Works Abbreviated in Notes
Allen Candler, ed., The Colonial Records of the State of Georgia (Atlanta, 1904ff.)
George F. Jones, et al., Detailed Reports on the Salzburger Emigrants ...(Athens, Ga., 1968ff.)
Georgia Historical Quarterly.
Samuel Urlsperger, ed., Ausführliche Nachricht von den Saltzburgischen Emigranten ... (Halle, 1735ff.)
John A.M. Smith, “Purrysburgh,” South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine X (1909), 189-219.
The Journal of William Stephens 1741-1743, ed. E. Merton Coulter (Athens, Ga. 1958)
The Journal of William Stephens 1743-1745, ed. E. Merton Coulter (Athens, Ga. 1959).
Notes to Introduction
1. Henry Newman’s Salzburger Letterbooks, ed. George F. Jones (Athens, Ga. 1966), SALZBURGER SAGA (Athens, Ga. 1984).
3. “The Secret Diary of Pastor Johann Martin Boltzius,” GHQ 53 (1969), 78-110.
4. Ausführliche Nachrichten von den Saltzburgischen Emigranten, ed. Samuel Urlsperger (Halle, 1737ff.).
4. Whitefield’s colleagues, Barber and James Habersham, the director of his orphanage, became so obnoxious and insulting to the Anglican minister Orton in this matter that they had to be jailed (Stephens I, 29).
1. It is to be remembered that, in Pietist jargon, “honest” (ehrlich) meant “accepting Pietist tenets.”
2. An abandoned sawmill built by a Swede named Purker. See DR 5:143.
3. Pletter had reason to be suspicious, having previously been robbed of 5 ь (DR5:149-163).
4. All adult males in Purysburg had to serve in the militia.
5. Maria, nee Zugseisen, wife of Bartholomaeus Rieser.
6. This was Johann Schwarzwälder, progenitor of many Blackwelders.
7. In King James this is Psalms 4:3.
8. This is an allusion to a hymn. See July, note 15.
9. Whitefield’s “family” meant his colleagues: the manager, James Habersham; the doctor, Patrick Hunter; and the chaplain, Jonathan Barber.
10. Unidentified devotional tract.
11. At the Processus Judicii (the Day of Judgment) Christ will judge people according to their faith, not according to an absolute decree (predestination), by which some men are damned in advance.
12. The shoemaker, Jacob Reck, was a non-commissioned officer in Jacques Richard’s military battalion.
13. As a male adult of Purysburg, Kieffer was obliged to serve in the Purysburg battalion. Surprisingly, this is Boltzius’ only indication that Kieffer served at St. Augustine. Perhaps Urlsperger had deleted earlier mention.
14. Boltzius uses the word “sackcloth” (Sacktuch) to mean the cloth through which the flour was strained.
15. Waterground cornmeal is still cherished in Georgia.
16. Boltzius was misinformed about the relative ages of the Kieffer boys. Theobald, Jr., was the second son, Johann Jacob was the older. A list of Purysburg settlers in 1732 gives Jacque Kueffer as 16 and Theobald as 13 (Smith, 209).
17. Jacob Kieffer’s mother-in-law, Mrs. Depp, lived in Orangeburg, having left her daughter in Charleston. It should be remembered that, in Pietist parlance, “miserable” (elend) meant alienated from God.
18. Anastasius Freylinghausen, Compendium doctrinae christianae (Halle, 1733).
19. Like the medieval churchmen before him, Boltzius believed that all persons and acts in the Old Testament foreshadowed or prefigured those in the New.
20. “Significative yet exhibitive symbols.”
21. Stamping mills removed the outer husk so that the rice could be milled. It was laborious work by hand.
22. “Preparation for Holy Communion.”
23. “A kind of divine judgment.”
24. “A fond and indulgent mother.”
25. Boltzius seems to be referring to a slave-operated plantation Whitefield kept in South Carolina to supply his orphanage in Georgia, where slavery was prohibited.
26. “Some measure of dominion.”
27. “Breaking through” (durchbrechen) was a Pietist expression meaning to come to a realization that Christ through His merits can save even the worst sinner.
28. Since there were only two Kieffer boys, the words “middle son” suggest that Boltzius was now including Kieffer’s son-in-law Valentin Depp. The “middle son” is probably Theobald, Jr. See note 16.
29. Charles VI, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, died in October 1740.
30. This was wishful thinking. The British first took Havanna in 1762.
31. The school held in the vernacular for the folk at large, as opposed to the Latin School held for boys headed for the professions.
32. Herrnberger’s defection had not been mentioned in the Ausführliche Nachrichten. This suggests that Urlsperger had deleted it.
1. Fieber-Kuchen. A swollen organ, apparently the spleen, affected by malaria.
2. “At his own advice.”
3. It is not known why Boltzius consistently called Thomas Jones “Monsieur.”
4. This was a subsidy of one shilling for each bushel of corn raised.
5. God is “often greatest in the smallest things.”
6. See Jan., note 1.
7. This was Jacob Kieffer. See notes Jan., 16 and 28. Boltzius was still unaware that Jacob’s wife was pregnant by her former fiancé.
8. “Against the sixth (commandment),” the seventh according to English usage. For Boltzius, even premarital sex was adulterous.
9. “The Golden Mass-Manual,” a devotional tract.
10. Bartholomäus Rieser, aged 54, was old compared to Michael Rieser, aged 37.
11. “From popular rumor.”
12. The Greek letters are not clear in the Halle transcription. They seem to be hos en paranthe (as if in parentheses).
13. Reference to the murder committed by Mazzique and Shannon. See DR7:220,138.
14. Haus-Tafel or Tabula Oeconomica, edifying conversations between Martin Luther and his student table-mates. See Kurt Aland, Hilfsbuch zum Lutherstudium (Witten, 1970).
15. SPCK, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, English missionary society that paid the stipends of the Ebenezer pastors.
16. Probably the Lutherus redivivus of Martin Statius of Naugarten in Pomerania, who died in 1655.
18. This reference is unclear; perhaps it refers to the owner of the ass and the colt requisitioned by the two disciples in Matthew 21:1-7.
19. Henry Bishop had judged well in calling Carpenter “a sad reprobate boy” (CR21:66).
20. Boltzius had failed to mention, or Urlsperger had deleted, the fact that Ortmann was running a store.
21. Boltzius means that the devil’s words on the pinnacle (Luke 4:10) are a garbled version of Psalms 91:11-12, this being another example of prefiguration. See Jan. note 19.
22. “Legalistic” people (who trust the Old rather than the New Testament) live in anxiety for fear they will be judged according to their sins instead of being saved by the merits of Christ.
23. These words are from a hymn, Wirds aber sich befinden, dass du ihm treu verbleibst, so wird er dich entbinden, da du’s am wenigstens glaubst, er wird dein Hertze lösen von der so schweren Last, etc.
24. Got lässt die Seele nicht, er hat sie viel zu lieb. From another hymn.
25. Because Luther led the Reformation, many Americans are confused by the word “Reformed,” which they understand to mean “Protestant” rather than “Calvinistic” or “Zwinglian.” In Germany there was often intense rivalry between the Evangelicals (Lutherans) and the Reformed (Calvinists), whereas in America the two denominations often collaborated and even shared church buildings.
26. An allusion to her church penance for whoredom. See DR7:31.
27. Johann Heinrich Horb, Gründlicher Wort-Verstand des kleinen Catechismus Lutheri, 1693.
1. Boltzius had quoted the letter in English as given here, but Urlsperger translated it into German for the Ausführliche Nachrichten.
2. At this point Urlsperger adds the footnote, “Up to now it has stood the test, because it has not suffered the least damage in spite of the sometimes high rising water. God will continue to hold His hand above it.”
3. Boltzius was a well trained musicologist who had founded a music club, the Collegium Musicum, in Halle.
4. The absolutum decretum was the absolute decree by which God saved or damned people according to the dogma of predestination.
5. This seems to mean that, by dividing Protestants, the dogma of predestination actually aids the Roman Catholics even though they do not accept it.
6. “The universal merit of Christ.” By dying on the cross, Jesus saved all believing sinners, not just certain elect.
7. Elisabeth Penner, see entry for 17 March.
8. Michael Schneider was indentured to the Trustees, who had bought his labor from Capt. Thomson.
9. See Jan. note 27.
10. Josef Schaitberger, who had been expelled earlier from Salzburg, had settled in Nuernberg and written and smuggled devotional texts to his co-religionists back home. His most popular tract was his Send-Schreiben. He also composed the “Exiles’ Song” (Exulantlied).
11. He cured intermittent fevers with quinine bark.
12. “With many words.”
13. The first volume of the Ausführliche Nachrichten was followed by a large number of irregularly issued continuations, for which Urlsperger wrote inspirational and promotional prefaces.
14. Anonymously (“the name being covered”).
15. Barbara Kroehr, mother-in-law of both Boltzius and Gronau, had emigrated with her two older daughters, leaving her small children behind with her second husband.
16. As we shall see, God did this even more dreadfully than Boltzius hoped for.
17. “Direct request.” This confrontation is narrated in Boltzius’ secret diary (published in Georgia Historical Quarterly 53 (1969), 78-110).
18. At this point Boltzius inserts a seven-page quote from Urlsperger’s letters, which merely summarizes Boltzius’ earlier reports. Since it adds nothing new, it is omitted from this translation.
20. This illustrates the inspirational and promotional purpose of the Detailed Reports.
21. William Norris had tried to lay the baby to an indentured servant named Jacob Ruf and was believed, until the girl confessed to God and Boltzius. See CR5:255. A deposition of 11 April 41 signed by Boltzius, Thomas Jones, and Stephens is in the Public Records Office in Kew. See Earl of Egmont’s Journal, p. 151.
22. This long document is in the Public Records Office in Kew (S.P. 42 138 00627).
23. The word “Fathers,” when capitalized, refers to the “Reverend Fathers,” or patrons of the Salzburgers: Samuel Urlsperger, Gottlieb August Francke, and Michael Ziegenhagen.
24. Henry Hamilton, who will reappear shortly.
25. “and Halle” added by Urlsperger.
26. Because of the War of the Austrian Succession, or the First Silesian War.
27. Henry Newman, from Massachusetts, was the secretary of SPCK. See Henry Newman’s Salzburger Letterbooks, ed. George F. Jones, Athens, Ga., 1966.
28. No doubt Benjamin Sheftal, who came from Frankfurt on the Oder.
29. Nevertheless he did so. See March, note 22.
30. “Special Introduction.”
31. Allusion to Jeremiah 48:11.
32. Many of the Czar’s cadets, especially those from the Baltic area, were Lutherans.
33. Tallinn in Estonia was then a largely German city.
34. For Boltzius, “ignorant” (unwissend) meant poorly instructed in Pietist dogma.
35. “Having been previously confirmed.”
36. “Words of the catechism.”
37. Orangeburg is in South Carolina.
38. Johann Giessendanner was Johann Ulrich Giessendanner’s nephew, not his grandchild.
39. When passing through Augsburg, the Salzburg exiles had been housed in the Protestant poorhouse.
40. The “late” Professor Francke was August Hermann, the founder of the Francke Foundation.
41. Falsely assured of salvation because of good works.
42. Student of theology. This request was briefly but ably filled by Ulrich Driessler, who was already a mature man.
43. Beytrag zum Bau des Reiches Gottes, one of the contributions to a popular anonymous series of devotional works.
44. “Having been publicly confirmed beforehand.”
45. Before the Counter Reformation, Germans had favored old Germanic names like Albrecht, Conrad, Friedrich, Heinrich, Karl, Otto, Ruprecht, and Wilhelm. After the Counter Reformation, Catholics had to take on the names of saints, only a few of which, like Ludwig, Ruprecht, and Hedwig, were Germanic. The Protestants began taking names from the Old Testament as well as from scriptural saints, but the sum total of “good” names was small, at least half the Salzburgers having names from Boltzius’ short list.
46. Leonhard Rauner had died of dysentery returning from the siege.
1. This tenet, which goes back to Luther’s belief that salvation can come from faith alone (sola fide), was the cornerstone of Pietist dogma and appears frequently in these reports.
2. These predictions were fulfilled by the War of the Austrian Succession.
3. Benjamin Sheftal.
4. John Terry, who cared for the 4th transport on the voyage and became recorder at Frederica, soon found this out. When he complained of the rapes committed by military officers there, some of them suborned a Palatine woman to accuse him of the same crime. William Stephens (Stephens II:265) believed their story. See CR25: 20,23.
5. “Joys and sorrows.”
6. This allusion is not clear.
7. “Eye witness.”
8. Probably Ambrose. Boltzius often failed to distinguish between the two brothers.
9. Rheinländer had left Ebenezer and returned to New York, where he soon died. This was the first report of his death.
10. David Züblin, father of Johann Joachim Zubly. See note 16 below.
11. Boltzius soon discovered that the name was actually Zimmerebner.
12. Jacob Kieffer. See Jan., notes 16 and 28.
13. As his fee for grinding.
14. Michael Volmer had arrived with the Moravians before moving to Ebenezer, from which he absconded. (DR5:330, n.122).
15. In nomine Jesu, Amen, “In the name of Jesus, Amen.”
16. Johann Joachim Zubly, later leader of the Georgia dissenters and delegate to the Continental Congress.
17. Theobald, Jr. See note 12 above.
18. A text written after confirmation was introduced into Wurttemberg in 1722. The Lutheran Church in Wurttemberg has remained independent.
19. See Feb. note 25.
20. “The Sunday of our Lord’s mercy.”
21. The usual name of the Moravians, taken from the name Herrnhut, Count Ludwig von Zinzendorff’s estate in Saxony, where they had taken refuge.
22. The two Helds and Robinson. Gottfried Christ had volunteered but did not serve.
23. To Orangeburg, S.C., to conceal her premarital pregnancy.
24. Usually written as John Francis Regnier, even though he seems to have been German-speaking.
25. “Ebenezer” was usually translated as “God hath helped so far” or else as “stone of help.” The second meaning is alluded to here.
26. Because Bogatzky’s long poem had already appeared in the Fifth Continuation of the Ausführliche Nachrichten, Urlsperger deleted it, and we shall do so too. The content is summed up in the four verses cited, which mean more or less: “Yea, even if all physical hardship were abolished, the test of faith would still be a struggle in the soul; remain in simplicity, aspire to no heights, remain in true unity with your ministers.”
27. A long passage from Luther is omitted here as having no direct bearing on the Salzburgers.
28. See March, note 10.
29. The followers of Fausto Paoloa Sozzini (1539-1604), an anti-trinitarian active in Poland.
30. She was both French-speaking and Reformed.
31. Henri Francois Chifelle.
32. The nature of this punishment is not clear.
33. Snow is a negligible factor in the flooding of the Savannah River.
34. A panacea manufactured by Johann Caspar Schauer in Augsburg. This indicates that the orphanage was dealing in imports despite British mercantilist restrictions.
35. Although usually an accurate observer, Boltzius would seem to be in error here.
36. Such tall wheat appears in old European paintings, such as those of Breughel.
37. Meanwhile, Boltzius seems to have discovered the Kieffer boys’ relative ages.
38. The Schwarzwälders, see Jan., note 6.
39. Mrs. James Lewis Camuse, the wife of Jacobo Luigi Camuso, caused Col. William Stephens no end of trouble. She maliciously withheld information from the Salzburger girls sent to learn her art.
40. Büchlein von der Wohltat Gottes, a devotional work.
41. This is the only hint that she aborted the unwanted child.
42. Regensburg, sometimes called Ratisbon, was the seat of the Diet and of the Corpus Evangelicorum (Protestant Body). Many refugees from Upper Austria and Carinthia remained there hoping the Protestant delegates would recover the children they had been forced to leave behind.
43. Boltzius had visited the Moravians at Herrnhut. See May, note 21.
44. Urlsperger must have deleted mention of Spangenberg’s first visit to Ebenezer.
1. This “corporative” view of society, in which every Christian had his divinely ordained place, was popular in the Middle Ages, for example in the writings of John of Salisbury.
2. The fourth Salzburger transport, which arrived at the end of the year.
3. Andrew Duché, whose artifacts are now collectors’ items.
4. Like Michael Rieser, she had resided in Memmingen after being expelled from Salzburg. Boltzius often named the place the Salzburgers had sojourned in Germany because the people there would be interested in their welfare.
5. “French” may have meant “French Swiss.” Languages were important, nationalities were not.
6. “Perverted” (verkehrt), the opposite of “converted” (bekehrt), meant “turned away from God.”
8. “From a feeling of compassion.”
9. Carl Heinrich Bogatzky, “Güldenes Schatz-Kästlein der Kinder Gottes (Halle, 17??). This is the poet whom we slighted. See April, note 26.
10. “With punishment.”
11. Kein Sünd, kein Tod im Weg mehr seyn, die Strasse hält er frey und rein, HallelujaH, from an unidentified hymn.
12. He had served his indenture and was now free.
13. “Through a legacy.”
14. Whitefield’s orphanage at Bethesda.
15. The Francke Foundation was also sending missionaries to East India, whose reports appeared in Der Königlichen Dänischen Missionarien aus Ost-India eingesandte Ausführliche Berichten (Halle, 1735 ff.)
16. It is to be remembered that the Archbishopric of Salzburg was not yet part of Austria but a sovereign principality.
17. Since the Savannah River never freezes, it is more likely that his feet had been bound too tightly.
18. Chiefly swamp hares (called marsh rabbits in the local vernacular), which are more numerous than cottontails on the Savannah delta.
19. The Salzburgers were slow to fish because in their homeland fishing was restricted to the nobility.
20. This would contradict the common belief that carp were first introduced from Germany. Perhaps this held for golden carp, a German specialty introduced from China.
21. See April, note 14.
22. Actually, his nephew.
23. Jubel-Predigten, by Georg Friedrich Rogall (1700-1733), student of August Hermann Francke at Halle and later theologian at Koenigsberg.
24. Here we see the “work ethic” taught by Luther and by the Augustinian monks before him.
25. With Sanftleben. See DR VI 132.
26. See Clarence L. Ver Steeg, ed., Patrick et al., A True and Historical Narrative of the Colony of Georgia. Athens, Ga.: U. of Ga. Press, 1960.
27. This does not imply that the previously mentioned merchant was a German; Boltzius means “another man, a German.” The merchant was English, as revealed in the entry for 11 June.
28. Much of the wheat that was then being brought to Philadelphia by the Germans of Western Pennsylvania was being converted into hardtack for ships and the West Indies.
29. des seligen Arnds Passions-und Oster-Predigten, a book of sermons by the author of True Christianity.
1. a portori must be a scribal error, possibly for a fortiori (“all the more”).
2. The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
3. Stilo novo, anno currente. According to the old or Julian Calendar still used by the English, February belonged to the preceding year.
4. This view contradicts Boltzius’ usual view that only faith, not good works, will win heaven.
5. The larger part of the 20,000 or so Salzburger exiles were accepted by Frederick William, the “Soldier King,” and settled on his territories in East Prussia and Lithuania.
6. “Biblical sayings.”
7. “The law of retribution.”
8. New Windsor.
9. This letter has been published in Der Salzburger, No. 51 (1976 III), pp. 10-12, which is the quarterly of the Salzburger Verein in Bielefeld, West Germany. This letter gives the exact Salzburg residence of many of the Ebenezer exiles.
10. Caused by the War of the Austrian Succession.
11. “Daily matters become humdrum.”
12. Urlsperger censored all mail coming from Ebenezer.
13. Kaesemeyer was sharecropping for Friedrich Wilhelm Mueller. See DR7:56,134.
14. “Without witnesses.”
15. By now Thomson was in a regular business of transporting indentured Germans.
16. Eva Regina and Sybilla Friederica were daughters of a deceased Purysburg schoolmaster named Unselt.
17. But she was debauched even in the celestial city of Ebenezer, namely by Martin Dasher. See CR24:323-328; Stephens II, 147, 157, 265).
18. Because of the constant wars in Central Europe, many of Boltzius’ parishioners had seen service, including Arnsdorff, Käsemeyer, Ortmann, and Rauner, with all of whom he had friction. He also had difficulty with Anna Maria Bischoff, who had been a canteen woman.
19. Magdalena was an older daughter of Andreas Lorentz Arnsdorff by a previous wife. She had worked off her indenture in South Carolina and appears to have been very independent.
20. Samuel Lutz (1674-1750), Swiss pastor and scholar of Pietistic leanings.
21. Another of Boltzius’ many affirmations of his belief in salvation through faith alone.
22. “Bible readings.”
23. See April, note 25.
24. Since God is all-knowing, all-powerful, and all-loving, it is obvious that He sends us sickness only for our own good. Not only Boltzius, but also his parishioners, constantly refer to their salutary sickness.
25. Beschreibung eines verbesserten Fuersten-Staats, unidentified treatise.
26. As a German, Boltzius could not understand why the British authorities could not punish at his request, but demanded witnesses and proof of guilt. See CR24: 314, 321, 323 and Stephens II 147, 157.
2. The exiles sojourning in South Germany. Prussia was outside the Holy Roman Empire.
3. Tax et tuba seems to mean a noisy champion.
4. See May, note 26.
5. See April, note 40.
6. The Salzburgers introduced the system of “long lots,” in which the land was parcelled out in long parallel strips, thus giving each person a fair share of good and bad soil and enabling them to build communal fences around their property.
7. Urlsperger made the change knowing that Pichler did not have a mother in America. Perhaps Boltzius meant his mother-in-law. He often referred to step parents and parents-in-law as parents.
8. He had planned to defect with Stephan Riedelsperger. See DR7:94, 132, 160.
9. For the Pietists, träge meant indolent in prayer. One could be träge if working too industriously for worldly purpose.
10. Among the people from Memmingen were Gabriel Bach, the Landfelders, Michael Rieser, and the two Spielbergers. This suggests that Pichler may have resided there too. All of them caused Boltzius much anxiety.
11. Apparently the mosquitoes at Old Ebenezer did not carry malaria. Also, as long as the wet land was shaded by trees, the mosquitoes did not breed well. At or near New Ebenezer there was an infected population and also cleared rice fields.
12. At Whitefield’s plantation in South Carolina.
13. She had been accused of fornication but had denied it in church, thereby being exonerated. Later she confessed. See DR5: 127-30.
14. Either Elisabeth (1724) or Eva (1728). See list of recipients, pp. 225-230.
15. Sein Wort lass dir gewisser seyn, und ob dein Hertz spräch lauter Nein, so lass dir doch nicht grauen. From an unidentified hymn.
16. August Hermann Francke, Lehre vom Anfang christlichen Glaubens (Halle, 1696 ff.)
17. “Not to secondary causes, but first to God.”
18. See July, note 10.
19. Gotthilf Israel Boltzius survived and studied at Halle, where he died in 1774.
20. This form of divination is not clear, but we may rest assured that it was performed with proper prayers.
21. To Charleston.
22. To the Reformed Church.
23. He eats while walking.
24. See note 16, above.
25. “God is often greatest in the smallest things.”
26. Jacob’s wife is young in comparison with his mother, Mrs. Theobald Kieffer, Sr.
27. Until well into this century, sulphur and lard was a common cure for mange.
28. See Feb., note 20. Many school teachers, including Wertsch and Treutlen in Ebenezer, supplemented their low pay by keeping stores.
29. See March note 42.
30. “Solomon” means peaceful. Boltzius thought that Friedrich meant “peaceful” (Friedreich) too, but it actually meant the leader of a kinship.
39. Carl Heinrich Bogatzky, “Güldenes Schatz-Kästlein der Kinder Gottes, Halle, various dates.
40. “Wandering arthritis.”
41. This is not vanity on Boltzius’ part. He means “to other people (who are pious).” See May note 27.
42. This must have been Gronau. Although a loving and kindly man, he did sometimes torment the children.
43. Merely his wife’s labor. See entry for 27 July.
44. See May, note 26.
45. The spelling sesicutoria must be an error.
1. Most of the Salzburgers had been residing in southern Germany for some time before they were recruited for Georgia. Many Austrians and Carinthians were remaining in Regensburg in hope of pressuring the Protestant delegates at the Diet to recover the children they had had to leave at home when expelled.
2. Allusion to the hymn, Es kostet viel ein Christ zu seyn.
3. Fieber-Vertreiben. It seems surprising that the Pietists would wish to drive away a fever that is so “beneficial for their Christianity,” as Boltzius states at the end of the paragraph.
4. Eva Rosina Schweiger’s sisters were Sybilla Friederica, married Bishop, and Anna Justina. The boys were not identified.
5. “The comparison of the past with our own times.”
6. gelehnet. Boltzius is thinking in feudal terms; the Lord, like a temporal lord, grants a fief for only a limited time.
8. Mrs. Rieser had been the widow Ihler of Purysburg.
9. Boltzius was justified in his fear of the numerous sects which were tolerated in America and seduced many orthodox Christians. Today more Georgia Salzburgers are Methodists and Baptists than Lutherans.
10. This is the first proof we have that it was Jacob who made the trip. On July 1 and 5 Boltzius called him “young Kieffer,” and now he is “the oldest son.” He was the “oldest” of Kieffer’s two real sons, for Boltzius often used the superlative in distinguishing between two people. See Jan., notes 16 and 28.
11. Boltzius has corrected his previous error.
12. The word elend originally meant “out of the land” or “exiled.” The Pietists used it to mean “alienated from God” or “sinful.”
13. This was an error. The parishioners, including many Englishmen, championed Giessendanner when Bartholomäus Zouberbuhler tried to arrogate his position.
14. Apparently a free or faulty rendition of Panta de euschemonos kai kata taxin ginestho” (“Let all things be done decently and in order.”)
15. “From the practice of the primitive church.”
16. The questions posed in the catechism.
17. Catechism prepared by Zacharias Ursinus and Caspar Olevianus and introduced into the Rhenish Palatinate by the Prince Elector Frederick III in 1563. It was the catechism of many of Georgia’s Palatines.
18. “In the symbolism and not in the actual partaking of the body and blood of Christ.”
19. August Hermann Francke, Nötige Prüfung sein Selbst vor dem Gebrauch des Heiligen Abendmahls.
20. This was Noble Jones’ scout boat, of which Col. Stephens wrote at this time: “Noble Jones having left his Boat in Charge of his Men to follow him (as said yesterday) they idled away their Time, and neglected to take the next Tide, getting Drunk, very probable, upon having just received their Pay; and it was towards Noon before they sett off to-day, after my threatening to deal with them as they deserved” (CR, Supp. to Vol. IV, 263).
21. Like the Soviet Union today, the absolute princes of Europe looked upon their subjects as their personal property and therefore taxed them if they left. Even the Swiss had to pay an emigration tax, or leave clandestinely, as many did.
22. The surgeon must have been Jean B. Bourquin, who had been a surgeon in the Duke of Marlborough’s army and later settled at Purysburg in 1732. See Smith, p. 265 and Joseph Waring, A History of Medicine in South Carolina 1670-1825 (Columbia, S.C., 1964, 388).
23. Such as amputating both feet of Kieffer’s slave. See entry for 11 May.
24. This delay may have cost Ernst his life.
25. Peter Simond, a member of Simonds et Frères of London, seems to have been a Hugenot. His name appears as Simon, Simond, Simonds, Symond, etc.
26. “The works performed.” Here, the ritual itself, not the spirit behind it.
27. The raised serpent in Numbers 21:8.
28. Boltzius means Augusta.
29. Col. Stephens tells how the two Dutch children were indentured to an Indian trader, who mistreated and starved them and sent them to a distant plantation, where they were put under the charge of the two Negroes. When one of the Negroes tried to rape the girl, she screamed for help, and her master had her stripped and whipped. Fortunately, the commander at Augusta intervened and sent the children to Savannah (CR, Supp. to Vol. IV, 271).
30. The bulk of the exiles had gone to Prussia, where conditions were hard and many did not acquire land as expected. Ruprecht Zittrauer had already joined the 2nd transport in 1734.
31. The Treaty of Westphalia had recognized only Roman Catholics, Lutherans, and Reformed. All other denominations were sects and generally scorned and persecuted.
32. Those who wrongfully think they have achieved salvation.
33. An unidentified medication.
1. “Splendid vices.”
2. “Without tribulation.”
3. Boltzius followed medieval churchmen in considering a pollution dream a sin, even though involuntary.
4. See April, note 25.
5. See Jan., note 1.
6. Boltzius had been informed by the Salzburgers, in whose dialect the word “foot” (Fuss) included the entire leg. In this case the hip was dislocated.
7. A merchant named Schlatter had sent much linen on consignment, which had been sold at the store, but never paid for. Boltzius wrote numerous reminders to the Trustees. On 27 April 41, Verelst could finally write, “The Trustees have paid Messrs. Drewitt and Norris the ь 71.17.0 for the German Linnen which they sent, and was received into the Trustees store.” (CR30:337)
8. “Glory to God alone.”
9. Although Boltzius usually checked out all information he received from his parishioners, he must have been in error here.
10. “Because of the current criterion of her conversion.” The woman was changing from Reformed to Lutheran.
11. See Aug., note 22.
12. The “hand” had been amputated at the armpit. See Sept., note 6.
13. So kommet vor sein Angesicht mit jauchzen-vollem Springen, bezahlet ist die gelobte Pflicht und lasst uns fröhlich singen: Gott hat es alles wohl bedacht und alles, alles recht gemacht, gebt unserm Gott die Ehre. From the hymn Gott hat alies wohl bedacht, by Gustav von Mengden. This is a fine illustration of the theodicy then popular.
14. See Aug., note 29. Although Boltzius always refers to these young people as children, Eva Barbara was 25 and Catherina was 24, according to the list kept by the Earl of Egmont.
15. Abercorn Creek. This creek was formerly the western channel of the river, but its northern end had been silted up so that there was little current in it, thereby making it easier to row upstream.
16. This is the first reference to the fourth Salzburger transport.
17. Boltzius must have heard the story from Col. Stephens, who tells it similarly (CR, Supp. to Vol. IV 240-241).
18. “He who is not known of himself is known by the company he keeps.”
19. Like Boltzius and the other Germans, the British authorities in Savannah seemed to share the guildsmen’s disapproval of competition.
20. See May, note 26.
21. The “particularity of Christ’s merits” and the “election by absolute decree.” Whitefield claimed that Luther and Francke had shared his belief that Christ had died only for those individuals who had been elected for salvation, not for all men.
22. “Many would have come to wisdom if they had not believed that they had already achieved it.”
23. The poor woman was two and a half centuries too early with her ideas of woman’s liberation.
24. She was either Sybilla or Frederica. See Aug., note 4.
1. Apparently the Salzburgers were selling medications despite the English mercantile regulations.
2. See Sept., note 11. Note that, being a surgeon, he could cure only “external” defects. As a scholar, Boltzius looked down on surgeons as being empirical, as opposed to the physicians, who knew Latin and Greek and were full of ancient but usually completely false and useless knowledge. See entry for 20 Oct.
3. An abscess.
4. Chinquapins, chinkapins.
5. Probably cassina berries.
6. Röthelstein, apparently a red stone for marking.
7. Breypfängen, a variant of Breipfannen, porridge pan.
8. Bomasin, perhaps a medicine.
9. This contradicts his usual view toward work righteousness, or the attempt to achieve merit through one’s own works. Luther had championed a work ethic, but work was to be done through love of God and man and not in hope of heavenly reward.
10. Boltzius’ doubts were well justified. Zouberbuhler tried to get a commission as an officer. When that failed and he still could not get a benefice as a Reformed minister, he switched and became an Anglican.
11. A student candidate for the ministry.
12. By “High German,” Boltzius meant those of his parishioners who spoke standard German, not a dialect like that of the true Salzburgers.
13. This may not have been the case. According to Francis Moore, the recorder at Frederica who came over along with the fourth transport, “The Uchee Indian king and his people had a conference with Mr. Oglethorpe; they had taken some disgust at this colony, by reason of an indiscreet action of one of the Saltzburghers, who had cleared and planted four acres of land beyond the Ebenezer river, contrary to Mr. Oglethorpe’s order, and without his knowledge; they had also turned their cattle over the river, some of which had strayed away and eat the Uchee’s corn twenty miles above Ebenezer.” (Francis Moore, A Voyage to Georgia Begun in the Year 1735, London, 1744. Reprint in Collections of the Georgia Historical Society, I , 145).
14. It is to be remembered that “miserable” (elend) meant sinful.
15. Although witchcraft was common among the Pennsylvania Germans, it is attributed here to a Frenchman.
16. See Sept., note 7.
17. Justiciarius, the secular manager of an ecclesiastical estate.
18. Thue als ein Kind, und lege dich in deines Vaters Arme, bitt ihn und flehe, dass er sich dein (wie er pflegt erbarme), apparently from a hymn.
19. There were no volcanoes in the Cherokee country. Possibly Indians described those in the far west.
20. Stalactites and stalagmites, which abound in the caves of Appalachia.
21. Again Boltzius disapproves of competition, which is a sign of cupidity. Merchants should agree on a fair Christian price and not undersell each other.
22. Like John Wesley, Boltzius arrived imbued with ideas of the noble Red Man thirsting for the word of God, but he was soon disabused of all such misconceptions.
23. Henry Bishop, the son of a London grocer, who came with the second transport as a servant to Boltzius and became a true Salzburger.
24. “A stone of hell.” People still believed in the curative powers of certain stones for certain ailments.
25. Martin Luther’s Tabula Oeconomica, or Table-Talk, a collection of edifying conversations with the students who dined at his table.
26. See Oct., note 2.
27. Stilo vetere, old style, according to the Julian calendar then still used in Great Britain.
28. Baron Philipp Georg Friedrich von Reck, the commissioner of the first and third Salzburger transports, had left Ebenezer in disgrace. See DR Vol. III.
29. Baron von Reck was then serving a noble family as tutor.
30. The President and his Assistants. As President, Col. Stephens received 80 L per year (Stephens II, xxv).
31. An example of the British protective policy which contributed to the colonies’ desire for independence.
32. Probably Thomas Jones, an alcoholic trader, not to be confused with Thomas Jones, the keeper of the stores.
33. “No sooner said than done.”
34. Johann Arndt, Paradis-Gärtlein, a devotional work.
35. Ehre und Lehre Augsburgischer Confession. An explanation of the Lutheran articles of faith.
36. “Who is greatest in little things.”
37. Divination with a sieve was black magic, but using two kettles as Boltzius did (p. 206) was godly, provided it was accompanied by sufficient prayer. “Black magic” (Schwarzkunst) was a translation of nigromancia, a corruption of necromancia, divination by consulting the dead.
38. This was a false rumor.
39. They were captured in South Carolina, but the governor refused to extradite them.
2. This is Pietistic rhetoric meaning they wished to open up a store.
3. For a while he was able to transfer some of the duties to Johann Ludwig Meyer.
4. Betrachtung von der Anwndung der schriftmässigen Einsamkeit. A devotional work. It is referred to by various titles.
5. Erquick-Stunden. Perhaps part of the title of the work.
6. “In all respects.”
7. “Prayers and tears.”
8. The paper currency issued by the Lord Trustees.
9. In 1741 the War of the Austrian Succession was being fought in Germany, and the Russians were regaining land from the Swedes in Finland. Although the states of Germany were always fighting against each other, the Germans felt a sentimental love for their disunited fatherland.
10. John McCloud had served in Darien because he could preach in Gaelic, or “Irish” as it was called, to the Highlanders, most of whom could not understand English.
11. The captain of Whitefield’s sloop.
12. A large dugout furnished with a sail used in inland waters.
13. The Trustees had promised a subsidy of one shilling per bushel to encourage the growing of grain.
14. This early Thanksgiving Day celebration has been little noted.
16. Lass es kommen, kommt es doch, von geliebten Händen. Kinder, die der Vater soll ziehen zu allen Guten, die gedeyen selten wohl ohne Zucht und Ruthen: Bin ich denn nur Gottes Kind, warum wollt’ ich fliehen? da er mich von meiner Sünd zu was Guts will ziehen’ From a hymn.
17. Added by Urlsperger.
18. Further evidence that the Salzburgers were dealing in medicines. See Oct., note 1.
19. These were the Blacks who had abused the Heinrich children. The South Carolina authorities were retaliating because Georgia did not always return runaway redemptioners.
20. Another example of Boltzius’ fear of competition.
21. Renate Wilson has written on this subject.
22. The prodigal son.
23. The Ordnung des Heils was a text showing the steps a Christian had to take to be saved. The Pietist theologians, mostly scholars, had reduced it to an exact science.
24. Bavaria was, of course, part of the Empire. Boltzius uses the words “into the Empire” (ins Reich) to mean “out of one’s own province.”
25. Dein Blut, der edle Saft, hat solche Stärk und Kraft, dass auch ein Tröpflein kleine, die ganze Welt kein reine, etc. From an unidentified hymn.
26. See March, note 10.
27. It was inconsistent on Urlsperger’s part to delete Ernst’s name here but to leave it elsewhere.
28. It is to be remembered that Elend meant “misery.”
29. Reference to a hymn. See July, note 15.
30. Aeusserliche Ehrbarkeit. Good behavior in this world by which one erroneously thinks he can achieve salvation.
31. The widow, née Metzger, who later married Gottfried Christ.
32. The custom of “fencing out” lasted into the 20th century. If you did not wish your neighbor’s cattle to eat your grass, it was your responsibility to fence them out, not his responsibility to fence them in.
33. It was amazing that it took the Salzburgers several years to realize how indispensable dogs and cats were. A good coon dog could have kept them supplied with meat during their first years.
1. “The great works of God.”
2. These planters were Hugh and Jonathan Bryan, who were under Whitefield’s influence.
3. This was Christian Theus. See A.S. Salley, The History of Orangeburg County. Orangeburg, S.C., 1898, p. 69 ff.
4. Understood here in the sense of “The Lord hath helped so far.”
5. durchgeholfen. The Lord had “helped her through.” He had brought her to the realization that, despite her sins, she could be saved by faith in the merits of Jesus.
6. Apparently, nationality, government to which one is subject.
7. Luther’s translation differs greatly from the King James version and is more approximate here: Wir haben einen Gott, der da hilft, und den Herrn Herrn, der vom Zode errettet (Psalms 68:21).
8. The Europa.
9. Boltzius never explains why he always calls Thomas Jones “Monsieur.”
10. The Trustees were demanding that even those traders licensed in South Carolina have Georgia licenses.
11. Contraria iuxta se posita magis eluscent. “The contrast between different things is clearest when they are placed side by side.”
12. Reports from the Salzburgers’ kinsmen who had settled in East Prussia.
13. She had had painful treatment for an ulcer in the throat.
14. Settlers in America frequently wrote to their kinsmen who were coming to America to bring all their capital in objects, because everything in America was expensive and because the English farm tools were of poor quality.
15. Stephens tells how several of the “German Wives” who tended the sick Swiss brought the contagion into their own families (Stephens I 25).
16. He probably needed them either at Frederica or at his barony near Palachocolas.