1. Ziegenhagen’s secretary who translated most of the German letters for the S.P.C.K.
2. The S.P.C.K. was then contributing to the Danish mission at Fort St. George near Madras in India, which was staffed with German missionaries from Halle.
3. See intro., p. 5.
4. John Deane, Archbishop of Rochester, treasurer of the S.P.C.K.
5. Particularly the Treaty of Westphalia, which guaranteed religious dissenters the right to leave their country. See intro. p. 4.
6. Probably Benjamin Martyn’s account of Georgia: Reasons for Establishing the Colony of Georgia, (London, 1732).
7. This promise was not kept for two years.
8. Thomas Hollis, merchant of London, Trustee for Georgia and benefactor of Salzburgers and Harvard College.
9. Purysburg (Purrysburgh) on the Savannah River.
10. After comparing Newman’s hand with that of his clerk, it is easy to see that Urlsperger’s translator must have been delighted.
11. In the 18th century the word “curiosity” included art works and other objects of value.
12. Urlsperger published these in his Ausführliche Nachrichten … (Halle, 1735), I, 2-5.
13. Because some Calvinists in Germany had been inhospitable to the Salzburgers, Urlsperger expected the same of the Presbyterians.
14. Also written Jennison, Jenison, & Jennings.
15. Because this stipulation of inheritance only by tail male caused much discontent, it was finally dropped.
16. Newman was unaware that many more had died by the time he wrote this letter.
17. Despite its name, the Swedish Church in Trinity Lane was actually German Lutheran.
18. The Waldensians.
19. Later William IV of the Netherlands. Married Anne, daughter of George II.
20. Probably the copyist’s error. See letter of 13 November.
21. War of the Polish Succession, 1733-35.
22. Another chalice was bequeathed by a dying youth in Germany.
23. This is one of the few times that Boltzius is written with a t in these letters. The t-sound should be pronounced whether written Boltzius or Bolzius.
24. He had studied law at Helmstedt and he later studied administration at Halle.
25. Consort of Queen Anne.
26. The name Fischer was perhaps omitted inadvertently.
27. See note 2.
28. To try to collect moneys owed them there.
29. But only during droughts. In the rainy season it was often submerged.
30. In 1687 King James expelled the fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford, for refusing to accept Farmer, a Catholic appointed as their president.
31. Franco (prepaid) to Cologne.
32. See note 23.
33. The first two lines of this letter are in Newman’s hand.
34. A good example of the English sense of due process of law.
35. Chief among these was Benjamin Sheftal, who was from Germany and spoke good German.
36. The Prince Frederick was soon renamed the Prince of Wales.
37. Yesterday was sennight—a week ago.
38. Weisiger, a German returning to Pennsylvania after sollicking money in Germany for church building. Also written Weisinger and Wisiger.
39. Mrs. Schoppacher, whose baby died soon after reaching Georgia, as did nearly all those born there during the first few years.
40. His home town.
41. An Extract of the Journals of Mr. Commissary Von Reck, … and of the Reverend Mr. Bolzius, … (London, 1734).
42. Urlsperger’s German script, preserved among the Miscellaneous letters in the S.P.C.K. archives, is truly difficult to read.
43. The Moravians claimed to be closer to Luther than were the Pietists of Halle.
44. Comparison of this copy with the original draft in Newman’s hand, which is preserved in the miscellaneous letters of the S.P.C.K., reveals the great care taken by the copyist.
45. This engraving appears as frontispiece of Vol. I of the Ausführliche Nachrichten.
46. Michael Jastram, who later joined Schalkhauser, Flügel, & Jastram, a German firm in Venice that donated to the Georgia Salzburgers.
47. The States General, government of the Netherlands.
48. This ending is most unusual for the Puritan Newman. Perhaps he felt it suitable in writing to a Continental nobleman.
49. This description of the early Georgia colonists is certainly more frank than tactful.
50. This description of Georgia is unlike those then being circulated in Germany.
51. Gronau to Catherina and Bolzius to Gertraut Kröer, the daughters of Barbara Rohrmoser of the first transport.
52. To stimulate missionary zeal, Oglethorpe had previously reported that the Indians were awaiting a “White Man’’ who would instruct them in wisdom.
53. See note 15 above.
54. Probably coconut shells given him by a travelling companion in New England who had just come from Jamaica.
55. Having received no further grant from the Trustees, Zwiffler departed for Europe but seems to have gotten no further than to Pennsylvania.
56. See note 55 above.
57. Was this the gentleman who refused to refund Bolzius for the counterfeit bills, or was it his son?
58. Georg Sanftleben, a carpenter from Silesia, who returned home to fetch his sister and five other marriageable women.
59. The War of Jenkins’ Ear.
1. Urlsperger seems to have received 8.63 Florins per £ Sterling.
2. Reference to a miracle purported to have occurred near Radstadt in Salzburg.
3. As personal chaplain to the King, Ziegenhagen was mostly at the Court of St. James.
4. Matthew 18:20.
5. James Vernon, member of S.P.C.K. and Trustee of Georgia.
6. Hochdeutsch, High German. Both the Germans and the German Swiss were called “Dutch”, Cf. Dutchtown, near Savannah.
7. This letter must have been dated 17 July, as indicated in Urlsperger’s letter of 1 August.
8. The designation after 345 looks like R 1, perhaps for Reichstaler (rixdollars). Later in the letter (p. 6) Urlsperger explains that 50 £ equals 437 Florins 30 Creutzers, so perhaps the 345 RT is its equivalent.
9. This suggests the over-head clapping so popular in later revival meetings.
10. Schiessgraben, a target range outside of Augsburg.
11. Johann Caspar Schaur (Schauer, Schaurer), a distiller and inventer of Schauer’s Balsam, benefactor of the Salzburgers.
12. Johann Georg Morell, mayor of the Protestant part of Augsburg.
13. Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg and King of Prussia.
14. The northeast part of East Prussia, particularly in Memel, where they remained until ejected by the Russians in 1944.
15. Possibly J. von Reck, but more probably Göbel.
16. Protestant mission in India, operated by German missionaries and supported by Danish government and S.P.C.K.
17. Probably rixdollars (Reichsthalers).
18. This was also true of Urlsperger, whose forefathers had been expelled from Austria because of their Protestant religion.
19. See p. 252. Delay in recording was probably due to delay in translation.
20. Probably Göbel.
21. Possibly Esterlin.
22. See Intro. p. 5.
23. Almost an enclave in Salzburg. The S.P.C.K. included the exiles from Berchtesgaden with those from Salzburg.
24. This is the beginning of the Tirnberger debacle, which caused such problems for the Protestant authorities. These Salzburgers, from Tirnberg (Dürnberg near Hallein) were settled in an unfavorable location at Cadzand in Holland.
25. The Treaty of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years War in 1648, guaranteed the prince’s right to determine the religion of his subjects.
26. Apparently serfs and therefore without civil rights. As hereditary ruler of Bohemia, the Emperor could determine the religion of his subjects.
27. Pfyffer, the Upper German spelling of Pfeifer.
28. Usually written Schaitberger. He was the author of the “Exile’s Song” (Exulantenlied).
29. Göbel and Plotho.
30. Twenty German miles equal about 100 English miles.
31. Probably from Göbel.
32. Bussprediger, in this case Capuchins.
33. That he was not entirely wrong in this regard is shown by Thomas Geschwandel’s illegitimate child. See page 368.
34. Allusion to the “Oath of Salt” by which the Salzburg Protestants swore to be loyal to their faith.
35. Upper Hungary is now in Slovakia. Schemnitz was then predominantly German.
36. Members of the Commission for Reforming Religion [Religionskommission], a kind of inquisitorial commission.
37. Thomas Wilson, Bishop of Soder and Man.
38. Probably Göbel, but possibly J. von Reck.
39. Cajetan Anthon, Freiherr von Nottaffel, Prince Abbot of Berchtesgaden.
40. Göbel (Goebel, Gobel) seems to have been the anonymous correspondent most often mentioned by Urlsperger. Being accredited to the court of Salzburg, he had to conceal his activities in luring Saltzburg subjects for his master, the King of Prussia.
41. This may be the letter of 16 October N.S.
42. Hieronymus Christiani von Rell (Roll), the real villain of the expulsion.
43. A supreme court of the Holy Roman Empire, established by Maximilian I in 1501.
44. Eugene of Savoy, hero of the Turkish wars, under whom Oglethorpe had fought.
45. Now Elblag in Poland. These were the exiles en route to East Prussia.
46. The term Austria then included Lower Austria (Niederösterreich), the area immediately around Vienna, and sometimes upper Austria, or the region immediately adjacent to Salzburg.
47. The original translation (apparently in Martini’s hand) had Tirnberg & Berchtolsgaden. The town of Dürnberg is on the boundary between Berchtolsgaden and Salzburg.
48. The original translation said “residing here”. The copyist did not realize that that meant at Ratisbon.
49. They had done so in 1618 and subsequently but had been suppressed.
50. S.P.C.K. and Georgia Company (Trustees).
51. Georgia was generally included in the term “West Indies”, especially by the S.P.C.K. and the Francke Stiftungen, who also supported missions in the East Indies.
52. Johann Arnd’s Vom Wahren Christenthum was perhaps the most influential religious treatise in the 18th century. Also popular in Pietistic circles was his Paradiesgärtlein.
53. See note above.
54. Donau or Danube.
55. This was probably von Hugo, envoy of the Duke of Brunswick (George II of England).
56. Probably an error for 25 Sept., since no letter of 25 Dec. is recorded. See memorandum at close of letter.
57. Possibly the Eisenburg mentioned on p. 252, which is a county next to Austria.
58. Zell was one of George II’s German territories, usually associated with Brunswick.
59. The Protestant cause was greatly weakened in parts of Germany by the rivalry between the Lutherans and the Calvinists, which surpassed their common hate of Popery.
60. The name was Puckler. The in was merely a feminine ending added to the maiden or married names of a woman.
61. A mistranslation of Schütz, literally a marksman but used of constables and militia.
62. This is a typical list of edifying Protestant literature.
63. It was already 1733 in Germany (New Style) but still 1732 in England (Old Style).
64. Bussprediger, Capuchins or Jesuits. See letter of 3 March 1733, item 6.
65. This reveals that the anonymous correspondent was an agent of the King of Prussia entrusted with procuring Salzburger exiles and suggests that it was Göbel. See Urlsperger’s letter of 6 Oct. 1732 to Newman and of 16 March to Ziegenhagen.
66. All references to Prof. Francke as living refer to Gotthilf August (sometimes written August Gotthilf) Francke, the son and Successor of August Hermann Francke, who had died in 1727. Gotthilf August was one of the “Reverend Fathers” of the Georgia Salzburgers.
67. Augustus II, Elector of Saxony, had become officially Catholic in order to become King of Poland in 1697, but he remained Lutheran in sentiment. When he died, a Polish nobleman ruled until ousted by Augustus III in the War of the Polish Succession of 1733-35.
68. Kaschau, now in Slovakia.
69. The M. could be for Monsieur or for Marines.
70. Urlsperger was a devotee of the Halle school of Pietism.
71. These were soon rejected as being tainted by Zinzendorf.
72. Esterlin had been too zealous in trying to proselytize Catholics in Ratisbon.
73. Charles Albertus later succeeded in having himself crowned as Charles VII, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, from 1742 to 1745.
74. The German term was Gericht (jurisdiction, court).
75. There seems to be an omission at this point in this badly copied passage.
76. The stipulation in the Treaty of Westphalia that one should not lure away foreign subjects.
77. The ending in is the feminine ending, not part of the name.
78. See pp. 309-312.
79. According to the Treaty of Westphalia, the British could accept only those Salzburgers who had voluntarily left their country and had not been persuaded to do so by promises from the British. Subjects were looked upon as a natural resource and the property of the ruler.
80. The copyist erroneously added “with us”.
81. The prefix “dis” was added, no doubt in error.
82. As Duke of Hanover, George II of England was an elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
83. Evangelical Body.
84. Although his uncle gives his first name as George, the nephew nearly always signed himself Philip Georg Friedrich (the only exception in this collection being his letter of 7 Oct. 1734), and that is how all legal documents list him. Nevertheless, perhaps because of his uncle’s letter, he often appears as George in contemporary English records.
85. Feeling mistreated, some of the emigrants to Brunswick returned to Ratisbon.
86. They were discovered to be disciples of Zinzendorf.
87. Probably a confusion for “has not been willing to permit”.
88. See note 66 above.
89. See note 86 above.
90. This is not clear, but it seems to mean that Urlsperger cannot employ a minister and catechist until the transport is complete.
91. Urlsperger’s letters were, of course, 7 & 14 Sept. N.S., or 25 Aug. and 2 Sept. O.S.
92. Johannes Mosshamer and Maria Kröer.
93. Protestants of Savoy, followers of Peter Waldo.
94. Stephen Hales, M.A., of Teddington, 1677-1761, Georgia Trustee and member of S.P.C.K. Author of Vegetable Statiks, London, 1727.
95. This long letter, badly copied in a minute hand, has been omitted as irrelevant to the Georgia Salzburgers.
96. The Lutheran articles of faith.
97. A verb has been omitted.
98. Johann Martin Bolzius and Israel Christian Gronau.
99. City in Livonia, now in Esthonia.
100. Possibly an error for Mischke, who was inspector at Halle and Bolzius’ immediate superior.
101. See note 52 above.
102. Secretary to Prince George of Denmark, consort of Queen Anne.
103. See note 52 above.
104. Johann Anastasius Freylinghausen, Pietistic theologian at Halle.
105. Now Kronshtadt, city on island in Gulf of Finland.
106. This is evidence of J. von Reck’s active, even if anonymous, efforts to encourage dissenters to emigrate.
107. Error for Meuse (Maas). They would have already passed the confluence of the Moselle at Koblenz.
108. Copyist repeated of by error, the German word having been Bruderliebe (brotherly love).
109. Johannes Mosshamer and Maria Kröer.
110. Should be compatriots (from Landsleute).
111. See note 82 above.
112. Hoff (now Bad Hofgastein) is a village in the district of Gastein in southern Salzburg.
113. Premstall, an estate in Anger Hundsdorf near Bad Hofgastein.
114. Probably error for Oberknecht (foreman).
115. Probably Lannthal, on road between Saalfelden and Zell.
116. This name is variously spelled Kräer, Kröher, Barbara, with her two older daughters, left her unconverted husband and their smaller children in Salzburg.
117. Probably by Kellbach in Saalfelden. Several centuries after the Germanic invaders settled in Salzburg, a population increase caused many new settlements to be founded, and these often took the name of the parent settlement, with the designation Ober, Unter, Nieder, Mitte, etc. added.
118. Probably an anglicization of some name like Stockheim auf der Heide.
119. This was the marriage performed in Augsburg.
120. The rich peasant who changed his mind.
121. Martin Herzog, a miller.
122. St. Ulrich is nearly 10 miles from Salzburg, a long way for a peasant woman to travel in those days.
123. Now Dorfgastein.
124. Now Unterladerting, formerly Underlaidratting, between Bad Hofgastein and Dorfgastein. For this and other information I am indebted to Sebastian Hinterseer of Bad Hofgastein in Salzburg.
125. Röstermeister is probably not a name, but a profession (smelting-master, master-smelter).
126. Mühlbach is a few miles up the Salzach from Mittersill.
127. In the Bavarian dialect of Salzburg, unaccented e is generally dropped. This name was therefore correctly spelled Gschwändl, a fact that explains why our scribes and copyists always misspelled it. In America Gschwändl used the standard German form Geschwandel.
128. This shows that the Priest in Augsburg was not entirely wrong about the Salzburgers illegitimacy rate. Common-law marriage was common among the peasants, Catholic as well as Protestant, because of the many ecclesiastical restrictions upon marriage, particularly with regard to consanguinity and divorce, since peasants could not afford the luxury of dispensations.
129. Gut Niederberg in Gadaunern, near Hoff in Gastein.
130. Mühlberg near Bad Bruck at the foot of Bad Gastein.
131. Faschingberg, above Gadaunern near Bad Hofgastein.
132. The name Riste seems to have been interchangeable with Rieser (Risser).
133. Between Saalfelden and Weissbach on the road to Lofer.
134. Immediately next to Zell am See.
135. Lehm Grube (clay pit), in local dialect Loamgrubn.
136. Roth, not a Salzburger, later caused difficulty.
137. Rieser and his family remained behind because his son George broke his leg, but they joined the second transport.
138. This man seems to have used the names Bartholomeus and Balthazar indiscriminately, the latter being also the name of his nine-year-old son. He likewise vacillated between the last name Riste and Rieser (Risser), but the latter survived in America.
139. Apparently a term for their Catholic persecutors.
140. Vogel friss oder stirb—”Bird, eat or die”.
141. For Schaitberger, see Intro. p.
142. Vriss Vogel—”Eat, Bird”. See note 140 above.
143. Good German word order. This anonymous letter would seem to be from John Sartorius (see p. 437).
144. Urlsperger gives this as Evermercken.
145. Karl Hildebrand, Freiherr von und zu Canstein (1667-1719), financed Bible printing at the Orphans House in Halle.
146. The copyist seems to have missed a line.
147. Von Reck’s loyalty to his confession in preference to his Empire is symptomatic of German politics before Bismarck.
148. The Waldensians.
149. Faulty translation of Herr Kaufmann Minet, merchant being Isaac Minet’s profession, not his name. Butjenter always wrote German.
150. The famous Waysenhaus, or orphanage, at Glaucha near Halle.
151. Like his English colleagues, Martini did not distinguish between minister (of state) and minister (of the Gospel). Here the context implies the latter, in this case probably a Huguenot.
152. Compare von Reck’s youthful enthusiasm and rhetoric with Vat’s maturer realism in his letter of 26 August 1735.
153. This was bequeathed by a dying youth in Germany.
154. Apparently an omission.
155. Probably renders merkwürdig.
156. J. A. Sartorius and J. E. Geister were German Lutheran missionaries from Halle sent by the S.P.C.K. to the Danish mission at Fort St. George near Madras, India. This Sartorius should not be confused with John Sartorius, the persecuted pastor from Hungary. (See pp. 379, 437).
157. To serve in the Danish mission founded by the Rev. Benjamin Schultze in Madras.
158. Ludowic’s Grammar.
159. Capt. Coram was still resentful that the Trustees would not expel the Jews who arrived in Georgia on 11 July 1733.
160. The War of the Polish Succession.
161. The Anabaptists of Holland, followers of Melchior Hofmann, were influential in Eastern Germany, as also in Russia and America.
162. Urlsperger’ account of this event gives Fry’s name as Joseph instead of Tobias.
163. Von Reck seems to have begun using the English (Julian) calendar as soon as he reached Dover.
164. This is the only reference to this questionable person.
165. Von Reck gives the date according to the Georgian calendar, which was normal for him, but also to the Julian calendar, which he henceforth uses in letters to British recipients.
166. The S.P.C.K. soon published extracts of this journal in English under the title of Extracts from the Journals of Mr. Commissary Von Reck … and the Reverend Mr. Bolzius (London, 1734), which subsequently furnished the chief source for many Georgia historians.
167. In the War of the Polish Succession.
168. Apparently an omission.
169. Probably from Urlsperger at Augsburg to Newman at London, who had written him on 18 & 28 December.
170. This is the end of the extract.
171. This explains the anonymity of so many of the propagandistic letters.
172. A marginal note explains: “The remaining Cash will be mentioned in my next.”
173. Urlsperger continued to suppress all unfavorable reports for some time.
174. An apparent omission.
175. Austria and Kärnten (Carinthia) ?
176. See letters of 30 Oct. and 18 Dec. 1733.
177. Dr. Octaviano Plossen.
178. See note 2, p. 599.
179. Probably a transliteration of Ihre Hochgeehrten.
180. Von Reck was young and impressionable. No one else noticed any storm.
181. Exulantenlied: “Ich bin ein armer Exulant”, by Joseph Schaitberger.
182. Having been sick during most of his second sojourn in Georgia, von Reck renounced this grant, returned to Germany, studied administration, married an heiress, and lived to a ripe old age.
183. Article 4 of the Treaty of Ryswick (1697).
184. Lutheran Senior Pastor at Frankfort.
185. The Protestant Privy Council.
186. See pp. 376-377.
187. A poor copy of this Latin letter follows.
188. “that he admit as colonists any exiles or people emigrating from their native land for the sake of the Protestant religion who might wish to join the aforementioned colony and set out for America.”
189. Old Ebenezer was several feet above sea level, but much of it was below the water table in the rainy season I
190. William Stanhope (Lord Harrington), Secretary of State.
191. There seems to be an omission between folios 29 & 30.
192. See note 194 below.
193. Probably an error for or imitation of Lutherthum (Lutherdom, Lutheran lands).
194. Despite his protests to the contrary, the Catholic authorities believed that Lerchner was instigating dissent and proselytizing their subjects against the terms of the Treaty of Westphalia.
195. Chief of the Imperial Salt Office in Salzkammergut.
196. Being apochryphal, the book of Syrach is omitted from the King James version of the Bible.
197. Either from Styria (Steiermark) or from the town of Steyer.
198. Such steps to make Lutheran services in the colonies conform to Anglican usage helps explain how some Lutheran congregations became Anglican.
199. Faulty translation of Gericht, meaning here “district”.
200. The name Savannah Town was soon transferred to a settlement high up the Savannah River.
201. This is New Style, because the Salzburgers reached Savannah on 12 March, O.S.
202. Father etc. is in apposition with Oglethorpe, not with Gov. Johnson.
203. In the 18th century, particularly among the Pietists, sentiments were freely expressed. This is probably a translation of Liebesbrief, or affectionate letter.
204. Pury had returned to Switzerland for more colonists.
205. This rate was nearly as high as that of the first group of Salzburgers in Ebenezer.
206. As a redemptioner.
207. Poor translation of Lohn (rewards, pay).
208. No reason is given for writing Nota Bene instead of the usual “read”.
209. The court of George II, who was both king of England and also Duke of Hanover.
210. An error for August, as is shown by von Reck’s journal.
211. The chief complaint was that the ministers were excluded from the great cabin. Urlsperger deleted these complaints from his Ausführliche Nachrichten.
212. This promise was to cause Urlsperger much anxiety. See Vat’s letter of 30 May 1735.
213. One of these was the child that broke his leg.
214. The apparent confusion in dates was due to the use of both calendars. The 4th of Oct. N.S. was the 22 Sept. O.S., so the letter took nine days to arrive and be read.
215. To oppose the French in the War of the Polish Succession.
216. This family, from Philippsburg on the Rhine in the Palatinate, was among the numerous impoverished Palatines then seeking passage to America.
217. Georgia was usually included in the term West Indies.
218. Nicolaus and Christian Riedelsperger.
219. Count Nicolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf, a lay minister of the Bohemian Brothers, sent a group of co-religionists to Georgia under Count Spangenberg.
220. This may have been deleted as too unkind. Like all the other Pietists, von Reck did not care for Zinzendorf s innovations.
221. It is not clear what king or why.
222. An error. Urlsperger gives it as Zuntz.
223. Wijk bij Duurstede.
224. This ship was soon renamed the Prince of Wales.
225. Tomochichi, the Mico of Yamacraw, who was returning with his family from a state visit in England.
226. Despite many unfavorable letters from there, Pennsylvania remained the El Dorado for impecunious Germans.
227. Constant complaints finally persuaded the Trustees to rescind their law of allowing inheritance only by tail male, a policy adopted for military reasons.
228. This is the first illustration of the strict censorship clapped on the Georgia Salzburgers.
229. Trustee for Georgia.
230. Von Reck does not indicate which divines. Degmaier was the only one listed.
231. He settled between Savannah and Ebenezer but died soon after.
232. Schauer’s Balsam. See note 11 on p. 601 above.
233. Illustrative of the way in which foreign names like Vat were naturalized into English.
234. Old Ebenezer’s landing place on the Savannah River. The Salzburgers usually Germanized it as Habercorn (Oat-corn), perhaps influenced by memories of the Lutheran theologian Peter Habercorn (1604-1676).
235. Most of these died of dysentery.
236. Bolzius did not yet know about the “calumnious” letter intercepted by Urlsperger (see Urlsperger’s letter of 14 Oct. 1734 to Vat). Being neither a Salzburger nor a religious exile, Roth did not fit at Ebenezer.
237. Like the African slavers, the captains who transported Palatines had to determine at what point the law of diminishing returns would begin as they crowded their ships. The tighter they were packed, the higher the death rate, and therefore the smaller the cargo to be sold.
238. Andreas Gottfried Dietzius, a German who had lived in Batavia. He was offered a grant in Georgia but preferred to go to Purysburg.
239. Children counted only as a fraction.
240. Here he lets the cat out of the bag!
241. See letter of 3 Dec. 1734 N.S. to Urlsperger.
242. This seems to be a Czechish form or corruption of Rudolf Colloredo, the Bohemian Ambassador. See note 251 below.
243. See introduction, p. 8
244. See account beginning p. 511 below.
245. Mostly Capuchins and Jesuits.
246. Quincy had actually been in New England for most of the year.
247. His son-in-law. He had married Wesley’s daughter, recently deceased.
248. Aeneid VIII, 508-09, 514-15.
249. Anyone who has camped on the coast of Georgia in the summer will agree that Oglethorpe is more candid in this letter than in any of his others.
250. At Madras and Tranquebar.
251. Rudolf Joseph, Prince of Colloredo-Mels und Waldsee.
252. One of these is mentioned in the account of the persecution of the Protestants of Bohemia enclosed in Urlsperger’s letter of 8 Nov. 1734 to Newman. Cf. the name Rudolfa Skoloredj (p. 508).
253. Possibly J. von Reck, who always attempted to conceal his religious activities.
254. Their successors were the first to render the Bible into a Georgia Indian language (at Springdale).
255. This echoes Luther’s hymn “Ein’ feste Burg”.
256. The South Carolina and Georgia authorities soon began squabbling over trade in the Savannah River, particularly with regard to Georgia’s prohibition of rum. For reference to staving of rum barrels, see Oglethorpe’s letter of 19 November 1734 to Samuel Wesley, Sr.
257. Compare this realistic account with the romantic views in Oglethorpe’s letter of 25 December to Samuel Wesley, Sr.
258. Silesia, while predominantly Protestant, was still subject to Catholic Austria.
259. The chief among these was scurvy.
260. Bishop consistently confused Savannah and Georgia.
261. Periagua, pirogue (large dugout).
262. Depressed (probably from niedergeschlagen).
263. This non-sequitur suggests a copyist’s error.
264. Carrying Vat and the second transport.
265. None of these people reached Georgia. Many of the names are inaccurate, those ending in z should probably end in g. See copy of this list on p. 561.
266. By this time all the first transport were infected with malaria.
267. A faulty translation of Salzkammergut.
268. See note 45 above.
269. Not as emperor, but as duke of Carinthia.
270. When Tobler’s Swiss finally passed through Ebenezer on their way to New Windsor, they complained that they had been deceived by the good reports sent back by the Salzburgers.
271. Zublin soon removed to Purysburg. He was a close kinsman of Joachim Zubly.
272. Ph. von Reck seems to have acted for his uncle who was often, although anonymously, engaged in such projects.
273. As envoy from the Court of Brunswick-Lüneburg, von Hugo was also a subject of George II and von Reck’s natural successor as champion of the persecuted Protestants.
274. Von Reck advised the Protestant States to exact certain guarantees from the Emperor in return for their aid against France.
275. Minister at the Hague, usually written de Ayrolles.
276. The King of Prussia’s commissioner for the Salzburg exiles. Usually written Göbel or Gobel.
277. Apparently composed by Ph. von Reck. See first paragraph of preceding letter.
278. Probably Ph. von Reck.
279. Transliteration of sterben (to die).
280. See note 275 above.
281. Urlsperger’s publications about the charitable works in India and Georgia were a major factor in eliciting German donations.
282. I.e. Landeshauptmann, or governor.
283. This mercantilistic policy was the greatest handicap to Georgia’s development.
284. His hardships and nearly fatal diseases caused him to relinquish his claim. Having no funds of his own, he married an heiress.
285. The land was clearer only where it was too poor to support trees.
286. Labhart had been misled by von Reck’s optimism. Seven or eight bushels of corn per acre would have been more realistic.
287. Able to bear arms. One purpose for founding Purysburg had been to supply a regiment of militia, of which Pury was to be the colonel.
288. This is one of the two times that von Reck signs with his first initial.
289. This name, which was badly copied, probably began with Schl.
290. This may mean in colonial currency, worth about a seventh or eighth of the same value sterling. See Quincy’s letter of 4 July 1735 below.
291. John West was a baillif of Georgia.
292. Urlsperger had feared wisely. See his letter of 20 September 1734.
293. The first transport.
294. In his original letter, which is preserved among the autographed manuscripts of S.P.C.K., Bolzius wrote “linguister”.
295. Samuel Nunez, who arrived on 11 July 1733 in a party of 41 Jews, was credited with ending an epidemic. Nevertheless, while praising his Latin, Bolzius doubted his medical knowledge.
296. Chief among these were Benjamin Sheftall and his wife Perla.
297. Despite the initial “J”, this must have been Thomas Robinson (Baron Grantham), British ambassador to Vienna. Perhaps the scribe misread his “T” as “J”.
298. In his letters and journal von Reck seldom mentions and never names his brother.
299. Urlsperger was hoping that the third transport would be able to sail with Oglethorpe (See p. 594).
300. Through the cross (tribulations) to the light.