in the half Yearly General Accounts you shall send over to the Trustees, with certified Copies of the Vouchers supporting the same.
As to the Year’s Subsistance to the disbanded Soldiers of the Regiment and their Families, who shall remain and settle on Lands in Georgia; The expence thereof must also be made a separate head of Account, until their Year’s Subsistance is compleated.
A Boat with a Coxswain and ten Men for relieving the Detachmts. in Georgia, and carrying the Provisions to them, is intended to be ordered, and to be under the Trustees Directions; But whether that Order will go by this, or the next Conveyance, is yet uncertain.
Herewith you receive the Contract made with the Germans, sent over at the Trustees Expence as Servants, making 63 in Number and 55 1/2 Freights their Names who have sign’d it with those of their Families are indorsed on the back thereof, to prevent Mistakes. The Secretary’s Letter furnishes you with the proper Instructions concerning them, but Mr. [Bartholomew] Zouberbuhler is to be supplied with two or three of them whom he shall chuse. He takes his Passage in this Ship and brings over nine Cases of Books containing the Library of the late Dr. Crow, to be added to the Books in Georgia for composing a Publick Library there; And herewith you receive a Catologue of the said Books now sent with Mr. Zouberbuhlar’s Receipt thereto, to be accountable to the Trustees for them, by which Catalogue a Survey of them may be occasionally made every one or two Years. In the Case No. 9 there are also pack’d in a Partition therein, 100 Horn Books, 200 Spelling Books, 100 Primers, 50 Psalters, and 50 Testaments, which Mr. Zouberbuhler desir’d to be sent over for School Books.
Mr. Zouberbuhler desiring that from the Plan of the Church you sent over, the Sizes of the Squares of Crowne Glass, and the Numbers of the different Sizes, for the Sides and End Windows, necessary for the Church, might be computed by the Scale of ten feet to an Inch for two Inches Sashes the said Dimensions are described on a long Stick of Wood Mr. Zouberbuhler brings with him; and the Trustees have sent by this Ship in three Boxes mark’d G X C No. 1 to 3, Two hundred and eighty Squares, including the spare ones in Case of Accidents for the said Windows, whereof 200 measure 16 1/4 Inches by 13 3/4 for the Side Squares and 80 measure 16 1/4 Inches by 11 3/4 for the End Squares; And they have also purchased for Mr. Zouberbuhler, which are in two other Boxes mark’d BZ No. 4 & 5, Four hundred Squares of Crowne Glass including spare ones, for the intended House for the Minister at Savannah, for which £10:9:6 has been paid and is part of the £100 Mr. Zouberbuhler applied for to be allowe’d him to build a Parsonage House with for himself & Successors, which the Secretary has acquainted you of.
Thomas Lee the Blacksmith, to whom the pair of Smith’s Bellows was sent over the 11th. of March 1747/8 which he writes he paid you the £4 for, having desir’d an Anvill to be sent over to him to pay for in Georgia; by this Conveyance you receive one mark’d GxC weighting 2 cwt.:2:9 which cost £6:1:- And if Thomas Lee is living, the Trustees direct your giving him Credit for the same, and receiving from him in Work or Service the said Cost thereof, charging the same to Account when so received, and taking Credit for the Work or Service to be done by him to that Value; But if he should not be living you are to dispose of the said Anvill for the Trustees Service, to such other Blacksmith as may hereafter want the same.
Mr. [John Ludwig] Meyer of Ebenezer having applied for some Medicines, a Box containing such of them as could be got from the Apothecary’s Company, and directed Medicines for Ebenezer is herewith sent to be forwarded to Mr. [John Martin] Bolzius by your Order.
For all which, with the Box of Sola Bills, a Bill of Lading is sent to the President, to demand of the Captain; and a Copy of the Charterparty, sign’d by the Captain by whom the Germans are sent, is also sent him to shew you, that you may be satisfied of his having fully complied therewith, and acquaint the Trustees thereof.
Nicholas Rigby your Clerk, being appointed Secretary for Indian Affairs, under the Act for regulating the Trade with the Indians, herewith you receive his Constitution; And Wm. Russell is recommended by the Trustees to the Commissioners of the Customs, to be appointed Naval Officer in Georgia; whose Appointment shall be transmitted by the first Opportunity after obtain’d.
On the 4th. instant £600 more in Sola Bills were order’d to be made out on Account for the beforementioned Services in Georgia, and will be sent you by the next Opportunity.
Mr. Zouberbuhler having represented that some Scythes & Stones would be of Use to be sent over, the Trustees have sent in a Box, Mark’d GxC 3 dozen Scythes Stones & 4 large Ragstones, and in a bundle 24 Scythes, which are included in the Bill of Lading.
Benjamin Martyn to the President and Assistants in Ga., July 14, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 349, concerning German servants for them. By the Charles Town Galley, Capt. Bogg.
Sir and Gentlemen
Since my Letter of the 7th. instant, it has been recollected, that you might want such Servants as are allotted to you in the Estimate. In this Case the Trustees think proper for you to take them out of this Body of Germans. But as some of them are Lutherans, and others not, it will be better that yours should be of the last Number, as more proper for Mr. [Bartholomew] Zouberbuhlers Church.
I have rec’d your Letter and Journal two days ago, and have this day, by the Trustees order, laid the Contents of them before his Grace the Duke of Bedford, Principal Secretary of State.
Benjamin Martyn to Richard Nevil Aldworth, July 14, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 349-350, concerning distribution of Indian presents.
As His Majesty had been graciously pleas’d to direct that the Sum of £ 3000 Sterl. should be sent annually from hence to be distributed in Presents to the Indians contiguous to, and in Alliance with the Provinces of South Carolina and Georgia; And that the Distribution of these Presents should be made by a Person to be appointed by the Governor Council and Assembly of South Carolina, and by such other Person as should be appointed by the Trustees of Georgia, who were to act jointly for that purpose; The Trustees did, in pursuance of his Majesty’s Orders, signified to them by his Grace the Duke of Bedford, appoint William Stephens Esqr. President in the Colony of Georgia, to act in the said Distribution; And in Case he could not attend, Mr. Patrick Graham was appointed his Coadjutor. Sir. The Trustees have just received Advice, that Mr. Stephens, upon Receipt of an Invoice of, and Bill of Lading for Presents, sent by the Francis and John Captn. Henry Boyton, which arriv’d at South Carolina in April last, did immediately send Mr. Graham to Charles Town, to attend at the Opening of the Chests containing the said Presents, and to pursue the Directions his Grace the Duke of Bedford had been pleas’d to send, vizt. That he should act in Conjunction with the other Person, to be appointed by the Governor, Council, and Assembly.
It appears that Mr. Graham thought proper to desire & insist, that a Moiety of the said Presents should be sent to Georgia. The Committee of the Assembly appointed to settle the Affair with him, were of that Opinion. But, after staying there some days, he was inform’d by the Governor, that He and the Council were of Opinion, that none should be sent to Georgia, or at least a small Part of them. Upon which thinking he could not perform his Duty, he return’d to Georgia.
Sir. The Trustees thought it incumbent on them to state the Fact, as it is transmitted to them, and to desire you will lay it before his Grace the Duke of Bedford; They submit the whole entirely to his Grace’s Judgments, but They think it their Duty to suggest that one great End of establishing the Colony of Georgia (as appears by the Preamble to the Charter) was to secure South Carolina against the Incursions of the Indians, who had laid that Province waste by Fire and Sword, but have never attack’d it since the Establishment of Georgia; And, as Georgia is the Frontier, it might prove of bad Consequence, if those Indians, who lye nearest to the Spanish Indians, or those, who lye nearest to the French, should be disappointed or think themselves slighted; Especially having acted with so much Vigour and Faithfulness during the War, and particularly when the Colony was invaded.
P.S. I have taken the Liberty of sending you a Copy of the Letter I wrote to the Govr. of South Carolina in May 1748 upon this Occasion,; Which the late Mr. [John] Potter saw, and thought was agreable to his Grace’s Intentions.
Harman Verelst to Richard Nevil Aldworth, Aug. 1, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 351, concerning boat for troops in Ga. and Lt. Col. Alexander Heron’s Indian accounts.
Your Letter of the 14th. of last Month was this day laid before the Trustees,36 wrote by the Direction of His Grace the Duke of Bedford, signifying His Majesty’s Approbation of the Annual Expence of a Boat Coxswain and ten Men for the time to come for the Use of the Detachments of the South Carolina Companies, and to carry the Provisions from Frederica to the usual Stations, which is to be under the Direction of the Trustees of Georgia, and not to exceed £ 426.7.6.
I am commanded by the said Trustees to desire you will acquaint His Grace; That they are very ready to give their Directions concerning the said Boat; But as they have but one Way of defraying the Expences of the Colony, which is by issuing Bills for which Money is always retained in the Bank to answer them; His Grace will be pleas’d on this Occasion to notify His Majesty’s Pleasure concerning the Expence of this Boat to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty’s Treasury, that they may give the proper Directions for issuing the Money necessary for this Service.
And your said Letter having further signified, that the Duke of Bedford had likewise received the King’s Commands, to refer to the Trustees the Letters and Papers from Col. [Alexander] Heron relating to the Indian Account, and the Expence of the Boatmen &c. That They might transmit the same to be inspected and examined by their Agents in Georgia.
The Trustees have thereupon order’d me to acquaint you that all the said Letters and Papers are order’d to be copied and transmitted to their Agent in Georgia with proper Instructions for their proceeding on such Inspection, Examination, and stating the said Account; Which when Certified to them shall be laid before his Grace to receive His Majesty’s Pleasure thereon.
Harman Verelst to the President and Assistants in Ga., Aug. 9, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 352-353, concerning Indian affairs, account, and approval of funds for boat for troops stationed in Ga. By the Loyal Judith, Capt. Cowie.
Sir and Gentlemen
His Grace the Duke of Bedford, His Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State, having by His Majesty’s Commands referred to the Trustees the following Letters and Papers from Lieutenant Colonel [Alexander] Heron, relating to the Indian Account and the Expence of the Boat Men &c.
A Letter to the Duke of Bedford dated 2d. November 1748 with a Schedule containing the whole Expence of the Frontier from June 25th. 1747 to September 25th. 1748, amounting to £2154.15.61/2 with Eighteen Vouchers for supporting £2054.17.81/2 part thereof.
A Copy of a Letter from William Stephens Esqr. to Lieutenant Colonel Heron dated 25th. October 1748 in Answer to the Lieutenant Colonel’s Letter to him of the 16th. of the same Month.
And a Letter to the Duke of Bedford dated 2d. January 1748. That the Trustees might transmit the same to you, to be inspected, examined and stated what shall appear due from His Majesty thereon; In order that the Duke of Bedford may lay them before the King, when properly certified by you to the Trustees.
For which purpose herewith you receive Copies of the said Letters and Papers and full Instructions from the Trustees for your satisfactory Proceedings therein; To which Instructions you are required strictly to adhere to, it being for His Majesty’s Service to have this Examination very clear.
The Duke of Bedford having informed the Trustees that His Majesty approved for the time to come of the Annual Expence of Boat Coxswain, and ten Men, to be station’d at Frederica for the Use of the Detachments of the South Carolina Companies, and to carry the Provisions from Frederica to the usual Stations to be under the Direction of the Trustees, provided the Annual Expence attending it did not exceed the Sum of £426.7.6 as particularly specified in the inclosed Estimate. His Grace has thereupon notified His Majesty’s Pleasure to the Treasury that they might give the proper Directions for issuing the Money necessary for this Service. And his Grace has also signified to Govr. Glen and Lieutenant Col. Heron, his Majesty’s Approbation of the said Boat, that they might conform themselves to the Trustees Directions therein.
As this Service is approved, the Trustees direct you to inform your Selves if there is any Boat the King’s Property, now in Georgia fit for this Employment, to be station’d at Frederica for the use it is intended; And as Directions are soon expected from the Treasury concerning the Expence thereof, you will by the next Opportunity be acquainted therewith, and how the same is to be defrayed; As also the intended Sola Bills for the Trustees estimated Expences will be then sent.
Estimate of the Expence of a Boat to be stationed at Frederica in Georgia for the Use of the Detachments from the three Independant Companies in South Carolina doing Duty in Georgia to preserve the Possession thereof, and for carrying Provisions allowed to such Detachments.
|A Coxswain at 3 £ a Month, & ten Men at 40s a Month each, for 12 Months is||276.-.-|
|Provisions for the said 11 at 6d a day each||100.7.6|
|Repairs of the Boat, Oars, Sails &c||50.-.-|
Harman Verelst to Gov. James Glen of S. C., Aug. 10, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 353, concerning boat for troops to be stationed in Ga. By the Loyal Judith, Capt. Cowie.
His Grace the Duke of Bedford having sent the inclosed to the Trustees Care to forward, and notified to the Treasury His Majesty’s Pleasure concerning the Expence of the Boat, to be station’d at Frederica for the Use of the Detachments from the South Carolina Companies to do Duty in Georgia; for preserving the Possession thereof, and to carry the Provisions from Frederica to the several Stations.
The Trustees have directed the President and Assistants in Georgia to inform themselves, if there is any Boat now in Georgia, and the King’s Property, which may be fit for this Employment; And that when the Directions from the Treasury are given concerning the Expence thereof the same will be communicated in what manner it is to be defrayed; And such further Directions will be given by the Trustees as shall be then necessary.
Harman Verelst to Lt. Col. Alexander Heron, Aug. 10, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 354, concerning boat for soldiers to be stationed in Ga. and Indian expenses. By the Loyal Judith, Capt. Cowie.
His Grace the Duke of Bedford having sent the inclosed to the Trustees Care to forward, and notified to the Treasury His Majesty’s Pleasure concerning the Expence of the Boat to be station’d at Frederica for the Use of the Detachments from the South Carolina Companies to do Duty in Georgia, for preserving the Possession thereof, and to carry the Provisions from Frederica to the several Stations.
The Trustees have directed the President and Assistants in Georgia, to inform themselves, if there is any Boat now in Georgia, and the King’s Property, which may be fit for this Employment; And that when the Directions from the Treasury are given concerning the Expence thereof, the same will be communicated in what manner it is to be defrayed; And such further Directions will be given by the Trustees as shall be then necessary.
The Duke of Bedford having, by the King’s Command, referred to the Trustees your Letters and Papers relating to the Indian Account and the Expence of the Boatmen &c That they might transmit the same, to the President and Assistants in Georgia, to be by them inspected, examined and stated what shall appear due from His Majesty thereon; In Order that His Grace may lay them before the King when properly certified by the said President and Assistants to the Trustees.
The Trustees have in pursuance of the said Reference sent them Copies of the said Letters and Papers, with full Instructions for their Proceedings therein, and have desired their useing all possible Dispatch in making the proper Return.
Harman Verelst to William Stephens, Aug. 24, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 355, concerning Indian present distribution. By the Loyal Judith, Capt. Cowie.
Your Letter to the Trustee’s Secretary of the 6th. of last Month was rec’d the 10th. of this Month, with your Journal and the Proceedings of the President and Assistants, which will be taken into Consideration the first Opportunity; But the Trustees receiving at the same time a Packet from Mr. Patrick Graham, relating to the Presents sent from England for the Indians, and his Proceedings thereupon, requiring immediate Consideration, as a Matter of the highest Importance to the Welfare of both Provinces; The Trustees have wrote to Mr. Graham on that head by this Conveyance, and herewith you receive a Copy of their Letter to him for Guidance and which you are desired to lay before the next Meeting of the President and Assistants for their Information thereof.
Harman Verest to Patrick Graham, Aug. 24, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 355-357, concerning distribution of Indian presents and medicines ordered. By the Loyal Judith, Capt. Cowie.
Your Letters to the Trustees Secretary of the 24th. of May, and 8th. of July last were both received, and are very satisfactory.
The Trustees greatly commend your Conduct at Charles Town, and are obliged to you for the Copy of the Report of the Council and Assembly of South Carolina wherein this Affair of the Presents has in many Points been very judicially consider’d, and especially that part of effacing the Impressions the Indians may have already received, and to prevent any Expectation of the Presents being annually renewed to them (which though intended, may not be performed by many unforeseen Accidents). That the Governor of South Carolina should inform the Indians, that these Presents are sent them by his Majesty, now that all his Enemies have made Peace with him, as a Token of his Affection towards the Indians, and of the Notice he hath taken of their good Behaviour during the War towards his Subjects in South Carolina and Georgia; Desiring that they may still live together, always like Brethren.
This Opinion of the Council and Assembly is so just and which being Known to Mr. [William] Stephens and you, the Trustees hope the same Example has been followed in Georgia for setting the Indians right in this Matter, in Case Presents have been distributed before the Receipt of this Letter; And if they have not been yet distributed the Trustees direct, that the same Reason for these Presents to the Indians may be given, as the Governor of South Carolina was by the said Report advised to give notwithstanding the Instructions the Trustees sent, that the Indians were to be acquainted that these Presents were intended to be renewed annually to them; The Reasons against it being so strong and unanswerable. And where the Example of South Carolina is a right one, it is a Justification to agree with that Province in such Example; The Trustees desiring that both Provinces should act for their mutual Benefit.
The Trustees observe that Abraham Bosomworth is appointed by South Carolina to act in Conjunction for the Distribution of the Presents in Georgia, and that their own Commissary is to act in Conjunction with Mr. [William] Stephens or you for the Distribution of the Presents in South Carolina; And that out of the Moiety of the Presents you received from South Carolina, to be in the Store at Savannah, such part as should be thought proper should be given to Mrs. [Mary] Bosomworth for her past Demands and Services. The Trustees therefore direct, that a proper Discharge be given by her for what She shall so receive, specifying the Particulars received from the two Agents by his Majesty’s Directions, in full of all Claims and Demands for past Services, and for Presents furnished by her.
It is also very proper, that all the Annual Presents should not be distributed at one time, whereby the Provinces would be unable to make Presents on special Occasions to Indians, which frequently happen with little previous Notice; And to obviate the Difficulty of both Agents attending on such special Occasions, and keeping the Indians in either Province to wait for them, Mr. Stephens may appoint under his Hand and Seal, a Person resident in Charles Town to act for him on such an Occasion, and the Commissary at Charles Town may do the same for a Person resident in Georgia, if Abraham Bosomworth should not be in the Way in Georgia.
As to the Charges attending your getting the Moiety of the Presents from Charles Town and of distributing the Presents in Georgia, satisfying the Agents appointed for this Service, and the Interpreters and Entertainment of the Indians, the Trustees think it right what you mention that the Government of South Carolina thought proper to dispose of some of the Presents to defray these Charges; And as these Presents were purchased at a ready Money Price, it is a good Fund for this Service, and the Agents certifying the Quantities sold for these Purposes, the Money arising by Sale thereof, and the Accounts of the Application in these Charges approved by the Authority in the Province where they arise, will no doubt be satisfactory to His Grace the Duke of Bedford. And this Method the Trustees think should be used in Georgia, if there are Presents left sufficient to be sold for answering the said Expences; And if not, that part of the Presents to be sent over this Year may be so applied; Which will be properly represented to the Duke of Bedford, in Order for his Pleasure to be known thereon.
The last Warrant for purchasing these Presents had a Deduction from it of £267.16.2 Sterling paid to Abraham Bosomworth for Service in the Creek Nations in the Year 1747, and is attended with Fees and Charges, and the passing on account in the Auditor’s Office; And therefore it will be better for the Charges of distributing the Presents, to be defrayed by Sale of part thereof in America, than to have an Account open for uncertain Expences to be defrayed here by Draughts on England for this Service, which may exceed the Provision to be made here for it.
It is observed that in the beforementioned Report, Mention is made that part of the Goods in each Invoice are improper, being bad in kind, and unfit for Indians; But it would have been right, had the Report mentioned the Particulars in Order to remedy the same for the future; As to the Valuation made of the Presents, and the Difference stated between each Invoice, I have my Bills of Parcels to support my Purchases, at the lowest Prices, and the best in kind; And Mr. [Jermyn] Wright’s Purchases and mine are very near in Value though his are under the Amount, the Valuers of his Invoice made them.
There is only one thing more observable by the said Report. vizt. That Indians may go from one Place to another, and receive Presents in two Places; But this don’t appear very probable, as the Indians are of different Nations, and the same Agents distributing the Presents in each Province, must know to whom they have before distributed Presents.
The Medicines you wrote for, will be order’d, and the other Parts of your last Letter considered by the next Opportunity.
Harman Verelst to Richard Nevil Aldworth, Sept. 11, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 358, recommending William Russell to be Naval Officer in Ga.
A Naval Officer being much wanted in Georgia, & repeated Applications made from thence for the appointing One for the Use of the Shipping frequenting that Province.
The Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America crave Leave to recommend Mr. William Russell of Savannah in Georgia (who has been some time employed by the Trustees as a Clerk to keep their Accounts there) as a fit Person to execute the Office of Naval Officer at the Ports in Georgia.
They therefore request your moving His Grace of Bedford on this Occasion, that His Majesty may be graciously pleased to appoint Savannah and Frederica, to be the Ports for importing and exporting Goods at and from, within the Province of Georgia in America; And the said William Russell to be the Naval Officer there; By Virtue of His Majesty’s Royal Commission directed to the President and Assistants of the Province of Georgia in America at Savannah in the said Province.
Harman Verelst to the President and Assistants in Ga., Sept. 29, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 358-360, concerning boat for Ga. troops, sola bills sent, permission for Harris and Habersham to build a wharf at Savannah, answers to Trustees letters to be made promptly, and things needed at Ebenezer for silk production. By the George Town Galley, Capt. Thos. Crosthwaite.
Sir and Gentlemen
In my last of the 9th. of August 1749 I mentioned that this Opportunity would acquaint you with the Directions from the Treasury concerning the Expences of the Boat, Coxswain and ten Men to be stationed at Frederica for the Use of the Detachments of the South Carolina Companies to carry the Portions of Provisions allowed them in Georgia from Frederica to the usual Stations, to be under the Direction of the Trustees; But such Directions about the Expence being not yet given, I am only to acquaint you at present, that at the Request of His Majesty’s Secretary at War, Richard Millechamp is to be appointed Coxswain of the said Boat, who formerly was employed in Noble Jones’s Guard Boat.
The £600.- last ordered in Sola Bills, the Trustees have by this Conveyance sent you filled up as the last were, to be issued under your Direction, to whose Care they are committed; They consist of three Books containing 300 of £ 1. each Letter A No. 13501 to 13800. And of One Book containing 60 of £5. each Letter C No. 2051 to 2110. And yesterday £400 more in Sola Bills were ordered to be sent you by the Ship which goes from hence in about a Month to Messrs. Harris and Habersham from their Correspondent here.
The Trustees have consider’d the Petition of Francis Harris and James Habersham you sent over with your Minutes of the 19th. of April last, for Liberty to build a Wharfe in the Front of Savannah, leaving the Distance of 100 feet from the Publick Wharfe now in Use; And to have a Lease granted of 100 feet front under the Bluff for that purpose, to build the said Wharfe on part thereof, and to reserve the Residue for Vessels to lye on each Side as Occasion shall require; And the said Petition being proper to be complied with, the Trustees direct that they should have such Lease granted them on an easy Rent, and the Terms when settled between you and them shall be confirmed here; You are therefore to give them immediate Possession according to the Proposal, that they may forthwith proceed in their building such Wharfe.
Herewith you receive Copies of the Secretary’s two last Letters dated 7th. July 1749, and the Trustees expect to have their Letters fully answered without Delay, it being incumbent on the Assistants in Case of any Indisposition of Mr. Wm. Stephens, to see that the Trustees Letters are duly answered; And as the two Assistants, who went to Frederica on the disbanding the Regiment were instructed by the Trustees Letter of the 2d. of January last, to make certain Inquiries when there, of which no Return is yet come; The Trustees hope the next Conveyance will bring it; And also the Knowledge if any Steps have been taken towards obtaining from the Uchee Indians the Lands wanted to be added to Ebenezer.
On Letters rec’d from Ebenezer, it being necessary for the Production of Raw Silk carrying on there, to have ten Sheds with Outside Boards from their Saw Mill, and to have Clay Furnaces or Stoves therein for the use of the Silk Worms, the Trustees have agreed that Mr. [John Martin] Bolzius should be enabled to defray the Charge thereof, not exceeding 40s each, or £20.- in the whole; And also that he should be furnished with £15.- more for getting ten more Machines for winding the Silk to be made at Ebenezer at 30s each.
Harman Verelst to the Rev. John Martin Bolzius, Sept. 29, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 360, concerning receipt of mail and silk and silk production. By the George Town Galley, Capt. Costhwaite.
Your Letters of the 16th. of May last to the Trustees Secy. and Accomptant, and that of the 24th. of the same Month, with one from Mr. [John Ludwig] Meyer of the 12th. of June last37 to the Trustees Accotant and the Box of 49 pounds 13 Ounces of Silk from Ebenezer came safe to hand.
It is a great Satisfaction to the Trustees, and to Mr. [Samuel] Lloyd one of their Members and a very considerable Merchant in the Silk Trade, that your People benefit by his Instructions under your able Explanation of them; As to produce so great an Increase in Quantity and Improvement in the Quality of the Silk. And You may depend on it, that no Encouragement in the Trustees Power will be wanting to perfect this much wanted Manufacture from Georgia, which was so great an Object in View on it’s first Establishment.
The next Conveyance I hope will bring you full Answers to your abovementioned Letters; In the mean time by this Opportunity I am to acquaint you, that the Trustees agree to enable you to make ten Sheds with Outside Boards from your Saw Mill, and to have Clay Furnaces or Stoves therein for the Use of the Silk Worms as you propose, the Expence of each not to exceed 40s; And also that you should get ten Machines made for winding the Silk at 30s each; Which with the ten Copper Basons, to be sent you by the next Conveyance, will employ twenty of the most necessitous Families among the Saltzburghers.
Your Packet of Silk to Mr. [Chretien] Von Munch, was sent with your Letter to the Care of Mr. Peter Meyer to forward.
Benjamin Martyn to the President and Assistants in Ga., Nov. 24, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, p. 361, concerning the appointment of Edward Holt as schoolmaster at Savannah. By the Mary Snow, Capt. Pearson.
Sir and Gentlemen
The Rev. Mr. [Bartholomew] Zouberbuhler having, when he was in England requested the Trustees to appoint a Schoolmaster at Savannah; and the Rev. Mr. [Thomas] Broughton, Secretary to the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, having recommended Mr. Edward Holt for this Employment; The Trustees have accordingly appointed him Schoolmaster at Savannah with a Salary of Twenty pounds a Year, and Parish Clerk there with a Salary of Five pounds a Year. His Salary for both Offices is advanc’d him to Lady Day 1750. The Payments therefore in Georgia must commence from that time.
Benjamin Martyn to the President and Assistants in Ga., Nov. 25, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 361-363, concerning troubles caused by Thomas Bosomworth and Malatchee, and Trustee action to encourage silk culture. By the Mary Snow, Capt. Pearson.
Sir and Gentlemen
Your Packet with the Letters of July 25, 1749 has been rec’d. The Trustees cannot but be surpris’d at the audacious Behaviour of Mr. [Thomas] Bosomworth, and they only wait for your next Letters, to see whether the two hundred Creek Indians (which were expected) did arrive at Savannah, and whether any Demands were made in Person by Malatchie, or any other Indians, in favour of Mr. Bosomworth or his Wife; Or if any Menaces were offer’d to you in Case of your Refusal, that they may lay the whole in a proper manner, before the Government, which they cannot do at present, as Your Account is founded only upon Reports. In the meantime, the Trustees have order’d me to tell you, they very much approve of your Resolution to assert his Majesty’s Rights and protect the Properties of the People under your Care, and they are pleas’d with your Conduct in procuring an Interpreter, in Order to convince the Indians, how much they have been impos’d upon by that Self Interested Man, Mr. Bosomworth, and what a fatal Tendency his spiriting them to make these Demands must have.
As the procuring such an Interpreter in this Exigence was a very necessary Step, and no Provision could be found for it in the Estimate, your Bill Sir for £100. which you drew on the Trustees account for this Service, and for defraying the Expence of receiving the Indians at Savanah, has been accepted and paid. If Mr. Bosomworth thinks he can hold Lands which belong to this Majesty, under another Authority independent of him, and thinks he can disclaim his Majesty’s just Rights, without forfeiting his Allegiance, he will find himself much mistaken; As he will likewise, if he thinks, because the Regiment is withdrawn, the Province will not, upon all Occasions be protected by the Government here.
Sir and Gentlemen.
I have often represented to you, by Order of the Trustees, how much they have at heart the Culture of Silk in Georgia, and what Wealth would arise from this Mine, not only to the Province, and every Individual in it, who would apply himself to this Produce, but also to Great Britain. If a proper Attention had been given to the frequent, and almost incessant Advice and Injunctions of the Trustees, you would now have reap’d the Benefit, for by a late Prohibition of Raw Silk from the several States of Italy, the Price of this Commodity is raised almost double what it has been, and yet there is such a Scarcity, that many of our Looms must stand still for want of Work. What an Opportunity is here lost by the Idleness of the People! It is in vain to say they could not do it; Every Man could have planted and fenc’d in his Mulberry Trees, and might have been supplied with Silk Worm Seed. Every Woman could have learnt to wind the Silk, without waiting so many Years for Instruction by Mrs. [Jane Mary] Camuse. It is evident the Art of winding is not such a Mystery, by what the Saltzburghers have done; And they have come to such a Perfection, purely by Care and Application, that many of our most eminent Silk Merchants, and of our Fabricators declare the Silk made by them to be equal to the best, that is brought from any Part of the World. And, upon Experience of the Goodness of theirs, and what little Mrs. Anderson has done, and could do, the Merchants I believe will petition the Parliament this Session, to encourage the Culture of this most useful Produce in America. This is surely sufficient to rouze Every One to Industry and Success in it will be the most effectual Means of preserving Georgia independent of the Government of South Carolina; Whereas, if, after so many Year’s Tryal, Georgia continues unprofitable to her Mother Country; If, after such Sums have been expended, no Returns are made for them, particularly in the principal Article expected; It will be natural for the Government here, to refuse the Expence of keeping up a separate Magistracy, and Government there. I cannot proceed on this Subject without expressing, as I am directed, the Astonishment of the Trustees, that the Sums, which They order’d to be given to the young Women, who had learnt the Art of winding Silk, had not been paid in the Month of July last. This was sufficient to damp the Spirits of the Saltzburghers, and frustrate their Endeavours; But the Trustees say They are unwilling to think this Neglect or Refusal was owing to such a Design.
The Trustees order me again to repeat to you their Hopes, that You will yet exert your Selves for the Reputation, the Interest and even the Being of the Colony; That you will endeavour to raise a Spirit of Industry in the People, and turn it chiefly towards the Culture of Silk; That where there are no Mulberry Trees upon their Plantations, or not near the Number specified in the Grants, you will exhort, or even oblige them (by threatening to take the forfeiture of their Grants) to plant and fence in what are proper; That you will advise the Women in the Province to apply themselves to learn the Art of reeling Silk and for their Encouragement the Trustees have resolv’d to continue, for a Year longer, the Reward of 40s Sterling to each, who shall acquire it within that time. They will send over by this Ship, or the next Conveyance, a Box containing two Ounces of Silk Worm Seed, which You must dispose of among those, who may want it, and have Mulberry Trees ready to furnish the Worms with Food; But part of this, at least a Moiety, you must without Loss of time send to Mr. [John Martin] Bolzius for the Saltzburghers; or the whole, if there are none at or about Savanah in immediate Want of it. The Trustees are in Expectation of another Quantity of Seed from Italy, which they hope they shall be able to send to you before the hatching of the Worms. And lastly, to shew how sollicitous the Trustees are for the Success of this Produce, they have resolv’d to give a Bounty on the Cocoons, besides the Purchase of the Silk at the Rates inumerated the 11th. of March last, the Particulars of which will be inclos’d to you in separate Instructions, with many usefull Observations.
Benjamin Martyn to the Rev. John Martin Bolzius, Nov. 24, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/668, pp. 364-365, concerning silk culture and its encouragement. By the Mary Snow, Capt. Alexander Pearson.
I have rec’d and laid before the Trustees your Letter to me of May the 16th., and likewise that of May the 24th. 1749. It was with great Pleasure They read in your first Letter, that the Saltzburghers had rec’d new Life from what I wrote to you by their Orders on the 2d. of January 1748/9, and that they went on with Spirit in planting Mulberry Trees, and raising Silk Cocoons, as well as drawing the Silk off from the Machines, and that they had rais’d above 700 pounds of Cocoons last Spring, and should have rais’d more, if the Want of Seed had not limited them. The Trustees upon the first Receipt of that Letter, appris’d Mr. [Samuel] Lloyd, whose Instructions for reeling you have rec’d, and he immediately procur’d a Parcel of Silk Worm Seed from Italy, which is as yet on board a Ship in the River, and will be sent to the President and Assistants if possible, by this Conveyance; If not, by the next however; And a Moiety of this Seed is order’d to be deliver’d to you. Mr. Lloyd is in Expectation of another Parcel from Italy, which I hope will come soon enough for you to receive, before the hatching time. Here Sir, I cannot postpone the Pleasure, which I know it will give you, and has given the Trustees, to find the Silk you last sent approv’d of highly by Mr. Lloyd, and many other eminent Merchants, and likewise by a great Number of our Weavers. So highly is it approv’d of by them, that they have Thoughts of petitioning the Parliament this Winter, to encourage the Growth of Silk in America, from an Experience of the Goodness of yours. They are more readily inclin’d to this, because the Pope has lately prohibited the Exportation of Raw Silk from the Ecclessastical States in Italy, and the other States and Princes of Italy have servilely imitated him, as if he was to be their infallible Guide in Temporal as well as Spiritual Affairs. Whatever may be the Event of the Merchant’s Petition, the Trustees are determin’d, that nothing shall be wanting in their Power, that may contribute to the Welfare of your Settlement, and the Success of your People in the Produce of Silk. They are sorry, that the Regulations and Price of the Silk, which They sent to you, March 11th. 1749, and which were founded upon what our Merchants have been us’d to pay in Italy, gave you such Concern, & dishearten’d you so much, as appear’d by your Letter of May the 24th. last.38 The Trustees approve of your Conduct, in not shewing the Letter to the Saltzburghers, as you imagin’d it might have an unhappy Influence in dispiriting them; And to convince you how much they approv’d of your Conduct, they immediately order’d your Bill for £74.9.11 drawn on Mr. [Thomas] Broughton, for so much paid by you to the Saltzburghers for their Cocoons, to be directly accepted and paid when due, and it has been paid. The Trustees have likewise taken into Consideration what Further Encouragement they can give, and they have resolv’d that besides the Sum of 14 and 12 Shillings to be paid for a pound of the first and second Rate Silk, a Bounty shall be given upon each pound of Cocoons, which will raise the Sums (for them to pay) for a pound of good Silk, to be more than what you suppos’d was given by the Province of South Carolina. You will see the whole of this stated very clearly to you, in a Paper of Instructions to be inclos’d to you, and likewise the Answer to the Question you propos’d to me in your Letter of May the 24th. last. vizt. By what Rules your People should govern themselves in reeling the Silk, whether by those sent you on March 11th. 1749, or what were formerly sent you.
The Trustees have order’d the Sum of £20 to be sent to you, which They desire you will accept of as a Present from them. And that the Saltzburghers may have nothing to obstruct their Progress in the Culture of Silk, a Sum is order’d to be paid into your Hands, in Sola Bills, and another Sum will be soon afterwards sent, that they may be sure of a ready Payment both for their Cocoons, and Silk when reel’d.
I wish you all Success in your laudable Endeavours.
Harman Verelst to the Rev. John Martin Bolzius, Nov. 24, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/669, pp. 1-5, concerning encouragement of silk culture. By the Mary Snow, Capt. Alex. Pearson.
In my Letter of the 20th. of September 1749 I acquainted you, that I hoped this Conveyance would bring you full Answers to your Letters of the 16th. and 24th. of May before, which having had due Consideration, the Trustees are obliged to you for the Contents of them, and have order’d me to return you their Thanks; And that no Encouragement they can give should be wanting for promoting the Culture and Production of Raw Silk, They have agreed that the Regulations sent you the 11th. of March last should be taken in a Mercantile View for vending the Silk so raised for ready Money upon the Spot; And do now further resolve on a Bounty on Cocoons as hereafter is specified, over and above the Prices to be paid of 14s. Sterling for every pound of 16 Ounces of the first Sort of Silk of five or six Threads, of 12s. Sterling for every like pound of the Second Sort of about eight Threads, and of 6s. Sterling for every like pound of the worst Sort (meaning thereby the Silk produced from Cocoons wherein two Worms have interwoven, and some other Cocoons, such as weak, spotted and pointed ones, which are not fit to be put amongst those from which the other two Sorts of Silk should be produced, concluding to be sure, that the Cocoons are always assorted by proper Judges before they are given or sent to the Women, to reel into the respective Sorts of Silk above mentioned). Now in respect to the Silk drawn from fifteen to twenty Cocoons, which was once recommended to you, and of which you desired to know, if such Quality would be most eligible; I answer, that the said Quality of fifteen to twenty Cocoons, if clean even, and well Reel’d, is almost as valuable as the fine Sort of five to six Cocoons; And therefore the Trustees are willing to give the same Price of 14s. a pound for it. But it must be remember’d, that the Value of this, depends upon the Cleanness and Neatness of it. And why it is judged most Eligible for your People to reel such a Sort is, because they can do as much again in a day as of the fine Sort; As You Your Self, in one of your Letters, very judiciously observed. Therefore if it should so happen, that some Women should have a better hand at, and delight rather to draw the fine Sort of five to six Cocoons, than this of fifteen to twenty; They might draw that Sort, and others the Sort of fifteen to twenty; And both of them be equally advantageous to your People, and answer the Intent of the Trustees.
This was the Plan which the Trustees upon mature Consideration, and Advice of Persons knowing in the Silk Trade, and Zealous to promote the Culture of Silk in His Majesty’s Dominions in America, had calculated as the most Elegible and Lasting that could be pitched upon, from the Consideration that they had all along been led to believe, that the Quantity of Mulberry Trees, as well Native as planted and cultivated, were so plentiful that any Quantity of Cocoons almost might have been annually produced with a great deal of Ease and Commodiousness to the Breeders of Silk Worms; And therefore the Trustees judged, that the Prices of Silk above stipulated of 14s, 12s, and 6s a pound for the respective Sorts of Silk, were an ample and sufficient Encouragement for Persons settled in the Country to undertake that Culture preferrable to any other that has hitherto been carried on in any part of America.
But since contrary to all Expectations it now appears from your several Letters to the Trustees, and Mr. [Friedrich Michael] Ziegenhagen; That your People have been at no small Trouble and Expence in raising and planting a great Number of young Mulberry Trees for the Food of Worms (which was believ’d might be had in the Colony for stepping out of Doors to gather the Leaves, and which would really have been the Case, if the repeated Orders of the Trustees, and the Conditions of their Grants had been complied with, of not only planting, as some have practiced, but also of preserving and keeping up as ought to have been, the 500d Mulberry Trees upon every fifty Acres stipulated). The Trustees zealously second your good Desires for prosecuting a Culture so much wanted, and have unanimously agreed to give your People all the Encouragement you can possibly ask for them; And therefore do Resolve, That besides the before mentioned Prices to be paid for the said respective Sorts of Silk, They will allow by Way of Bounty, as follows. vizt.
|First.||For all Cocoons raised in any part of Georgia, or by any Person whatever, wherein only one Worm has spun, and that is of a hard weighty and good Substance, 2s Sterling a pound of sixteen ounces.|
|Second.||For all Cocoons wherein one Worm only has spun, of a weaker, inferior, spotted or bruised Quality (which consequently must make an inferior Silk) therefore only Is. Sterling a pound to be allowed on such.|
|Third.||For all Cocoons wherein two Worms have spun and interwoven themselves, only Eightpence Sterling a pound to be allowed on such.|
By all which Limitations you will conceive Sir, the Trustees have an Eye to the perfecting of this valuable Commodity by giving the greatest Bounty to those who produce the best Cocoons; And yet so, as not to leave those without Encouragement who have the Misfortune not to produce so good ones. Care must be therefore taken when Cocoons are brought to you, or to those who you shall think proper to appoint for inspecting into the Quality thereof that they be judiciously divided into the three Sorts before described, for regulating the Payments of the Bounty accordingly.
The Trustees have for the present order’d the Sum of £100 to be issued to you out of the Sola Bills now sent, for the Service of the Colony, to the Care of the President and Assistants, by this Conveyance; To enable you to pay for the Silk and Bounty now order’d, an Extract of which Order is herewith sent you for receiving the same. And by the next Conveyance £100. more will be ordered in the same manner, and for the same Service. And if it should so happen, which would be very pleasing to the Trustees it should, that the said Sums should prove far short of what is sufficient to pay for the said Silk, and Bounty on Cocoons, which the Trustees hope from your Zeal added to this Encouragement will be able to produce; You may depend on the first Notice received from you thereof, that they will immediately order you a further Sum in Sola Bills to answer the same, without your being made dependant upon the President and Assistants at Savannah, for their Pleasure in supplying you.
Therefore Sir, as you have it now in your Power independant of anyone, to encourage the Culture of Cocoons by giving the Bounty above specified; It were to be wish’d that you could possibly thereby influence any other People in Georgia, though at a great distance from you, where Mulberry Trees may be easily come at for the Food of Worms, that they would breed some and bring you the Cocoons made therefrom, which may be easily cur’d either in the Ovens or the Sun, as your own Experience already mentions practicable, and thereby your Women that are capable of reeling them off (whose Number the Trustees now conclude are, and will annually increase) may be supplied with a sufficient Quantity of Cocoons to last them for six to ten Weeks time of Reeling (which is about the time the Reelers in Italy continue working). And which Quantity of Cocoons for such a long Supply of working, it is conceived not possible for your own People to raise.
Two Ounces of Seed is coming from Italy, and hourly expected, but if not in time for this, will come by the next Conveyance; And two Ounces more soon after; Of which you may depend. They will be sent to the President and Assistants, and you will have a Supply from them, not less than a Moiety as sent.
But Care should always be taken by your People to preserve Seed enough of their own, not to be in Want of any from Europe, which is attended with many Hazards in obtaining and conveying; And by all means omit not to recommend the preserving the hardest and stoutest Cocoons for Seed; And the Method of stringing such Cocoons for Seed, in the manner of those sent the President and Assistants 18th. March 1746, is the best Method that can be practis’d, and therefore recommended to your People.
Notwithstanding the above Bounty on Cocoons is hitherto confined to those raised in Georgia; Yet I am instructed further to inform you, that if it should so happen, as probably it may (notwithstanding the sanquine Assurances to the contrary) that the Bounty on Cocoons or Silk in Carolina may not be so punctually complied with as has been given out; And that you could possibly influence any Person or Persons residing in any Part of the Province of Carolina to bring you the Cocoons they produce, you may readily pay them on Delivery thereof to you or your Agent, the Bounty before specified of the respective three Qualities, for one Year, and give out timely Notice accordingly; And you may depend that the Trustees will on the first Notice make good, whatever you shall disburse on that Account. Whereby you see Sir their great Aim and Desire is, to cultivate at any Expence any Quantity (even to a Glutt if possible) of Cocoons in his Majesty’s Dominions in America, and thereby enable England to quit Scores with the Papal Authority, who gave this Year the first Example to the other his Servile Sons, the Princes of Italy, to prohibit the Importation of Raw Silk, as you are informed by the Trustees Secretary.
The Trustees do not barely depend upon mere Wishes, that a much larger Quantity of Cocoons will be wanted than your People can possibly produce; But they are justified therein, not only from what is practis’d in Italy, where they bring Cocoons thirty or forty Miles to Market, but likewise from the Desire that you have express’d of having, and which is executed by this Conveyance of sending you ten more Basons; And supposing you have but four already (though probably you have six erected) there will be then fourteen Basons at Work, the Trustees hope next Spring, and calculating as you do, at least two pounds of Silk a day made by the Woman to each Bason, and allowing her to work but thirty days, which is a very little Time indeed, there would be then reel’d by said fourteen Women 840 pounds weight of Silk, to which calculating twelve pounds of Cocoons for every pound of Silk is above 10,000 pounds weight of Cocoons, a Quantity the Trustees doubt your own People are not able to supply; And therefore it becomes absolutely necessary to encourage the Culture of Cocoons as far round you as possible.
Your Letter of the 24th. of June39 last l rec’d the 11th. of last Month, advising me of a Bill you drew for £74.9.11 on the Revd. Mr. [Thomas] Broughton for the 2s a pound on 744 lb. 15 1/2 oz. of Cocoons raised by your People the last Spring, which Bill I authorized Mr. Broughton to direct to me as Accotant to the Trustees for Payment, and it is accordingly paid. The Trustees are very sorry for your having been so necessitated, and from a due Sense of your great Services in encouraging the Culture of Silk, and the Improvement of the Colony, and of the extraordinary Care and Trouble you have taken in the external as well as internal Welfare of your People, They have order’d that out of the Sum to be issued to you of the Sola Bills sent by this Conveyance, you would please to apply and accept of £20, as a Token of their Gratitude, for your own particular Use; And that you take Credit for the same thereout, which the President and Assistants have Orders to allow as a Voucher for so much thereof. And you will from time to time transmit to the President and Assistants, your Accounts and the Vouchers you take for the Payments you have Occasion to make out of the Moneys, which you shall by the Trustees Order receive from them on Account, in Discharge of the Receipts to be given by you for the same for them to transmit to the Trustees, you keeping Duplicates of the said Accounts and Vouchers by you in Case of Accidents; And the President and Assistants will thereupon deliver up to you, your said Receipts on Account.
Besides the Case with the ten Copper Basons, in one of which is a Bundle for you, there is a Case mark’d H.P.B. from Hambro, forwarded to you by this Conveyance.
Benjamin Martyn to Patrick Graham, Nov. 24, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/669, p. 6, concerning Indian presents, medicines desired, and land desired by Graham. By the Mary Snow, Capt. Pearson.
I rec’d your Letter of the 24th. May last from Charles Town. I have also rec’d yours dated Savannah 8th. July 1749.
As to the first Part of your last Letter, and the whole of your former, which relate to your Conduct in procuring the Moiety of the Indian Presents to be sent to Savannah, you have already rec’d so full an Approbation of what you did, that I need not enlarge upon it here.
The second Part of your last Letter, which takes Notice of the Box of Medicines, and the new Articles which you mention’d as necessary to be put in it, you will find answer’d, by the Chest of Medicines, which is sent by this Conveyance.
What you set forth with regard to your Plantation at Joseph’s Town, being surrounded with a Swamp, and being often so overflow’d, that for several Years past you have been depriv’d of the Benefit of your Cattle; And that you desire the 500 Acres of Land, formerly granted by Mr. [James] Oglethorpe in three Parcels. vizt. 200 Acres to Walter Augustine, 200 Acres to John Clarke, and 100 to some other Person, which you say have long ago been relinquish’d by the first Possessors, I have laid before the Trustees; Who, on considering the same, find that Walter Augustine of Cat Island in South Carolina had a Grant of 500 Acres from the Trustees. They likewise find, that on the 19th. of May 1736 you had a Grant of only 100 Acres from them. They are very ready to gratify you, Sir, in any Thing within their Power; But you know, by his Majesty’s Charter, no Grant can be made of more than 500 Acres to any Person. However, if that Allegation in your Letter is true, that Walter Augustine left the Colony in 1737, is since dead in Carolina, and has left no Heirs, and if that Land is at present unoccupied, the Trustees are very ready to grant you so much of it, as may make your present Grant of 100 Acres, 500 compleat. If you find hereafter, that you may have Occasion for more, you can hold it only by Lease from the Trustees, and then it will be necessary for you to let them know, at what Rent you propose to take the Lease.
Harman Verelst to the President and Assistants in Ga., Nov. 25, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/669, pp. 7-11, concerning sola bills sent, stationery sent, encouragement of silk culture, silk accounts at Ebenezer, expenses of Indian relations, appointments of Edward Holt and William Russell, boat for soldiers stationed in Ga., and resolution and instructions of Trustees about silk culture. By the Mary Snow, Capt. Pearson.
Sir and Gentlemen
By the George Town Galley Captn. Crosthwaite, £600. in Sola Bills were sent you, and by this Conveyance you receive £400. more fill’d up as the last were, to be issued under your Direction, to whose Care they are committed; They consist of two Books, containing 200 of £ 1. each Letter A No. 13801 to 14000, and of one Book containing 40 of £5. each Letter C No. 2111 to 2150.
A Case of Stationary Ware is also sent by this Conveyance, containing one Ream of Demy, two Reams of Post, two Reams of Pott,40 and two Reams of Fools Cap Paper, 1400 Pens, and three pounds of Wax. For which Case, as also two Cases for Ebenezer, (the one directed to Mr. [John Martin] Bolzius, and the other mark’d H.P.B.) a Box of Medicines which Mr. Patrick Graham wrote for, as wanted at Savannah, and the small Box of Sola Bills and Letters. A Bill of Lading is sent to William Stephens Esqr., to whom they are consigned.
The People of Ebenezer having by their Industry & Application, under the Care of good Mr. Bolzius, made so great a Progress in the Culture and Production of Raw Silk for the promoting whereof no Encouragement in the Trustees Power will be wanting; The Trustees, on the Representation of Mr. Bolzius, have agreed, that the Regulations, sent the 11th. of March last, relating to the Prices to be paid for Silk produced in Georgia, should be taken in a Merchantile View for vending the Silk so raised for ready Money on the Spot; and have further resolved on a Bounty on Cocoons besides. The Particulars whereof are here inclosed, together with all the necessary Instructions for carrying on so usefull, and much wanted a Produce.
The Trustees order, that the Issuers of their Sola Bills by your Direction, do immediately issue to the Revd. Mr. Bolzius so many as will amount to £100. Sterling, for him to pay himself himself thereout a Reward of £20. for his singular Services in the Silk, and other external Affairs of his People, and the Residue upon Account for paying for the Silk and Bounty on Cocoons, pursuant to the Instructions sent him. And out of the next Conveyance of Sola Bills, which will be £600, £100 more will be order’d him upon the like Account; For which you are to take his Receipts upon Account, until he delivers you his Accounts & Vouchers in Discharge thereof, to be transmitted, with the other Accounts of the Trustees Expences in Georgia to them; And on his delivering you such Accounts and Vouchers, you are to deliver him up his Receipts, which shall be discharged thereby.
The 2s a pound on 744 1 b.:15 1/2 oz. of Cocoons raised at Ebenezer in the last Spring have been paid for by the Trustees, in their discharging Mr. Bolzius’s Bill of £74.9.11 drawn on the Revd. Mr. [Thomas] Broughton for the same.
The Bill for £100 drawn by the President on me, for the Charges of an Interpreter, and Indians coming to Savannah, has been paid; And you shall have Advice, when the next Presents go from England for the Indians, that Application may be made by you to the Agents abroad who shall distribute those for Georgia, to reimburse the Trustees that Sum, by Sale of part of the said Presents; To which Agents you must give an Account of the Application thereof in the said Charges of an Interpreter, and the Indians, so fully and particular, that they may certify to his Majesty’s Principal Secretary of State, the Services for which the said £ 100. Value in Goods were sold to defray. And when such Reimbursement is made, the Trustees must have Credit for the same, as a Remittance on Account of their estimated Expences.
Mr. Edward Holt and Hannah his Wife come Passengers by this Ship, he being appointed Schoolmaster and Parish Clerk at Savannah, and by whom the Trustees Secretary has notified the same, and that his Salaries have been paid him in advance to Lady Day 1750.
Mr. William Russell’s appointment of Naval Officer in Georgia, and his Instructions, could not be ready by this Conveyance, by reason that in the same Instrument, Savannah and Frederica are to be appointed by his Majesty, the Ports in Georgia for importing and exporting Goods at and from; And the Attorney General is to settle the Draught of that Instrument, which you will acquaint Mr. Russell of.
With my Letter of the 9th. of August last you received an Estimate of the Expence of a Boat for the use of the Detachments of Soldiers doing Duty in Georgia, to be under the Trustees Direction; And in my Letter of the 29th. of September following, you were acquainted that Richard Mellichamp (who formerly was employed in Noble Jones’s Guard Boat) was to be the Coxswain thereof. I am now to acquaint you, that as the Sums, which are or shall hereafter become due on the said Estimate, are to be paid annually into the hands of the Accomptant to the Trustees of Georgia for the time being, when they shall have certified the Amount of the Sums, and the Payment of the same; I have thereupon wrote to Messieurs Harris and Habersham, to defray the Expences of the said Boat within the Estimate, as Fees are payable here on receiving the Money from time to time, and to send me proper Vouchers certified by you of the Payments thereof, to intitle me to receive the same for their Use in Reimbursements to them. This Boat, being under the Trustees Direction, is not confin’d only to the relieving the Detachments and carrying Provisions for their Use, but also is to serve as an Express or Advice Boat, or on any other necessary Service of the Colony, when not otherwise wanted for his Majesty’s Service; And is to be mann’d with ten Men, besides the Coxswain. You will therefore appoint the said Richard Melli champ Coxswain, and the Men, if not already done, and give the necessary Directions for the Employment of the said Boat, according to the Intent of it’s Appointment. Messieurs Harris and Habersham are instructed what Vouchers to take for their Payments to this Service, which Instructions they will acquaint you of.
Resolutions of the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia in America, for a Bounty on Cocoons, besides the paying for the Silk raised in Georgia, made the 16th. of November 1749. And some Instructions for the better carrying on so useful, and much wanted a Produce from Georgia.
That the Regulations relating to the Prices of Silk to be paid in Georgia, sent the 11th. of March 1745/9, shall be taken as it was intended in a Mercantile View, for vending the Silk raised for ready Money on the Spot.
That a Bounty on Cocoons (as hereafter is specified) be allowed and paid, over and above the Prices to be paid, of 14s Sterling for every pound of sixteen Ounces of the first Sort of Silk of five or six Threads, of 12s Sterling for every like pound of the second Sort of about eight Threads, and of 6s Sterling for every like pound of the worst Sort (meaning thereby the Silk produced from Cocoons wherein two Worms have interwoven, and some other Cocoons such as weak spotted and pointed Ones, which are not fit to be put amongst those from which the other two Sorts of Silk should be produced, concluding to be sure, that the Cocoons are always assorted by proper Judges, before they are given or sent to the Women to reel into the respective Sorts of Silk above mentioned). Now in respect to the Silk drawn from 15 to 20 Cocoons, recommended by the Sample sent over the 18th. of March 1746, if that Quality be clean, even and well reel’d, it is almost as valuable as the fine Sort of 5 to 6 Cocoons; And therefore the Trustees are willing to give the same Price of 14s a pound for it. But it must be remember’d, that the Value of this depends upon the Cleanness and Neatness of it, and it is eligible to produce this Sort, as the Women can reel as much again of it in a day as of the fine Sort. Therefore if it should so happen, that some Women should have a better hand at, and delight rather to draw the fine Sort of 5 to 6 Cocoons, than this of 15 to 20, they might draw that Sort; and others the Sort of 15 to 20; And both of them be equally advantageous to the People, and answer the Intent of the Trustees.
This was the Plan, which the Trustees, upon mature Consideration and Advice of Persons knowing in the Silk Trade, and zealous to promote the Culture of Silk in his Majesty’s Dominions in America, had calculated as the most eligible and lasting that could be pitched upon, from the Consideration that they had all along been led to believe, that the Quantity of Mulberry Trees, as well native, as planted and cultivated, were so plentifull, that any Quantity of Cocoons almost might have been annually produced with a great deal of Ease and Commodiousness to the Breeders of Silkworms; And therefore the Trustees judged, that the Prices of Silk above stipulated of 14, 12, and 6s a pound for the respective Sorts of Silk, were an ample and sufficient Encouragement for Persons settled in the Country to undertake that Culture, preferrable to any other that has hitherto been carried on in any Part of America.
But since, contrary to all Expectations, that the Food of Worms is still scarce (which would have been otherwise, had the repeated Orders of the Trustees, and the Conditions of their Grants been complied with, not only to plant, as some have practised, but also to preserve and keep up as ought to have been, the 500 Mulberry Trees upon every fifty Acres stipulated) the Trustees, for prosecuting a Culture so much wanted have unanimously agreed to give all the Encouragement that can be possibly asked; And therefore do resolve that besides the beforementioned Prices to be paid for the said respective Sorts of Silk, They will allow by Way of Bounty as follows. vizt.
By all which Limitations you may perceive, the Trustees have an Eye to the perfecting this valuable Commodity, by giving the greatest Bounty to those who produce the best Cocoons, and yet so, as not to leave those without Encouragement, who have the Misfortune not to produce so good Ones. Care must be therefore taken when Cocoons are brought, that they may be properly inspected into the Quality thereof, and judiciously divided into the three Sorts before described, for regulating the Payments of the Bounty Accordingly.
The Time of Reeling the Silk in Italy is from 6 to 10 Weeks in the Continuation of that Work; The Trustees wish that you had Women capable of reeling off the Silk from the Cocoons, and had Cocoons sufficient to employ Persons in that necessary Work.
Two Ounces of Seed is coming from Italy and hourly expected; But if not in time for this, will come by the next Conveyance; And two Ounces more soon after; a Moiety of which as rec’d must be sent to the Care of Mr. Bolzius at Ebenezer. But the People should always preserve Seed enough of their own, not to be in Want of any from Europe, which is attended with many Hazards in obtaining, and conveying. And by all Means you must not omit to recommend the preserving the hardest and stoutest Cocoons for Seed, and the Method for stringing such Cocoons for Seed in the manner of those sent you the 18th. March 1746, is the best Method that can be practis’d, and therefore recommended to the People.
It being absolutely necessary to cultivate the Production of Cocoons as much as possible, the Trustees have agreed that for one Year, the Bounty before specified of the three respective Qualities shall be paid for Cocoons brought to Georgia, tho raised in Carolina.
Harman Verelst to the President and Assistants in Ga., Dec. 23, 1749, Westminster, C.O. 5/669, p. 12, concerning bills drawn on Trustees, reports from Ga. hoped for, and silk worm seed sent. By the Two Sisters, Capt. Morton.
Sir and Gentlemen
On the 6th. instant I rec’d a Letter from the President dated the 28th. of July last,41 advising me of a Bill he drew for £ 58.15.1 in favour of Mr. Patrick Graham for the Expences he was at relating to the Indian Presents he obtained from Charles Town, to be distributed in Georgia, which Bill is accepted, and will be paid when due; And the Value thereof must be reimbursed the Trustees in the same manner as the Bill for £100 the President drew on me for the Charges of an Interpreter and Indians coming to Savannah, and then it must be creditted to the Trustees, as well as the said £100, as Remittances on Account of their estimated Expences. The Necessity of these particular Services is the only Reason why these Bills were accepted, to be reimbursed the Trustees as directed; The drawing Bills on the Trust being contrary to a Standing Order.
On the 11th. instant the Trustees Secretary rec’d a Letter from Mr. [William] Hopton at Charles Town, dated the 12th. of October 1749, advising him of a small Box directed to him, sent by the Brownlow Captain Jackson, for Liverpool; Which Ship being arrived, the said Box will be sent by Land from thence, and it is hoped will contain due Returns to the several Orders heretofore sent, and particularly to the Inquirys directed to be made by the two Assistants who were sent to the South, on the disbanding of the Regiment, which are impatiently expected; As also the Result of the Behaviour of the Indians, and the Bosomworths.
Herewith you receive an Ounce of Silk Worm Seed from Italy, of which you must supply Mr. [John Martin] Bolzius with one half for the Use of the Saltzburghers; Another Ounce will be sent you the next Month, to be divided in the same manner; And by the same Conveyance £600. in Sola Bills will be also sent you.
Benjamin Martyn to the President and Assistants in Ga., Jan. 7, 1749/50, Westminster, C.O. 5/669, pp. 13-14, concerning Bosomworth and Indian troubles, land grants, list of discharged soldiers, land north of Ebenezer, and list of landholders. By the Fortrose, Capt. Mackenzie.
Sir and Gentlemen
The Box directed to me, (in which were inclos’d your Proceedings from June 15th. 1749 to September the 12th. following, a List of the Inhabitants, of the Grants, and other Papers was rec’d the 30th. of last Month, and the several Letters and Papers have been laid before the Trustees, who order me to tell you, They are pleas’d with the whole of your Conduct with Regard to Mr. [Thomas] Bosomworth, his Wife, and the Indians, whom they brought to Savanah; They are so likewise with the Spirit, which appear’d in the Inhabitants on that Occasion, which it will be proper to apprise them of. The Trustees intend to lay the whole before the Duke of Bedford, Secretary of State, and They don’t doubt but such Directions will be soon sent, as shall put it out of the Power of Hr. Bosomworth, his Wife, or any of his Family to create any such Disturbances in the Province for the future.
In looking over the List of the Grants of Land, the Trustees find you have been negligent of some of their principal Directions transmitted to you in my Letter dated January 2d. 1748/9. That You may see wherein you have been so, They have order’d me to transcribe the same with their Observations thereon. vizt.
After having directed, that two of the Assistants should go to the Southern Part of the Province, to attend at the disbanding of the Regiment, was the following Paragraph. “You must transmit to the Trustees, by the first Opportunity, a List of such Soldiers, who may resolve to stay in the Province, and of their Wives and Children, and the Places where they may settle.” In return to this, you sent a former Account dated June 10th. that 151 Men, making with their Families 248 Souls, chose to stay in the Colony, and receiv’d the Sum of £5 Sterl. each (granted by his Majesty to such as would chuse to stay) but what part of those Men would take up Lands, or where, could not at that Time be come at. And in your Proceedings now sent, you only take Notice, on Septr. 8th. that some Soldiers disbanded out of the Regiment desire to settle at Augusta, and Mr. [Thomas] Ellis the Surveyor was order’d by you to go thither, and lay out Tracts of Land for them; and on the 12th. of Septr. you say “Some disbanded Soldiers, that are settled at Ebenezer, applied to the Board for their Allowance of Provisions.” By your not sending a particular List as they directed, the Trustees are disabled from making the proper Returns to the Offices, where they are expected; You must therefore without fail, send such a List by the first Opportunity.
In the said Letter of January the 2d. was the following Paragraph also “The Trustees direct that the two Assistants who shall go to Frederica, should make an immediate Inquiry into all the Grants of Land made, or Lands possess’d within the Island of St. Simons, or the Neighbourhood of it, how far they have been cultivated, and by whom possess’d, or for whose Benefit; And particularly a large Parcel of Land on the Island of St. Simons said to be set apart for the Use of the Regiment; And also the 3000 Acres which were granted, upon the first Establishment of the Regiment, for five Acre Lots for each of the Soldiers.” In your Return, you mention only one small Lot of Captn. Demere’s on St. Simons, but take no Notice of that large Parcel of Land (which is call’d the Farm) which the Trustees directed a particular Account of, or of the 3,000 Acres granted by them for the Regiment. The Trustees expect, that in your next Letter you should be more explicit in your Answer to their Directions on this Head.
There was another Paragraph in the said Letter of Janry the 2d. as follows “The Trustees want to know, if you have taken any Steps towards obtaining of the Uchee Indians, the Lands lying a little above Ebenezer, in Order to be added to that Township. They desire you’ll take the first Opportunity of doing it, and acquaint them as soon as possible with your Proceedings.” On this Article likewise you have been entirely silent. Wherefore, the Trustees direct me to say that in all the Letters sent to you, with Orders for any particular Things to be done, They expect you return your Answer, Paragraph by Paragraph.
There is another Point on which the Trustees have long desir’d explicit Accounts from you, as they are expected from them by the Auditor of the Plantations. You have sent over by the last Conveyance a List of the Inhabitants, and an Account where they are settled; But this List is defective, as you have not always put down to each Inhabitant the Quantity of Land possess’d by them, or the time when they first occupied their Lots; Nor have you taken Notice of what Lots are vacant, or when they became so. You must therefore without Loss of Time amend the List, by supplying these Defects.
Harman Verelst to the Rev. John Martin Bolzius, Jan. 13, 1749/50, Westminster, C.O. 5/669, p. 15, concerning silk culture. By the Fortrose, Capt. Mackenzie.
By the inclosed you will be able to demand £ 100 more in Sola Bills to be issued to you in Georgia upon Account, for paying for the Silk and Bounty on Cocoons at Ebenezer, pursuant to the Instructions lately sent you.
Another Ounce of Silkworm Seed is also sent to the President and Assistants for your immediate having one Moiety thereof for the Use of the Saltzburghers. The Trustees hope it will not arrive too late for Use. You are desired to keep the Eggs on the Paper hatched apart from those in the Box, and to be particular in advising, if any, and what Difference in the Goodness of each of the respective Sorts, as also to send to England 20 or 30 Cocoons from each of the two Sorts of Eggs, and 30 more produced from Eggs of the Saltzburghers own Breed, and not to fail herein.
Some time since Mr. [John Ludwig] Meyer forwarded the inclosed to the Trustees Secretary, and the three Barrels therein mentioned being lately arrived, are sent you for the Use intended by this Conveyance.
Harman Verelst to the President and Assistants in Ga., Jan. 13, 1749/50, Westminster, C.O. 5/669, pp. 15-16, concerning sola bills, silk worm seed sent, and items sent for Edward Holt and Ebenezer. By the Fortrose, Capt. Mackenzie.
Sir & Gentlemen
By this Conveyance you receive £600 more in Sola Bills, filled up as the last were, to be issued under your Direction, to whose Care they are committed. They consist of three Books, containing £ 300 of £1- each Letter A. No. 14001 to 14300, and of one Book, containing 60 of £5. each Letter C. No. 2151 to 2210; Whereof You are immediately to issue to the Revd. Mr. [John Martin] Bolzius so many as will amount to £ 100 Sterling, for paying for the Silk and Bounty on Cocoons, pursuant to the Instructions sent him; For which you are to take his Receipt upon Account, until he discharges himself thereof by his Accounts and Vouchers, to be transmitted to the Trustees with the other Accounts of the Trustees Expences in Georgia.
Herewith you receive the other Ounce of Silk Worm Seed from Italy mentioned in my Letter of the 23d of last Month; Whereof You must immediately supply Mr. Bolzius with one half for the Use of the Saltzburghers; The Trustees hope the Seed will not arrive too late for Use.
You are desired to direct, that the Eggs on the Paper hatched may be kept apart from those in the Box, and to be particular in advising, if any, and what Difference, in the Goodness of each of the respective Sorts, as also to send to England 20 or 30 Cocoons from each of the two Sorts of Eggs, and 30 more produced from Eggs of the People’s own Breed, and not to fail herein.
With this Conveyance there is a Matted Bundle for Mr. Edward Holt the Schoolmaster at Savannah, and three Barrels for Ebenezer to be forwarded.
Harman Verelst to Edward Holt, Jan. 13, 1749/50, Westminster, C.O. 5/669, p. 16, telling of items sent to him. By the Fortrose, Capt. Mackenzie.
By this Opportunity you receive a Matted Bundle, containing the Things you desired to be sent after you; The Charges whereof is allowed you as Necessarys for your Use.
The Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia have just rec’d a Letter from the President and Assistants, containing Matters of such Importance, that they thought it their Duty to lay a Copy of the same immediately before his Grace the Duke of Bedford.
The Revd. Mr. Thomas Bosomworth (who was sent some Years ago as a Missionary to Georgia) by his Marriage with a Woman, who was Interpreter for the Indians (for which She has been constantly well paid) has thought himself intitled, and by his Influence on the Indians sufficiently empowered, to make what Demands he pleased. He has for some time past thrown off in a Manner his Allegiance to his Majesty, and, under pretended Grants from the Indians, laid Claims to immense Tracts of Land independent of his Majesty’s Rights, and his Charter to the Trustees for granting the same. Since his Majesty’s Presents to the Indians have been sent, Mr. Bosomworth and his Wife have demanded a Moiety of the same for their own Use. They have, to the great Terror of his Majesty’s Subjects, brought down to Savannah above Seventy Indians in an hostile Manner, under Pretence of meeting and talking there with Mr. Abraham Bosomworth, their Brother, one of the Agents appointed for distributing his Majesty’s Presents, whom the Indians declar’d They had sent to England as their Agent. During their Stay at Savannah, he and his Wife, and the Indians for them, demanded that all their extravagant Claims of Land (which are totally inconsistent with his Majesty’s Charter) should be made good; On the Refusal of this, and the Moiety of the Presents, They behav’d themselves in the most outragious Manner to the great Disturbance of the Peace, and did their utmost to exasperate the Indians, to the great Danger of the Inhabitants of the Province. Tho’ by the good Conduct of the Magistrates, and the Spirit of the People, the Indians were prevented from committing any Acts of Violence, yet some of them (who are most under the Influence of Thos. Bosomworth and his Wife) return’d home with Dispositions no ways favourable to the Province. The Trustees therefore take the Liberty of offering it to his Consideration, whether the Removal of Mr. Abraham Bosomworth from being one of the Agents for distributing the Presents in Georgia, may not be the most effectual Method for undeceiving the Indians with Respect to the Interest of Thomas Bosomworth and his Wife, by which only These insinuated to them the Presents were obtain’d from his Majesty, and consequently for weakening that Personal Influence They have over some of the Indians, which They make Use of only for their own Emolument, and the Prejudice of the Province.
His Grace will be pleas’d to observe, that the coming down of the Indians to Savannah, the entertaining them there, and providing another Interpreter in Order to undeceive and quiet them, was attended with a considerable Expence as such an Expence will accrue every Year, whether the Indians come to Savanah for his Majesty’s Presents, or these are sent up into the Country to them; The Trustees beg Leave to offer it, to his Grace’s Consideration, whether it may not be proper to signify, that the Sum of Two hundred pounds, part of the £1500 allotted for the Presents to the Indians in Georgia, should be paid into the Hands of the Trustees to answer such Expence, the Trustees not being able to make it good out of the Grants of Parliament.
Harman Verelst to the Rev. John Martin Bolzius, March 3, 1749/50, Westminster, C.O. 5/669, p. 18, telling of packages sent to Ebenezer. By the Neptune, Capt. Ambrose Judd.
Besides the Bundle Mr. [Friedrich Michael] Zeigenhagen brought me to forward with this to you, I have sent by the same Conveyance a Chest from Hambrough mark’d H.P.B. Ebenezer containing Religious Books and some Medicines for the Saltzburghers.
Benjamin Martyn to the President and Assistants in Ga., May 3, 1750, Westminster, C.O. 5/669, pp. 18-21, concerning mail received, representation of Georgians on the proposed Negro Act, type land to be granted, Parliamentary silk encouragement, and changes in land tenure. By the Neptune, Capt. Judd.
Sir & Gentlemen
On the 10th of April last, I rec’d the Box directed to me, in which were the Representation relating to the Negro Act, a Letter to me, another to the Accomptant, a Return of the Boats and Vessels in Georgia, and other Papers as mentioned in the Schedule; And the same day I laid them before a Common Countil of the Trustees.42
The Common Council, having taken into Consideration the Representation about the Negro Act, agreed to the Proposal in the first Article, vizt. that white Servants may be either indented, or hired for a Year certain. They likewise agreed to the Proposal in the second Article vizt. That Coopers shall not be understood to be under the Denomination of Artificers. In the 6th. Article, they have inserted a Penalty of 10 £ Sterling to be paid by any Person who shall oblige, or even suffer his Negro to work on the Lord’s Day. They have agreed to the Alteration in the 7th. Article vizt. That 500 Mulberry Trees shall be planted and properly fenc’d on every Plantation of 500 Acres, and the same Proportion in less Grants, and have likewise agreed to the Tax you have propos’d in the 8th. Article. The Act upon the several Regulations propos’d is preparing in Order to be laid before his Majesty in Council, and no Time will be lost in forwarding the same.
The Common Council observ’d, that among the Reasons given, why 500 Mulberry Trees only should be requir’d on 500 Acres, and the same Proportion on less, it is said that Tracts of Land are or may be taken up on low Swamps and other wet Places, which tho proper for the Culture of Rice, will not suffer Mulberry Trees to grow on them. They could not but wonder at this Remark in the Representation, because they order’d, and have always expected that every Lot of Land should have a Mixture of high and low Lands, and as it was the Duty of the Surveyor to observe this, it was the Interest of every Grantee to desire it, because he must otherwise be confin’d perhaps to the Culture of one Produce only.
I acquainted you in my Letter dated Novr. 24, 1749 with the Prohibition of importing Raw Silk from Spain and all the States of Italy, publish’d by their several Sovereigns and Governments, and with the great Demand of fine Raw Silk for our Manufactures in England. I told you at the same time, I believ’d the Merchants would petition the Parliament for the Encouragement of the Culture of raw Silk in America. They did so in the last Session, and Specimens of the small Quantities imported from Georgia and South Carolina were produc’d to the Committee of the House of Commons (appointed to enquire into the same) some of it raw as imported, and some manufactur’d into Velvets, Damasks, Sattins, and other Goods; And the Merchants, Throwsters, and Weavers, who attended, allow’d the Silk to be as fine and good as any imported from Italy, from whence the finest Sort (which is most wanted) is usually brought. Upon these Proofs the House of Commons voted the Utility of cultivating Silk in America, and the Parliament pass’d an Act to take off the duty from it. Some of these Acts will be transmitted to you with this Letter, one or two of which must be deliver’d to Mr. [John Martin] Bolzius, and the rest dispersed among the People of the Province, Those especially who are applying themselves to the Culture of Silk (tho all must be acquainted with it) because they may see the Necessity of their attesting before the proper Magistrate that the Silk was produc’d by them, expressing in the Affidavit in what Part of the Province they reside. The Act requires the Collector, Comptroller, and Naval Officer, or any two of them, to send a Certificate under their Hands and Seals, expressing the Marks, Number, Tale, and Weight of the raw Silk in each Bale, Parcel, or other Package, shipp’d on board any Ship with the Names, Place or Places of Abode of such Exporter or Exporters. As therefore no Collector or Comptroller of the Customs is yet appointed in Georgia (for want indeed of Trade to have made them necessary) such Certificates must be sign’d by you Sir, or one of the Bailiffs of Savanah, and the Naval Officer, till a Collector and Comptroller are established.
It is hoped, and thought probably, that the Parliament may hereafter grant a Bounty, to be paid for a certain Number of Years, upon your Silk, if they see any likelihood of the Produce becoming considerable. You see by all this what a Field there is for your’s and the People’s Industry to sow in, and what an harvest you must reap, if you won’t be wanting to your Selves. The Trustees expect you should immediately acquaint the People throughout the Province with this, that they may immediately proceed (as you must exhort them) to the first Step necessary, which is, increasing the Plantations of Mulberry Trees, and properly fencing them; And whatever Progress is made by any of the People in doing this, you must by the first Opportunity acquaint the Trustees with, that they may have it in their Power to lay before the House of Commons early in the next Session; And whatever Assistance you can give to the People in procuring them Mulberry Plants, the Trustees expect you should. At the same time, Those, who do at present raise any Cocoons, and reel the Silk, you must advise to apply themselves principally to the finest Sort, as the Bounty may probably be given according to the Value of the Silk. I cannot conclude upon this head without telling you, that the importance of raising Silk in Georgia appear’d so great to the House of Commons, that it was mention’d as the principal Reason for granting the Money in the last Session for the Support of the Colony. Your very Being therefore, as a seperate and independent Province, depends chiefly (I had almost said solely) on the Progress made in this Produce, and the necessary Proofs of it being laid before the Parliament.
For the Satisfaction of the People you must as soon as possible communicate to them throughout the Province the following Resolution of the Common Council of the Trustees “That the Tenures of all Grants of Land whatsoever already made to any Persons within the Province of Georgia be enlarged, and extended to an absolute Inheritance, And that all future Grants of Land also shall be of an absolute Inheritance to the Grantees, their Heirs, and Assigns.” Proper Deeds are preparing for freeing the Grants from those Restrictions, which have been hitherto throught requisite. The only Return which the Trustees desire from the People is, a proper Attention to their own Interest.
Benjamin Martyn to the Rev. John Martin Bolzius, May 3, 1750, Westminster, C.O. 5/669, pp. 21-23, concerning Parliamentary silk encouragement, Negro Act, changes in land tenure, German servants, and silk worm eggs. By the Neptune, Capt. Judd.
I cannot omit the first Opportunity acquainting you with what I know will give you very great Pleasure, and will at the same time give the People under your Care fresh Spirit in the Culture of Silk, by increasing their Plantations of Mulberry Trees, and raising more Cocoons, and the Women applying themselves more generally to acquire the Art of reeling Silk. I told you in my Letter dated Novr. 24, 1749, that many eminent Merchants, and Weavers had Thoughts of petitioning the Parliament to encourage the cultivating of Silk in America, from an Experience of the fineness and Goodness of that raised by the Saltzburghers, and others in Georgia, and some rais’d in South Carolina. They did petition accordingly, and Specimens of the Silk imported from Georgia and Carolina (the finest of which was allow’d to be equally good from both Provinces) were produced to the Parliament, some of it raw as imported, and some manufactur’d into Velvets, Damasks, Sattins, and other Goods; And the Merchants, Throwsters, and Weavers, who attended on that Occasion, allow’d the finest Sort to be as fine and good as any imported from Spain or Italy. Upon the Proofs of this the Parliament voted the Utility of cultivating Silk in America, and pass’d an Act to take off the Duty upon it; One of these Acts will be deliver’d to you by the President & Assistants, because you will see by it, that an Oath must be made before a proper Magistrate, that the Silk produced by the Saltzburghers, was cultivated from time to time by them, and at Ebenezer; And it must be put in a Bale or other Package, with a particular Mark, and Account of the Quantity, and then delivered to the President, to be properly certified by him, and the Naval Officer. It is not improbable, but the Parliament may hereafter go further, and grant a Bounty to be paid for a certain Number of Years, upon your Silk; If they do, it will be granted in all likelihood according to the Value of the Silk; And consequently it will be proper for the Reelers to apply themselves chiefly to the finest Sort. There is a great Demand for this for our Manufactures in England, the Pope, and the several Princes and States of Italy having prohibited the Exportation of any raw Silk out of their Dominions.
The Trustees are pleas’d to find you are satisfied with the several Regulations, on which the Act for permitting the Use of Negroes in Georgia is to be form’d.
The People may be satisfied, that the Trustees have the Prosperity of the Province constantly in their View, and only hope in Return that the People will have it in theirs also. That these may not have the least Thing to complain of, the Trustees have resolv’d to enlarge all the Tenures of Lands already made to an absolute Inheritance, and that all the future Grants shall be in the same manner; And proper Deeds are preparing to free the Grants from those Conditions, which were necessary in the Infancy of the Colony, and could not properly be taken off during the War.
The Trustees have been in hopes of hearing from you how many of the German Servants, who were sent last Summer, were taken at Ebenezer, and indented to the Saltzburghers there, and whether any who were not Servants settled there. They hope I shall soon receive a Letter from you with regard to this, and with an Account of the Progress made by your Settlement in the Culture of the Silk. Some Eggs which were bringing from Italy, in Order to be sent to Georgia, unfortunately are all lost, by the Worms being hatch’d in the Voyage, but another Parcel will I hope be procur’d.
Harman Verelst to the President and Assistants in Ga., May 9, 1750, Westminster, C.O. 5/669, p. 23, concerning Indian presents. By the Neptune, Capt. Judd.
Sir and Gentlemen
Your Letter to me with the List of Goods for Indian Presents sent in the Box directed to the Secretary was rec’d the 10th. of last Month, which List will be a Guidance to me in the future Presents; But none has been sent since the first, by reason that Mr. James Crokatt, the new Agent for Carolina, on representing to the Duke of Bedford, that less Value in Presents would do, and the rest to be reserved for the Charges attending the Indians, and the Distribution of the Presents, put a Stop thereto, until a new Consideration was had thereupon, which will not be ‘till about July next; The Ministry being of Opinion, that the Province of Carolina should defray the Charges of the Indians and Distribution of the Presents, since the King sends the Goods, but Georgia is not in a Condition to bear that Expence, having no Provincial Funds for that purpose, which has been and will be further represented to the Ministry.
Harman Verelst to the Rev. John Martin Bolzius, May 9, 1750, Westminster, C.O. 5/669, p. 24, sending packet. By the Neptune, Capt. Judd.
On the 10th. of last Month I rec’d your Letter dated 4th. January 1749, which I laid before the Trustees; And their Secretary having wrote you fully, I refer you to his Letter. Mr. [Friedrich Michael] Zeigenhagen having brought me the Packet herewith sent you, I have the Pleasure of forwarding it, with my good Wishes to you and the People of Ebenezer, who are blessed and will be, with Success in their industrious Undertakings, under the Protection of that Divine Providence in whom They trust.
Benjamin Martyn to the Rev. Samuel Urlsperger, June 16, 1750, Westminster, C.O. 5/669, pp. 24-25, concerning Swiss who desire to go to Ga., arrival of German servants in Ga., and changes in land tenure.
I have rec’d the favour of your’s dated April the 17th. 1750, which I have laid before the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia, together with a Petition in Latin from John Weber, Leontius Schmidlinus, and others, dated Basil April 8th.
It was with the utmost Concern and Compassion, the Trustees read the unfortunate Case of the Petitioners, and they wish they were able to grant ample Relief to all such as are forc’d to quit their Country, to fly from Persecution, and who suffer for the Truth. But what you observ’d from the Foreign Gazette is really true, the Power of the Trustees is circumscrib’d by the Smallness of the Parliament’s Grant to them; However, what they are able, they are very ready to do; And as the Number of the Petitioners does not much exceed forty, if these can find any Friends who will bear the Expence of their Passage to England, the Trustees will find means of carrying them to Georgia, and will immediately give to each of the Heads of Families fifty Acres of good Land, at, or near Ebenezer, and will give them and their Wives Provision for a Year, with Tools for their Labour, and what is usually given to other Settlers. At the same time they will recommend to Mr. [John Martin] Bolzius, to find out Masters among the Saltzburghers for those who are under the age of 21, and fit for Service; And at the Expiration of their Service (which will be in proportion to the Distance they are at from Man’s Estate, but none will be bound for less time than four Years) They will grant to each of the Males fifty Acres of land likewise, as near as conveniently can be to their Father’s.
The Trustees hope they shall have as early Notice as possible of the time, when the Petitioners will probably arrive in England, that they may without Delay provide a convenient Passage for them to Georgia.
I have the Pleasure, Sir, to acquaint you, that the Trustees have very lately rec’d Advice from Mr. Bolzius, of the safe Arrival of the Germans, who were sent to Georgia last Autumn, many of whom they have taken as Servants; Some of these Mr. Bolzius speaks of with Pleasure, and of One in particular, who proves very useful, as a Schoolmaster in their Out Settlements.
I inclose with this one of our Papers, printed by Authority, in which you will see some Resolutions which the Trustees have lately taken, with Regard to the Tenure of Lands in Georgia, which must make every Possessor of them perfectly easy.