Works Abbreviated in Notes
Samuel Urlsperger, ed., Ausführliche Nachricht von den Saltzburgischen Emigranten ... (Halle, 1735ff.)
Allen Candler, ed., The Colonial Records of the State of Georgia (Atlanta, 1904ff.)
George F. Jones, et al., Detailed Reports on the Salzburger Emigrants ... (Athens, Ga., 1968ff.)
John A.M. Smith, “Purrysburgh,” South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine X (1909), 189-219.
George Whitefield’s Journals (1734-41), reprint by William V. Davis (Gainesville, Fla., 1969).
Notes to Introduction
1. Whitefield, p. 436.
2. CRG Vol. XXXIX (unpublished), p. 491.
3. Ausf. Nachr., 6th Continuation, p. 357.
4. Reproduced in Angelika Marsch, Die Salzburger Emigration in Bildern. Weissenhorn, West Germany: Anton H. Konrad Verlag, 1978, p. 156.
5. See A True and Historical Narrative of the Colony of Georgia, with Comments by the Earl of Egmont, ed. Clarence L. Ver Steeg. Athens, Ga., 1960.
6. Ibid., p. 136.
7. This appears to have been the chest which was at Port Royal on 5 July and was too heavy to be brought to Savannah by canoe (CRG XXII, Pt. II, 382).
8. CRG IV, 559.
9. See footnote to May 14 (note 11). The date of this incident is not clear. Stephens mentions it in his entry for 13 May, yet Boltzius’ entry for 9 May states that he had already sent a letter of complaint on 6 May.
10. See Stephens’ entry for 8 March 1740 (CRG IV, 530).
11. Whitefield, p. 392.
12. Twenty-nine hymns were learned between Christmas and Easter (Entry for 27 April).
13. Angelika Marsch, Die Salzburger Emigration in Bildern. Weisshorn, West Germany, 1978.
Notes to January
1. Boltzius means that she was held back by religious scruples and by physical ailments.
2. Johann Jacob Zuebli.
3. “Honesty” (Redlichkeit) usually designated the acceptance of Pietistic principles.
4. Johann Liborius Zimmerman, Die überschwengliche Erkenntnis Jesu Christi... (Halle, 1731).
5. Johann Arndt, Vier Bücher vom wahren Christenthum (Halle, probably 3rd ed. of 1735).
6. Anonymous collective work, Sammlung auserlesner Materien zum Bau des Reiches Gottes (Leipzig, 1731ff.), which consists of “Contributions” (Bey träge).
7. Like Boltzius, Whitefield believed that one could not achieve salvation through good works but only through faith in Jesus. According to William Stephens’ journal, on 13 January 1740, upon returning from Savannah, Whitefield preached on “Justification by Faith Only” (CRG, IV, 489. See also 531).
8. Patrick Hunter (CRG XXXIV, 94). Jonathan Barber, a Presbyterian, served as chaplain (ibid.)
9. Bethesda, which now functions as a school, is still on the same site.
10. Whitefield saw no contradiction in exploiting slave labor in order to make life easier for his orphans. Because the Trustees would not allow him to have slaves at Bethesda, he established an income-producing plantation in South Carolina.
11. It is regrettable that these communion lists are lost, since many of the Savannah Germans are known only by the anglicized names recorded by the English scribes.
12. All references to Mr. Jones are to Thomas Jones, the new keeper of the stores, since Boltzius did not yet dignify Noble Jones with that title.
13. This was Johann Paul Francke, who had run away from the Ebenezer orphanage in 1737 (Det. Rep. IV, 29). After serving an Indian trader for twelve years, he returned to Purysburg, having completely forgotten his native language and religion (Ausf. Nachr., Seventeenth Continuation, p. 701).
14. Johann Anastasius Freylinghausen, Geist-reiches Gesang-Buch (Halle, probably 3rd ed. of 1725).
15. Like the medieval schoolmen before him, Boltzius looked upon the events and persons of the Old Testament as prefigurations of those in the New Testament. David generally prefigured Jesus. See entry for 13 May.
16. Boltzius says the fourth commandment. He is, of course, referring to the commandment, “Honor thy father and thy mother,” which is number four according to German reckoning but number five according to ours. In this translation the commandments will be numbered according to the English numbering.
17. Probably Mrs. Rheinlaender, who had been excommunicated and expelled from Ebenezer. Her son was apprenticed to a cobbler in Savannah.
18. Georg Bartholomäus Rott, a Bavarian distiller, was the first inhabitant of Ebenezer to be banished for misbehavior. He died soon afterwards, unrepentant and a dreadful example for the Salzburgers.
19. Josef Ernst.
20. Boltzius usually Germanized the name of Henry Bishop, the son of a London butcher, who had been completely assimilated into the Salzburger community.
21. This injury turned gangrenous and proved fatal, yet salutary, since it caused Ernst to see the evil of his ways and to die penitent.
22. Mrs. Schweighofer.
23. Maria Schweighofer, aged 16.
24. Hans Michael Held.
25. Condrit Held, a Palatine redemptioner.
26. Urlsperger shows his usual inconsistency in suppressing Whitefield’s name here while leaving it a short time previously, when it was necessary to show that the benefactions had actually been delivered. The second N. is probably Oglethorpe, who also contributed to the church.
Notes for February
1. The cast iron stoves brought by the Germans to Pennsylvania were the model for Benjamin Franklin’s stove.
2. Andrew Duché.
3. Johann Friedrich, aged 16.
4. Jeremias, aged 11.
5. A small fort guarding the crossing of the Ogeechee River, now on the terrain of Camp Stewart at Hinesville, Georgia.
6. Boltzius has discovered that the marriage between this woman and Johann Staud (John Stout) was unlawful because he had a family in Germany. The Savannah authorities, many of whom had their own “housekeepers,” were quite unconcerned with this arrangement. See Det. Rep. VI, 81.
7. Bürgerliche Ehrbarkeit connoted conventional morality, and selbst-gemachte Frömmigkeit connoted the false piety that people think they can achieve on their own merits rather than solely through faith in Jesus.
8. Allusion to the hymn Es kostet viel, ein Christ zu seyn, by Christian Friedrich Richter.
9. She was a “legalist” who believed more in the Law than in the spirit, more in the Old Testament than in the New.
10. Johann Jacob was aged 24 and Theobald, Jr., aged 21. When the family reached Purysburg on 22 December 1732 they were listed as Theobald Küffer 49, Anna Margarita 40, Jacque Küffer 16, Theobald Küffer 13, Margaritt 14, Elisabeht Margaritt 11, Elisabeht Catarina 9, Maria Ottillia 4, Barbara 2 (Smith, 209). Theobald Kueffer received 50 acres on 16 September 1738 and Devall Kueffer (probably the same person) received 450 acres on 12 April 1739 (Ibid., 214).
11. For some reason Boltzius distinguishes between Herr N. and Mr. N.
12. Herr and Frau von Hoslin (Hasslin, Haesslin, etc.), benefactors in Augsburg.
13. Güldenes Schatz-Kästlein der Kinder Gottes (Halle, 17??), devotional tract by Carl Heinrich Bogatzky.
14. King Frederick William I of Prussia, who died in 1740, had welcomed and supported Protestant refugees from many lands for both religious and military reasons. The Habsburgs had been trying to eradicate heresy from Bohemia.
15. Margaret Staud’s.
16. Nun hast du mich ja angenommen, als ich bin flehend zu dir kommen, es hats mein Hertz ja wohl gefählt, als es dein Gnadenblick gerührt. From unidentified hymn.
17. Boltzius reversed these two. Luther has auswendig Streit, inwendig Furcht (2 Corinthians 7:5). King James has “without were fightings, within were fears.”
18. See note 12 above.
19. This list, which gives not only the Bible verses but also the names and ages of the children, appears in the Ausführliche Nachricht, 6th Continuation, pp. 715-716. It was common in the eighteenth century for people to send each other Bible verses for their comfort and betterment.
20. Martin Engelbrecht of Augsburg was a noted engraver. Among his works was a copper engraving, after Paul Becker, of the Salzburger exile Josef Schaitberger, which is reproduced in Angelika Marsch, Die Salzburger Emigration in Bildern (Weisshorn, 1979), plate 128.
21. Johannes Tobler, who had been Landeshauptmann, or governor, of Appenzell.
22. Friedrich Wilhelm Mueller.
23. Magdalena Gephart, wife of Simon Reiter.
24. See note 8 above.
25. Sirach 50:22. Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus, is in the Apochrypha but not in the King James Bible.
26. One of the Zuebli brothers was then working for Habersham at the orphanage near Savannah.
27. Kurze Anweisung zur wahren, lautern und apostolischen Erkäntnis Jesu Christi, devotional tractate.
28. Friedrich Wilhelm Mueller.
29. Johann Friedrich Helfenstein, aged 16.
30. August Hermann Francke, Die nöthige Prüfung sein selbst vor dem Gebrauch des heiligen Abend-Mahls (Halle, 17??), devotional tractate.
31. See note 13 above.
32. See note Jan. 14.
33. Mrs. Rheinlaender.
34. Her husband, Frederick, had caused much trouble and finally left to seek his fortune in the North.
35. Fest fein fest dich angehalten, an die starcke Jesu-Treu, verse from an unidentified hymn.
36. Nun wäre sie durch. This was Pietistic parlance for “Now she had broken through to an awareness that she could be saved by the grace of God.”
37. Mrs. Rheinlaender.
38. Mrs. Rheinlaender.
39. In Savannah.
40. This was probably Josef Ernst, who was being treated in Purysburg for his injured hand. See entry for 29 February.
41. Apparently a religious sect.
1. Martin Kaesemeyer; his wife was Catharina.
2. Johann Paul Mueller, aged 18.
3. This is an early instance of share-cropping, which was not a German institution.
4. This unit was commanded by Major James (Jacques) Richard(s), a Swiss officer of Purysburg. See entry for 9 May.
5. hat auch vollbracht. A Pietiestic expression meaning to win salvation through faith.
6. Apparently Ursula Landfelder and her sister Elisabeth Pletter, both nee Wassermann.
7. This must have been Francis Harris, later the business partner of James Habersham. According to a letter from Thomas Jones, dated 1 July 1741, Harris could speak German (CRG, IV, 678).
8. James Habersham.
9. “Laymen’s Bibles.” It had been assumed that laymen were illiterate, only the clergy knowing how to read.
10. Christian Riedelsperger. See entry for 18 April.
11. Most of the Salzburger exiles had gone to East Prussia, but others remained in the Protestant cities of southern Germany.
12. This man is never identified.
13. Boltzius seldom distinguished between the two Zuebli brothers, one of whom, probably Ambrose, was working at the Bethesda orphanage. See note 26 above.
14. Apollonia Maurer was the only girl by that name.
15. Educational means.
16. A typical bit of Pietistic rhetoric, also reflected in the title of Friedrich Eberhard Collin’s Das gewaltige Eindringen ins Reich Gottes ... (Frankfurt/Main, 1722).
17. He was a redemptioner. Boltzius hoped his remaining period of service would be donated to the Salzburgers so that he could remain in Ebenezer. Although most German redemptioners had skills, in this case stocking making, they usually had to serve as laborers.
18. This was Mrs. Wallpurger. See entry for 26 July.
19. Schartner, see entry for 8 April.
20. August Hermann Francke, Lehre vom Anfang Christlichen Lebens (Halle, 1696ff.)
21. See note Feb., 13.
22. Benedikt Gottlieb Clauswitz (1692-1749), Die Auferstehung Christi, devotional tractate. A Latin version appeared in Halle in 1741 as Programma Paschale de mortuis tempore resurrectionis Christi resuscitatis.
Notes for April
1. See note Feb. 13.
2. Aeusserliche Ehrbarkeit, see note Feb., 7.
3. Burgsteiner. See entry for 9 April.
4. Clay-eating is a symptom of serious dietary deficiency.
5. Fieber-Kuchen, apparently some organ, probably the spleen, swollen from malaria.
6. Easter lasted two days, both Sunday and Monday.
7. A Palatine girl who had been indentured in Charleston. Her family was in Orangeburg, S.C.
8. Henry Bishop, see note Jan., 20.
9. She was a daughter of a schoolmaster named Unselt who died in Purysburg. Her oldest sister, Eva Regina, had married Georg Schweiger and her sister Anna Justina had married Franz Hernberger. The youngest, Eva Rosina, was still in the orphanage at Ebenezer.
10. Boltzius is alluding to the Helds. See entry for 15 April.
11. Probably Johann Liborius Zimmerman.
12. Apparently a variant of Es kostet viel, ein Christ zu seyn.
13. John Robinson.
14. Like Robinson, the two Helds wished to pay off their indentures by serving at St. Augustine.
15. These must have been the Chickasaws and Uchis who, according to Colonel Stephens, visited Savannah on 14 April (CRG, IV, 553).
16. Jacob Reck (sometimes written Röck) received a grant for 50 acres in Purysburg on 16 Sept. 1738 (Smith, p. 214).
17. Johann Gottfried Christ, who was in an advanced state of consumption.
18. Although opposed to military service, Boltzius was too good a Lutheran to resist lawful (i.e., divinely ordained) authority. See entry for 5 May.
19. The two Helds and Robinson. Robinson had four more years to serve, having been indentured for nine years on 10 May 1735 (CRG, II, 101).
20. Boltzius must be referring to the alluvial soil of the bottom lands along the river, since the highlands, being sand, never hardened.
21. Barley, wheat, oats, buckwheat, and rye are too hard to grind by hand. See entry for 8 March 1738 (Det. Rep., V, 50). Oglethorpe probably wished the oats for his horses and Highlanders.
22. This political passivity was typical of the Germans throughout colonial America, especially among the “plain people.” Even in areas of Pennsylvania and Maryland where the Germans comprised the majority, they often elected “English” representatives and officials.
23. Hans Krüsy.
24. Boltzius seems to be referring to Purysburg. Possibly Urlsperger had deleted something.
Notes for May
1. See note April, 40.
2. Haustafel or Tabula Oeconomica, a devotional tract by Martin Luther.
3. See note March, 4. The name was usually anglicized to Richards. James Richard of Geneva came in 1732 with Jean Purry to Purysburg, where he received a grant of 300 acres on 17 March 1735 (Smith, pp. 192, 211).
4. See entry of 14 May.
5. Johann Jacob Kieffer, who married Anna Elisabeth Depp. The latter had done her service in Charleston, and her mother was settled in Orangeburg.
6. The Salzburgers had not yet received the bounty of one shilling on each bushel of corn they raised in 1739.
7. The word “epilepsy” was used of any paroxysm, such as those caused by malaria.
8. Boltzius was alluding to the name Rogate Sunday, derived from Latin rogare, to ask or beg.
9. See note Jan., 15.
10. A medication made and donated by Johann Caspar Schauer of Augsburg.
11. Mein lieber College hat mit den frechen Soldaten, auch den Officiern von Purrisburg, welche zu gleicher Zeit nach Savannah gekommen sind, viel Unruhe und Beschwerlichkeit gehabt, indem sie so dreiste gewesen, einen seiner Ruderer wegzunehmen, denselben mit einem Strick binden wollen, auch gegen ihn unsers Hirten wegen, den die Obrigkeit nicht mit in den Krieg zu gehen gestattet, und ihn wegen seiner Freyheit einsetzen lassen, mancherlei Grobheiten bewiesen. Free men could be drafted; but redemptioners, being private property, could not. Colonel Stephens relates the event more clearly and dramatically. Having been greeted in Savannah, Major Richards and his recruits departed in a schooner, “But before their going off, a little Ruffle happened between our magistrates and the Major, on the following occasion. Mr. Groneau, one of the Ministers of Ebenezer, coming into Town a Day or two since, on some Business, with a Boat rowed down by some of their own People, as usual, came to me complaining, that Major Richards had impressed one of his Men into the Service, and took him by Force aboard the Skooner, intending to carry him off; whereupon I recommended him to the Magistrates, who I told him I was sure would not suffer a Freeholder of this Colony to be carried away against his Will: Accordingly upon hearing the Complaint, and finding it to be just (for the Man was aboard on the Deck, with two Men as Guard over him), they sent two Tything-men to demand the Fellow’s Appearance before them ashore, where they themselves stood, that they might enquire into the Truth, the Vessel lying fast at the new Wharf: But several of the listed Men obstructed them in their Way, and set up a great Shout, crying out to their comrades, Couragio: Whereat the Magistrates seeing themselves so contemned, called particularly to one of the Tything-men (known remarkably for a robust, daring Man) and bad him lay hold on one of the most insolent among them, and to bring him before them; whereupon John Lyndal the Tything-man instantly collar’d him, and betwixt him and his Partner, they brought him up the Hill, when the Magistrates directly committed him into Custody: Upon which the Major then appeared, and offered some Words in Justification; which made it rather worse: Wherefore seeing it in vain to contend, he gave up the Man to Mr. Groneau; and upon asking it as a Favour, the Magistrates gave him his Soldier out of Custody. So Peace was concluded and the Service went forward.” (CRG, IV, 572). This suggests that Urlsperger may have edited Boltzius’ account.
12. See note 6 above.
13. The Francke Foundation was also sending benefactions to its missions in East India.
14. Although Urlsperger usually deleted all mention of his name, he was sometimes inconsistent, as in the entry for 17 May.
15. Halle, meaning the Francke Foundation.
16. The orphanage (Waysenhaus) of the Francke Foundation in Halle.
17. Urlsperger and Ziegenhagen.
18. Urlsperger, Gotthilf August Francke, and Ziegenhagen were the “dear fathers.”
19. “With respect to what is to be believed and done.” This may be an allusion to J.J. Breithaupt’s treatise Theses credendorum atque agendorum fundamentales (Halle 1722).
20. Ruprecht Zimmerebner and his wife Margaretha Berenberger.
21. The “late” Professor Francke was August Hermann Francke, the founder of the Francke Foundation and father of Gotthilf August Francke. This sermon was entitled Das der Sünden wegen geängstete und zerschlagene Hertz.
22. See entry of 18 July 1740 (in Vol. VI).
23. Senior Urlsperger’s.
24. Einleitung zur Lesung der Heiligen Schrift.
25. Der königlichen Dänischen Missionarien aus Ost-Indien eingesandte Ausführliche Berichte (Halle 1735).
26. Probably Josef Ernst and his wife.
27. Bible printed by Canstein Bible Society, founded in 1710 by Pietist Karl Hildebrand, Baron von Canstein.
28. See note April, 27.
29. The word Ausdünstung, which usually means an evaporation or effluvium, must have meant a swelling.
30. Cinchona bark.
31. See note 21 above.
32. Many of the Salzburger emigrants had been housed in the Evangelical poorhouse when they stopped off in Augsburg.
33. Glauchische Haus-Kirch-Ordnung, regulations for the church at Glaucha, where the Francke Foundations were located.
34. This indicates that Urlsperger deleted some entry concerning the various renegades from Ebenezer. There is no explanation of why one of these five names was deleted. Lemmenhofer’s absence had not been reported.
35. “What he had actually taken.”
36. Martin Kaesmeyer and his wife Catharina. See entry for 1 March.
37. According to John 3:14, Jesus Himself considered the fiery or brazen serpent of Numbers 21:9 as a prefiguration of His own death.
38. “In a certain respect.”
39. Probably an allusion to the story of Christ and the Samaritan woman in John 4.
40. (Johann) Friedrich Holtzendorf. “In 1733 the Duke of Newcastle wrote Governor Johnston recommending to him the bearer Mr. John Frederick Holzendorf a gentleman of good famiy in Brandenburg who wished to settle in Purysburg and was bringing two servants with him” (Smith, p. 198). In 1736 he received a grant of 200 acres under the name of Capt. John Holdzendorf (Ibid., 212).
41. (Anna) Dorothea Helfenstein.
42. Might this be an allusion to “Cast your bread upon the water?”
1. The story may have been exaggerated, since the Indians usually only scalped their victims.
2. Margaret Staud, who had done church penance. See entry for 3 February.
3. According to a letter from Boltzius and Gronau dated 29 May 1740 the orphanage was selling Schauer Balm (Ausf. Nachr., 6th Cont., p. 338).
4. Mrs. Montaigut was the widow of Samuel Montaigut, who had received a grant for 710 acres in Purysburg on 10 December 1736 (Smith, p. 212).
5. This was an error for Beaufin or Beaufain. Wm. Stephens consistently made the same error. Hector Berenger de Beaufin received 800 acres of land at Purysburg on 1 June 1737 (Smith, p. 212).
6. Henri François Chifelle.
7. The trustees were finally agreeing to drop the stipulation of inheritance by tail male.
8. Adam Riedelsperger’s edifying death is related in the Detailed Reports (III, 266). His widow Barbara and Georg Kogler published banns on 19 March 1737, but Boltzius failed to note their marriage in his regular reports.
9. This explains Urlsperger’s method of editing.
10. Francis Harris, see note March, 7.
11. Peter Gruber had married Maria, the widow Moshamer, nee Kroeher, stepdaughter of Barbara Rohrmoser, the mother of Boltzius’ and Gronau’s wives, Gertraut and Catherina Kroeher. Maria would seem to be Peter Kroeher’s daughter by a previous marriage. She accompanied her stepmother and the latter’s two daughters into exile, leaving Peter in Salzburg with Barbara’s younger children. It is not clear why Barbara called herself Rohrmoser instead of Kroeher.
12. Boltzius is referring to the rich alluvial bottom land. The soil of the pine barrens would dry up immediately after a rain.
13. Mrs. Rheinlaender.
14. Mrs. Helfenstein.
15. Fremde Sünden (peccata aliena), instigation of or connivance at sin.
16. This was the widow Schönmannsgruber (Schmansgruber). See Det. Rep. III, 116-117 and IV, 9. On 23 Jan. 1737 Boltzius referred to two children (ibid., IV, 9) but here he refers to three, yet it is clearly the same widow.
17. Ambrose was visiting his older brother David, father of Johann Joachim Zubly.
18. Hans Schmidt. It is most unusual of Boltzius to give the title Herr to any of his parishioners.
19. George Whitefield and two of his colleagues.
20. Schlatter of St. Gall had sent an unsolicited assignment of linens that had been accepted by Thomas Causton but had never been paid for. Boltzius agonized over this for three years. His answer to Verelst’s favorable letter appears in CRG, XXII, Pt. II, 369-372.
21. Haushaltung. This includes housekeeping and husbandry.
22. He is referring to a mill built by a Swede named Purker. See Det. Rep., V, 143. All British records, of which there are many, give the name as Parker.
23. The curse of Adam, Genesis 3:17.
24. Boltzius often used the word “wild cat” (wilde Katze) for the raccoon. See entry for 12 July.
25. Eva Regina Schweiger, nee Unselt, visited her sister Sybilla Frederica Bishop, wife of Henry Bishop. She had come in from the plantations to pass her confinement at the orphanage, where she would have better medical attention. See entry for 2 July.
26. Das Paradies-Gärtlein, a religious tract by Johann Arndt.
27. See note June, 7.
28. August Hermann Francke, Betrachtungen über das Hohe-priesterliche Gebeth unsers Herrn und Heylandes Jesu Christi ... (Halle 1738).
29. This was a better cure than being buried alive, as was done two years later. See Ausf. Nach., Elfte Continuation, p. 1946.
30. Water mocassins (agkistrodon piscivorus) are far more common than rattlesnakes on the Savannah Delta and not quite so poisonous.
31. Boltzius did not understand that Anastasia Island was immediately in front of St. Augustine and therefore able to blockade it.
32. See note Jan., 6.
33. George Whitefield, who was building his orphanage at Bethesda.
34. Apparently Josef Ernst.
35. This suggests the original meaning of “penitentiary,” a place where one could learn penitence.
Notes for July
1. Most Republicans of 1980 would agree with what Boltzius said in 1740. This is a splendid explanation of the wage-price spiral.
2. “Epilepsy” denoted any paroxysm, in this case probably caused by malaria. Boltzius failed to mention the death of the child. See note June, 25.
3. Clingstone and freestone peaches.
4. This seems like an odd threat, since there were no large bodies of water in Catholic Germany. However, Protestants, like other convicts, were sometimes sentenced to serve as galley slaves on the Mediterranean Sea.
5. According to the theodicy endorsed by the Pietists, an all-loving, all-knowing, and almighty God can only do good. Therefore sickness is a blessing in disguise, being sent to teach us humility and to tear us away from the blandishments of the world. It is for this reason that the more “honest” of the Salzburgers always thank the Lord for their afflictions.
6. Gesetzliche Furcht und Zagen. She feared the law of the Old Testament more than she trusted the grace won by Christ crucified.
7. Apparently Mrs. Rheinlaender.
8. See note May, 28.
9. Several of the Salzburgers were recent converts to Protestantism, possibly in order to emigrate. Some Catholics accompanied their Protestant spouses into exile.
10. Simon and Magdalena Reiter.
11. Philip and Martha Gebhart were Palatines indentured at Frederica.
13. John McLeod.
14. The Highlanders’ losses at Fort Moosa were actually much higher.
15. This was from Thomas Stephens, the disloyal son of the Trustees’ representative, Colonel William Stephens. Thomas espoused the cause of the Malcontents, who wished to introduce slavery.
16. Boltzius is referring to the Salzburgers’ petition of 1739, which appears in the Detailed Reports, VI, pp. 43-45.
17. This proves that Boltzius saw the immorality as well as the impracticality of slavery. His arguments against slavery were usually based on economics because they were directed at the British authorities who, in Boltzius’ opinion, would be more susceptible to practical arguments.
18. Ruprecht Schoppacher of the first transport had died a Christian death on 16 April 1735.
19. See note Feb., 30.
20. See note March, 20.
21. Because Boltzius dignifies this woman with the title of “Mrs.” (Frau), she must be the “rich widow” previously mentioned in the Detailed Reports entry for 19 March.
22. Boltzius has failed to report, or Urlsperger has deleted, Ortmann’s absence.
23. Apparently from A.H. Francke, Buss-Predigten. Darinn aus verschiedenen Texten H. Schrifft deutlich gezeigt wird ... (Halle, 1706 ff.)
1. The unsuccessful mill downstream from Ebenezer. See note June, 22.
2. See note July, 11.
3. Alle gute Gabe und alle, etc. and Alles was wir haben, das sind Gottes Gaben. These would appear to have been prayers or songs of thanksgiving, perhaps as a table grace.
4. Boarding school for the sons of the nobility, part of the Francke Foundation in Halle.
5. Philip Gebhart. See note July, 11.
6. Whitefield, who must account to the donors for the money he collected.
9. “That which is to be believed and that which is to be done.” See note May, 19.
10. See note Feb., 13.
11. See note Jan., 6.
13. At Bethesda.
14. According to William Stephens, the Spanish spy was Joseph Anthony Mazzique and the Irish soldier was William Shannon, a deserter from Frederica (CRG, Sup. to Vol. IV, p. 9).
15. The merchant may have been one of the Sephardic Jews, they being able to speak Spanish.
16. Patrick Hunter.
17. A stamping mill for removing the outer husks.
18. “Small things prosper in peace.”
19. Her legalistic, pre-Pietistic views.
20. James Habersham, schoolmaster at Bethesda.
21. Apparently Robinson, Leitner, and Zant.
22. It would appear that the Salzburgers had served together.
Notes for September
1. Boltzius seems confused about the relative ages of the two Kieffer boys. Johann Jacob Kieffer, who was married to Anna Elisabeth Depp, was the older (Jaque Küffer was 16 when Theobald was 13. See Smith, p. 209).
2. Orangeburg, peopled first by Swiss and Germans, is in South Carolina.
3. Probably Gerhard Gottlieb Günther Göcking, Vollkommene Emigrations-Geschichte ... (Frankfurt & Leipzig 1734).
4. See note June, 26.
5. A footnote at this point explains the gap from 12 Sept. to 1 Nov. as follows: “From the 12th of September to this point the diary has not arrived and until now has been awaited in vain. Because of that we did not wish to wait with the editing of this continuation, but rather will fill out the gap at a future opportunity.”
Notes for November
1. Using the name Anton Masig, the spy had claimed to be a German from Cologne. He also claimed he had renounced Roman Catholicism (CRG, Sup. to Vol. IV, p. 27).
2. Norris had acceded to Whitefield, who had a written commission, and returned to Frederica; but then Whitefield left unexpectedly to collect money in the North, leaving only Schoolmaster Habersham to read the Sunday services.
3. Magdalene. Like so many indentured families, the Arnsdorfs had been separated.
4. The rumor had probably been caused by the expense of the sawmill at Old Ebenezer. According to Boltzius, he had received only L 12 so far, plus some hardware. Later it turned out that the mill had cost ь 89. See letter of Boltzius to Verelst, 29 December 1740 (CRG, XXII, Pt. II, 465).
5. Fortunately for Savannah, a German butcher from Purysburg was able to supply some meat. William Stephens wrote to Harman Verelst on 20 November, “Had not a German butcher from Purysburg come sometime last year & lived among us, who has supplyed the Town, with fresh provisions of Meat kind, at a cheaper Rate than we used to have the same; We should have been in some distress.” (CRG XXII, Pt. II, 447). This was apparently the German-Swiss Johann Altherr.
6. Boltzius is referring to the sides of the mill-run.
7. Spanish moss.
9. In him or his mother. These were Johann and Rosina Spielbiegler.
10. Boltzius has failed to mention, or Urlsperger has deleted, the fact that Hernberger had left Ebenezer.
11. See note 3 above.
12. See note Jan., 15.
13. Allusion to Jeremiah 45:5, see also 21:9.
14. This was one of the groups en route to East Prussia, possibly the one accompanied by Gronau.
15. They registered for Holy Communion.
Notes for December
1. The absent Zuebli brother, apparently Ambrosius.
2. An allusion to the lack of help from his brother David.
3. Hohepriesterlichen. It is not clear what Boltzius means by this word.
4. Maria Kroeher, stepdaughter of Boltzius’ wife. See note June, 11.
5. Johann Jacob.
6. The widow Arnsdorf.
7. Mrs. Spielbigler.
9. Whitefield, see entry for 8 August.
10. “Pith and blood” (i.e., “strength and vigor”).
11. Compendium, oder Kurtzer Begriff der gantzen Christlichen Lehre ... (Halle, probably 7th ed. of 1734). See Det. Rep., III, 331, n. 278.
12. Christ-Bescherung, work by J.C. Schade.
13. Francis Harris.
15. She was the next to last survivor of a large family of religious exiles from Upper Austria, survived only by her sister Susanna.
16. Margaretha, nee Egger.
18. “By royal authority.”
20. The orphanage at Bethesda.
21. Gotthilf August Francke and Samuel Urlsperger, along with Friedrich Michael Ziegenhagen, were the “Reverend Fathers” of the Georgia Salzburgers.
22. On 24 June 1740 the occupants were: managers, Ruprecht and Margaret Kalcher; widows, Margaretha Schweighofer and Catherina Kustobader; volunteer helpers, Christian Riedelsperger, Martin Herzog, Jacob Schartner; children, Susanna Haberfehner, Magdalena Haberfehner, Eva Rosina Unselt, Ursula Schweighofer, Margareta Huber, Ottilia Kieffer, Barbara Kieffer, Ursula Kalcher, Maria Kalcher, Thomas Schweighofer, Jeremias Helfenstein, Johannes Schneider, Friedrich Kieffer (Ausf. Nachr., 6th Cont., p. 685). Magdalena Haberfehner died on Christmas Day. It is not clear who the additions were.
23. The ten men were Bach, Held, Sr., and Rauner dead; Held, Jr., Leitner, Reiter, Robinson, Zant, Zettler, and probably Ortmann. Matthias Zettler, who was apprenticed to the cobbler Reck in Purysburg, was required to enlist by his non-commissioned master, who then kept half of his pay (see Boltzius’ entry for 10 January 1741).
24. Verzeichnis der vornehmsten Gaben und Wohltaten Gottes nach den 3 Articuln unsers Christlichen Glaubens, etc., unidentified devotional work.
25. Mercy was often shown to convicted Blacks because they were too valuable to kill.
26. Of a party of 400 Palatines who left Rotterdam in August 1738, only 105 had survived an epidemic of malignant fever when their ship went aground on Block Island on 26 December and fifteen of these soon died, along with the captain, George Long. The purser would not let the survivors take their baggage ashore, since this had to pay for the passage of those who had died.