THE causes which led to the Colonization of America—French Colony in Florida—Colony of Massachusetts Bay—The Puritans—Intolerance of the Church of England—The Salzburgers—Contrast between them and the Puritans—Injustice done to the former—The Origin of the Salzburgers—Their persecutions by the dukes of Savoy—They embrace the Doctrines of the Reformation—Cruelty toward their pastor—The Valleys of Teffereck—Their Retreats discovered—Miximilian Gudolph—Salzburgers before the Bishop’s Court at Hallein—Renewed persecutions—Sympathy of Protestant States—Elector of Brandenburg—Corpus Evangelicum—Return of the Teffereckers—Duplicity and Treachery of the Catholic Authorities—Penalties imposed on the Salzburgers—Banishment and Confiscation of their Estates—Severe Sufferings of the Exiles—Joseph Schaitberger—Remarkable conversion of his daughter—Schaitberger as an author—The Confession of Faith—The Salzburg Emigrant’s Song—Persecutions under Leopold—Archbishopric of Salzburg—The City of Salzburg—Thirty thousand Protestants exiled—Their reception by Protestant States.
Charter granted by Charles II. to the Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia—The design of the colony—General Oglethorpe—English settlers arrive at Savannah— “Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge”—Interest on behalf of the Salzburgers—Arrangements to remove the Salzburgers to Georgia—Fifty families engaged for the first transportation—Provision made by the “Society”—Liberality of the “Trustees”—First company of emigrants—Love of country—Departure from their homes—Incidents of their journey—The city of Augsburg—Hospitalities extended to the Salzburgers—Recommence their travels—Rev. S. Urlsperger—Effects of the sojourn of the Salzburgers at Augsburg—Revival of religion—Further Incidents—Arrival in the city of Frankfort—Conduct of the Burgers—Procession—Entrance into the city—Hospitality of the inhabitants—Departure from Frankfort—The Maine and Rhine—Arrival at Rotterdam—Rev. Messrs. Bolzius and Gronau—Departure from Rotterdam—Arrival at Dover, in England—Impressions made by the emigrants on their English benefactors—Preparations for leaving England—Departure of the Purisburg, first ship with German emigrants.
The Salzburgers at sea—Conduct during the voyage—Arrival at Charleston, S. C.—General Oglethorpe—Departure from Charleston—Arrival at Savannah—Sentiments of the emigrants—Their reception at Savannah—Notes of Mr. Bolzius—Baron Von Reck—Conduct of the Indians—Disembarkation of the Salzburgers—Liberality of General Oglethorpe—Expedition into the country—Description of the country—Devout conduct of the Salzburgers—Ebenezer—Foundation of the colony—Location of their settlement—Uchee Indians—St Matthew’s Parish—Lord Effingham—Town laid out—Salzburgers remove to their new home—Impressions in relation to the nature of the country—Baron Von Reek’s enthusiastic description—Real character of the country—Assignment of lots—Hardships incident to colonization—Scarcity of mechanics and materials for building—Other trials—Sickness and death among the colonists—Extracts from Mr. Bolzius’s journal—Influence of affliction—Arrival of a second company of Salzburgers—Improvement in the condition of the colony—Progress of the town, &c.
General Oglethorpe visits England—Favourable condition of the colony—Trustees determine to send out reinforcements—Aid from British Parliament—Character of the colonists engaged—Highlanders and Salzburgers—Liberal terms proposed by the Trustees—Captain Hermsdorff and Baron Von Reck—The Trustees charter the “London Merchant” and the “Symond”—The “great embarkation”—English and German emigrants—Moravians under Bishop Nitschman—John and Charles Wesley—Departure from England—Storm at sea—Effect of the conduct of the Germans upon Mr. Wesley—Testimony of Dr. Jackson, President of British Conference—Mr. Wesley’s spiritual condition—Conference with Mr. Spangenburg—Influence of the Moravians—Rev. Peter Boehler—Salzburgers confounded with the Moravians—Mistake of Mr. Bancroft—Removal of Moravians to Pennsylvania—Mr. Wesley’s religious experience—Extract from his journal—Subsequent visit to England—His conversion—Luther’s preface to the Epistle to the Romans—Mr. Wesley’s preaching after his conversion—Forms “Societies,” the basis of Wesleyan Methodism—The Methodist Church a fruit of the Lutheran Reformation—Arrival of the “embarkation” at Savannah—Settlement of Salzburgers on St. Simon’s Island—Views of the Germans in relation to war—Reinforcement at Ebenezer—Lutheran settlement at Frederica—Rev. U. Dreisler—Revs. Bolzius and Gronau visit Savannah—Conference with General Oglethorpe—Salzburgers dissatisfied with their location, and desire a change—General Oglethorpe visits Ebenezer—Reasons of the Salzburgers for desiring to remove—General Oglethorpe’s advice and kindness to the Salzburgers—Change of location determined upon.
New Ebenezer—Its location, and the plan upon which it was laid out—The environs of the town—Its rapid growth—Municipal and other regulations—Rules originally adopted for the government of the congregation—The duties of pastors set forth—Elders and wardens—Parochial schools—Church members, &c.—Dr. H. M. Muhlenberg—Salaries of the pastors—Their responsibilities—Relation to the church in Germany—Sale of rum prohibited, and the introduction of Negro slaves—Effects of these regulations on the colony at Ebenezer—Mr. Bolzius, Rev. George Whitfield, and Baron Von Reck on slavery—Position of Mr. Bolzius—Views of Hon. James Habersham and Rev. S. Urlsperger—Controversy settled, and slavery allowed—The Salzburgers and the Lutheran Church in Germany—Liberality of the latter—Education—“Bethany” church—Favourable condition of the settlement—Religious character of the inhabitants—Their industry, frugality, &c.—Letter of Mr. Bolzius—Rev. George Whitfield at Ebenezer—His testimony in favour of the Salzburgers—He visits the Orphan House—Letter of Thomas Jones—Principal settlers at Ebenezer up to 1741—The invasion of Georgia by Spaniards—Another letter of Mr. Bolzius—Extracts from his journal—Statement of Mr. Benjamin Martyn—New arrivals—Emigrants bind themselves as servants—Frederick Helfenstein—Lutheran church in Savannah founded—Rev. U. Driesler—His death—Rev. Mr. Zublii—The town of Frederica—Dr. II. M. Muhlenberg visits Ebenezer—Mr. Gronau—“Jerusalem” church at Ebenezer—“Zion’s” church—Extracts from Mr. Bolzius’s journal—Death of Mr. Gronau.
State of feeling at Ebenezer consequent on the death of Mr. Gronau—Mr. Bolzius writes to Germany for an assistant—His humility and devotion—The church in Germany send over another pastor—Rev. H. H. Lembke arrives at Ebenezer—His reception—Marries the widow of Mr. Gronau—Mr. Bolzius retains his position—Mr. Bolzius, as trustee, erects mills—Silk culture introduced at Ebenezer—Mr. Amatis of Piedmont—Mulberry-trees planted at Ebenezer—Success of the Salzburgers in raising silk—Bridge and causeway over Ebenezer Creek—New church and school-house erected—Pastoral labours—Extent of the field to be cultivated—Goshen church—Abercorn—Extension of the settlements around Ebenezer—Demand for more ministerial labour—Rev. C. Rabenhorst arrives at Ebenezer—Mr. Bolzius’s letter on his arrival—Change of views—Provision for the support of the new pastor—Condition of the colony—Mr. Bolzius assigns his trusteeship to Mr. Lembke—Copy of the deed of trust—The “Trust” to be transferred—Subsequent change—Erection of another mill—Mr. Bolzius begins to decline in health—The symbolical books—Proper views in relation to the “Fathers”—Confessions and catechisms—Deep-toned piety of the first pastors at Ebenezer—Mr. Bolzius’s labours—His letters—Rev. S. Urlsperger and Dr. Zeigenhagen—Close of his ministerial duties—His illness and death—Mr. Bolzius’s family.
State of affairs at Ebenezer consequent upon the death of Mr. Bolzius—Increase of population and of ministerial labour—Transfer of trust to Mr. Rabenhorst—Harmony between the two pastors—Jerusalem church built at Ebenezer—Description of the edifice—The Swan, Luther’s coat of arms—Death of Mr. Lembke—His character as a preacher—Gottlieb Snider—Rev. C. F. Triebner sent over as successor to Mr. Lembke—His character—Marries a daughter of Mr. Lembke—Injudicious selection—Division in the church—Controversy between Messrs. Rabenhorst and Triebner—Dr. H. M. Muhlenberg arrives at Ebenezer—Object of his mission—His prudent and judicious conduct—The grounds of dispute stated—Elders prefer charges against Mr. Triebner—Origin of the difficulty—Dr. Muhlenberg’s efforts to reconcile the parties—His views of the case—Opinion of Mr. Triebner—Plan of settlement proposed—Reconciliation—Dr. Muhlenberg’s reflections—His opinion of Mr. Rabenhorst—Exculpates him from all censure—His estimation of Mr. Rabenhorst as a man and as a preacher—Dr. Muhlenberg’s labours among the Salzburgers—Saves the church property from alienation.
Dr. Muhlenberg still at Ebenezer—Church discipline—Views and practices of the founders of American Lutheran Church—Evils arising from want of discipline—False views on the subject—The discipline adopted at Ebenezer in 1774, and duties of pastors, officers, and church members defined—List of church members who signed the discipline, as certified by Dr. Muhlenberg—Settlements at Abercorn and Goshen—Mr. Knox buys the lands at Abercorn—Moravian missionaries brought over to preach to the Negroes—Labours of the Moravians at Goshen—Fears of Dr. Muhlenberg—Moravians not successful—Advice to them by one of the Salzburgers—Fears of Dr. Muhlenberg not realized—Moravians leave the settlement—Dr. Muhlenberg’s successful labours at Ebenezer—He leaves Georgia for Philadelphia—Condition of the congregation at Philadelphia—Reflections.
Affairs at Ebenezer after Dr. Muhlenburg’s departure—Rabenhorst and Triebner—Pastors cease to be Trustees, and the trust transferred to the church officers—Mr. Rabenhorst created first pastor—State of feeling between the two pastors—Inventory of church property—Its estimated value—Church funds—Views of the propriety of creating them—A case of necessity with the Salzburgers—General state of the colony—Prosperity of Ebenezer—A fancy sketch—Commercial relations of Ebenezer—Gradual extension of the settlements—New settlers come in—Commencement of the Revolution—Stamp Act and tax on tea—State of the public mind in the Province of Georgia—Position of the Salzburgers—Provincial Congress in Savannah—Salzburgers in that Congress—Majority of them side with the Colonists—Protest of a portion of the Salzburgers—Adherents to the Crown in St. Matthew’s Parish—Patriotic and noble sentiments of the Salzburgers—Mr. Triebner sides with the Crown—Judicious course of Mr. Rabenhorst—His long and successful labours, and death.
Descent of the British upon Georgia—General Provost takes Savannah—British posts along the river—Mr. Triebner takes the oath of allegiance to the crown, and conducts troops to Ebenezer—A garrison established under Major Maitland—Proclamation issued by Major Maitland—Some of the Salzburgers take “protections”—Majority of the Salzburgers Whigs—Governor Treutlen—Holsendorf—John and Samuel Stirk—John Schnider—Strohaker—Jonathan and Gottlieb Schnider—Jonathan Rahn—Ernest Zittrauer—Joshua and Jacob Helfenstein—Sufferings of the Salzburgers during the war—Tories—Eichel and Martin Dasher—Marauding parties—Frederick Helfenstein and his two sons—General Wayne—The Salzburgers forced to abandon their homes—Sufferings at Ebenezer—Prisoners—Sergeants Jasper and Newton—Sacrilegious act of the British toward the church at Ebenezer—Other acts of cruelty—Mistaken policy of the British—Sad influence of the licentiousness of the British troops upon the morals of Ebenezer—Pastor Triebner—His removal to England and death—General character of the pastors at Ebenezer—Triebner an exception—Dispensations of Providence—General Wayne attempts the reduction of Savannah—British troops withdrawn from Ebenezer—General Wayne makes his headquarters there—British evacuate Savannah—Salzburgers return to Ebenezer—Scene of desolation—Condition of the church—Congregation without a pastor—Petition sent to Germany—Dr. Muhlenburg’s concern for the Salzburgers—A minister visits Ebenezer—Dr. Muhlenburg’s letter—Vindication of Mr. Triebner—Pastor to be sent in the spring—Despondency among the Salzburgers—Darkness begins to disappear—New pastor about to be sent.
The arrival of a pastor anticipated—Solicitude on the subject—The Rev. John Earnest Bergman arrives at Ebenezer—His early history—His qualifications for the ministry—State of affairs at Ebenezer and Savannah—Mr. Bergman’s defects—Parochial schools—Mr, Bernhardt—Mr. Probst—Mr. Ernst—Increase of pastoral labours—Church in Savannah—Letter from Mr. Scheuber—Correct views of the sacraments—Usages of the Lutheran Church—Mr. Bergman’s marriage—His family—Mr. Bergman as a. scholar—His correspondence—Parsonage at Ebenezer—Bishop Francis Asbury—His letter to Mr. Bergman—Improvement in temporal affairs—Bad habits among the Salzburgers—Want of church discipline—Disaffection toward the church—Members withdraw—Ebenezer Bridge—Ebenezer becomes the county site—Effects of this measure—County site changed to Springfield—The mills—Demand for English preaching—Letter from Bishop Asbury—Mistaken policy—Methodists in Savannah—Obligations of the Methodists to the Lutheran Church—Rev. Hope Hull—Jonathan Jackson—Josiah Randle—John Garvin—Rev. S. Dunwoody—First Methodist Society in Savannah—Mr. Bergman relinquishes the church in Savannah—Letter to Rev. H. Holcombe—Savannah church without a pastor—Rev. S. A. Mealy—Salzburgers in other churches—Jesse Lee visits Ebenezer—Mr. Bergman curtails his labours—“Bethel” church erected—Personal difficulty—Letter of Rev. J. McVean—Efforts to proselyte—Lax state of morals—Want of discipline—Mr. Bergman’s grief at the condition of the colony—External prosperity—Spiritual declension—Death of Mrs. Neidlinger—Mr. Bergman’s health declines—His death.
Gloomy prospects at Ebenezer—Rev. C. F. Bergman—His early religious sentiments—Calvinistic tendency—Attends the Georgia Presbytery—Letter to Rev. M. Rauch—Conflicting views—Becomes a member of Presbytery—Receives a call to St. Matthew’s Lutheran Church—Dr. J. Bachman visits Savannah and Ebenezer—Interview and correspondence with Mr. Bergman—Mr. Bergman changes his views, joins South Carolina Synod, and becomes pastor at Ebenezer—His piety and qualification for the work—State of the congregation—Methodist and Baptist churches organized—Methodist church at Goshen—Rev. J. 0. Andrew—Delusion—A false Messiah—Strange scene at Goshen—Sad results—Rev. L. Myers locates at Goshen—His character, labours, and death—Temperance movement at Ebenezer—Mr. Bergman introduces English preaching—His marriage—His children—Temporal and spiritual prosperity—Emigration of Salzburgers to other counties—Church in Savannah—Rev. S. A. Mealy—Rev. N. Aldrich—New church in Savannah—Rev. A. J. Kara—German congregation—Rev. W. Epping—Disaffection at Ebenezer—Other churches built up by Salzburgers—Mr. Bergman as a scholar—Trials—Indifference to education—Mr. Bergman’s sickness and death—Rev. J. D. Schenck—Rev. E. A. Bolles—Difficulties at Ebenezer—Rev. P. A. Strobel—Death of Mrs. Bergman—Rev. E. Kieffer—Rev. G. Haltiwanger—Rev. J. Austin—Present condition of the church—“Father Snider.”
The town of Ebenezer—Its present appearance—The results of this experiment at colonization—The colonies in New England, Virginia, and the Carolinas—Royal Historical Society of Austria—Inquiries as to the fate of the Salzburgers answered—Religious and social influence of the Salzburgers upon the other colonists—Religious sentiments of the first pastors—Dr. Hazelius’s testimony—Present condition and pursuits of their descendants—Effingham county—General reflections—Conclusion.