Major Wildlife and Land Legislation
The following data were compiled from Madulu et al. 2007 and Augustino et al. 2013.
The Wildlife Act of 1974
The act created three layers of authority in the management of wildlife resources: the president, the minister (of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism), and the director of wildlife. The president is given powers to appoint the director of wildlife (S.3) the power to establish game reserves (S.5); powers to modify any restrictions in game reserves, game controlled areas, and partial game reserves, and powers to declare any category of persons unfit for the grant of a game license (S. 22).
The WCA provided the basic framework for wildlife management in Tanzania and the allocation of existing rights and authority. It concerned itself primarily with the creation of and provisions for certain protected areas (game reserves, game controlled areas, partial game reserves), and the regulation of wildlife uses throughout mainland Tanzania.
Land Act (1999) and Village Land Act (1999)
Wildlife is dependent on what happens to their habitats, and there is a strong link between land and wildlife legislation. In 1999 the Land Ordinance of 1923, which had been the principal governing statute regarding land tenure and management in Tanzania, was repealed and replaced by two pieces of legislation, the Land Act No. 4 of 1999 and Village Land Act No. 5 of 1999, which came into force on May 1, 2001.
The Land Act establishes three categories of land: general land, reserved land, and village land. The Village Land Act deals with the management of the latter category of land, while the Land Act deals primarily with the management of reserved land and general land in line with the sectoral pieces of legislation under which the reserved lands are established.
The Wildlife Conservation (Tourist Hunting) Regulations, 2000—GN. No. 306/2000 (revised edition, 2002)
The regulations establish procedures for the allocation of hunting blocks to tourist hunting companies and to attach conditions to each hunting company while performing its hunting activities. It imposes fines and the possible cancellation of a hunting block license for any company or person that conducts activities contrary to it. Regulation 16(5) of GN. 306 states: “No person shall conduct tourist hunting, game viewing, photographic safari, walking safari or any wildlife based tourist safari within a hunting block or within any wildlife protected area outside Ngorongoro Conservation Area, and National park, except by and in accordance with the written authority of the Director of Wildlife previously sought and obtained. This regulation includes not only photographic tourism activities but also game viewing and walking safari as activities prohibited in hunting blocks.”
Wildlife Conservation (WMA) Regulations of 2002
The WMA Regulations (subsidiary legislation under section 84 of the WCA of 1974) provide for the creation of WMAs on village lands and implementation of the Wildlife Policy’s objectives. The regulations allow communities to become corporate entities and participate in and benefit from wildlife utilization in WMAs. However, in order to use any other natural resource products like fish, forests, or bees, one needs to consult sectoral policies, laws, and regulations regulating that particular resource. The regulations describe the process that the communities must follow in order to qualify for receiving wildlife user rights.
The Wildlife Policy of Tanzania of 2007
The Wildlife Policy of Tanzania of 2007 provides direction for wildlife subsector in sustainable conservation of wildlife and wetland resources.
The Wildlife Conservation Act of 2009
The objective of the Wildlife Conservation Act (WCA) of 2009 was to enhance the protection and conservation of wildlife resources and its habitats in game reserves and game controlled areas, wildlife management areas, dispersal areas, migratory route corridors, and buffer zones and of all animals found in areas adjacent to these areas by putting in place appropriate infrastructure and sufficient personnel and equipment. The WCA applies to all establishments in the central government, local government, public authorities, and agencies. Also, it applies to private and local communities that deal with wildlife issues.
The Wildlife Conservation (Tourist Hunting) Regulations of 2010
The wildlife conservation tourist hunting regulations of 2010 provide day-to-day guidelines of all activities related to tourist hunting. The Wildlife Conservation (Tourist Hunting) Regulations of 2010 require the Wildlife Division to conduct an in-depth analysis or evaluation of the performance of all hunting companies in the third year of the hunting term. This analysis is used to determine if the company is eligible for the renewal of the hunting offer the following hunting term.